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Lyovkina Y.V.,Southern Ural Biophysics Institute | Miller S.C.,University of Utah | Romanov S.A.,Southern Ural Biophysics Institute | Krahenbuhl M.P.,University of Utah | Belosokhov M.V.,Southern Ural Biophysics Institute
Health Physics | Year: 2010

The purpose of this study was to obtain quantitative data on plutonium microdistribution in different structural elements of human bone tissue for local dose assessment and dosimetric models validation. A sample of the thoracic vertebra was obtained from a former Mayak worker with a rather high plutonium burden. Additional information was obtained on occupational and exposure history, medical history, and measured plutonium content in organs. Plutonium was detected in bone sections from its fission tracks in polycarbonate film using neutron-induced autoradiography. Quantitative analysis of randomly selected microscopic fields on one of the autoradiographs was performed. Data included fission fragment tracks in different bone tissue and surface areas. Quantitative information on plutonium microdistribution in human bone tissue was obtained for the first time. From these data, the quantitative relationships of plutonium decays in bone volume to decays on bone surface in cortical and trabecular fractions were defined as 2.0 and 0.4, correspondingly. The measured quantitative relationship of decays in bone volume to decays on bone surface does not coincide with recommended models for the cortical bone fraction by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Biokinetic model parameters of extrapulmonary compartments might need to be adjusted after expansion of the data set on quantitative plutonium microdistribution in other bone types in humans as well as other cases with different exposure patterns and types of plutonium. Copyright © 2010 Health Physics Society.

Paunesku T.,Northwestern University | Wanzer M.B.,Northwestern University | Kirillova E.N.,Southern Ural Biophysics Institute | Muksinova K.N.,Southern Ural Biophysics Institute | And 7 more authors.
Health Physics | Year: 2012

Several recent efforts in the radiation biology community worldwide have amassed records and archival tissues from animals exposed to different radionuclides and external beam irradiation. In most cases, these samples come from lifelong studies on large animal populations conducted in national laboratories and equivalent institutions throughout Europe, North America, and Japan. While many of these tissues were used for histopathological analyses, much more information may still be obtained from these samples. A new technique suitable for imaging of these tissues is x-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM). Following development of third generation synchrotrons, XFM has emerged as an ideal technique for the study of metal content, speciation, and localization in cells, tissues, and organs. Here the authors review some of the recent XFM literature pertinent to tissue sample studies and present examples of XFM data obtained from tissue sections of beagle dog samples, which show that the quality of archival tissues allows XFM investigation. Copyright © 2012 Health Physics Society.

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