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Heong K.L.,International Rice Research Institute | Chien H.V.,Southern Regional Plant Protection Center | Escalada M.M.,Visayas State University | Trebuil G.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development
Cahiers Agricultures | Year: 2013

The green revolution in irrigated rice has tripled its production in Asia, but also created serious environmental problems, especially a common overconsumption of insecticides. It has led to disorganized ecological regulations, shortened food webs, infestations by secondary pests, crop losses, farmer health problems and lower economic results. Based on the understanding of ecological regulations enhanced by the enrichment of the biodiversity of all functional groups of useful organisms, since 1993 the implementation of integrated pest management (IPM) on the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) experimental farm has led to a 97 % reduction in insecticide use while retaining the same production level. Following demonstration trials, to reach millions of small Vietnamese rice growers and encourage them to change their practices, a series of mass media campaigns and the entertainment-education approach were introduced. To entertain and educate by making learning fun, the radio soap opera method was successfully used in combination with other on-the-ground activities and media. The series consisted of episodes broadcast twice a week telling stories about village living with simple messages on IPM knowledge and principles built into them. First, simple decision rules were promoted which led to a very significant reduction in insecticide use. This was followed by an incremental approach under the "three reductions and three gains" program, with more reductions in seed and nitrogen rates, and insecticide sprays to boost economic returns. Significant differences in beliefs and practices between listeners and non-listeners were found. The analysis of this successful case study underlines the importance of taking into account social factors influencing the misuse of insecticides, and the need for rigorously enforced legal rules to regulate the marketing of this kind of input. Source


Heong K.L.,International Rice Research Institute | Escalada M.M.,Visayas State University | Chien H.V.,Southern Regional Plant Protection Center | Cuong L.Q.,Southern Regional Plant Protection Center
Sapiens | Year: 2014

A TV series using entertainment-education principles and broadcast over Vinh Long Television station in Vietnam helped changed rice farmers' beliefs and pest management practices. The evaluation survey conducted two months after the end of the broadcast showed that farmers sprayed significantly less insecticides (19% less), used less nitrogen fertilizer (6% less), and used lower seed rates (12% less). In addition, there were significantly more farmers believing in statements that favor ecological engineering among the viewers than the non-viewers. Viewers scored higher in the belief index compared to the non-viewers by about 14%, indicating that their attitudes towards ecological engineering practices had gained positively. Although there was about a 9% increase in favor of ecological engineering adoption, there are at least two barriers that remain unchanged. The TV series had succeeded in initiating changes in farmers' beliefs and adoption of ecological engineering practices. This might be due to entertainment-education content and the engagement of key stakeholders and partners in the project process. Decision theories and sociological tools and a six phase engagement process were used to ensure quality partnerships. © Author(s) 2014. Source


Heong K.L.,International Rice Research Institute | Heong K.L.,Center for Agro Biosciences International | Escalada M.M.,Visayas State University | Chien H.V.,Southern Regional Plant Protection Center | Cuong L.Q.,Southern Regional Plant Protection Center
Sapiens | Year: 2014

A TV series using entertainment-education principles and broadcast over Vinh Long Television station in Vietnam helped changed rice farmers' beliefs and pest management practices. The evaluation survey conducted two months after the end of the broadcast showed that farmers sprayed significantly less insecticides (19% less), used less nitrogen fertilizer (6% less), and used lower seed rates (12% less). In addition, there were significantly more farmers believing in statements that favor ecological engineering among the viewers than the non-viewers. Viewers scored higher in the belief index compared to the non-viewers by about 14%, indicating that their attitudes towards ecological engineering practices had gained positively. Although there was about a 9% increase in favor of ecological engineering adoption, there are at least two barriers that remain unchanged. The TV series had succeeded in initiating changes in farmers' beliefs and adoption of ecological engineering practices. This might be due to entertainment-education content and the engagement of key stakeholders and partners in the project process. Decision theories and sociological tools and a six phase engagement process were used to ensure quality partnerships. © Licence Creative Commons. Source


Horgan F.G.,International Rice Research Institute | Ramal A.F.,International Rice Research Institute | Bentur J.S.,Directorate of Rice Research | Kumar R.,Pioneer India | And 11 more authors.
Crop Protection | Year: 2015

This study examines the utility of resistant varieties and their associated resistance genes against brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), populations from South and South East Asia. A collection of 39 rice accessions that included resistant, tolerant and susceptible varieties and breeding lines were examined for performance against populations of N. lugens from India (4), Bangladesh (1), Myanmar (1), Vietnam (1), Indonesia (1), China (1), Taiwan (1), and the Philippines (2). Planthopper virulence varied between regions; however only 6 varieties were generally less damaged than the susceptible check Taichung Native 1 (TN1) among ≥50% of the test populations. Each of these 6 varieties contained multiple resistance genes. One further variety, also with multiple resistance genes, and a modern cultivar (possibly with the Bph3 gene) were moderately effective against the South Asian populations, whereas a traditional variety with the Bph6 gene was effective against South East Asian populations. Bph1, bph2, bph5, bph7, bph8, Bph9, Bph10 and Bph18 were ineffective against most planthopper populations. Bph20, Bph21, and Bph17 have potential to be used in resistance breeding in both South and South East Asia, whereas BPH25 and BPH26 have potential for use in South Asia. The results indicate that only a few of the currently available resistance genes will be effective in monogenic rice lines; but that pyramiding of two or more genes with strong to weak resistance could improve resistance strength and durability as apparent with the most resistant, traditional varieties. Strategies to avoid planthopper adaptation to resistant rice varieties are discussed. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Burkhard B.,University of Kiel | Burkhard B.,Leibniz Center for Agricultural Landscape Research | Muller A.,University of Kiel | Muller F.,University of Kiel | And 13 more authors.
Ecosystem Services | Year: 2015

Continuing global population growth requires an increase in food production, but also new strategies to reduce negative effects of intensive land use on the environment. Rice as key staple food for a majority of the human population is of crucial importance for global and particularly Southeast Asian food supply. As food provision is one key ecosystem service (ES), it is important to know which ESs are provided at which places. Therefore, an ES scoring exercise harnessing local experts' knowledge in a 'rapid assessment' was conducted in seven rice cropping regions in Vietnam and the Philippines. The expert-based scoring values were linked in an 'ES-matrix' to the different land use/land cover (LULC) classes abundant in the study areas. The LULC classifications were based on SPOT satellite image interpretation. The matrices were used to compile ES supply maps that give first indications about ES in regions with different intensive agriculture. The outcomes provide a first 'screening' of ES supply related to different LULC types in rice-dominated regions enabling the communication of the relevance of specific ecosystems for local communities and decision makers. Uncertainties inherent in expert- and land cover-based ES assessments are discussed and recommendations for improvements of future studies are given. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source

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