Southern Poultry Research Inc

Athens, GA, United States

Southern Poultry Research Inc

Athens, GA, United States
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Lumpkins B.S.,Southern Poultry Research Inc | Lee M.D.,University of Georgia
Poultry Science | Year: 2010

The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of each animal species provides a unique niche for specialized intestinal bacterial communities to thrive, and in poultry this is no exception. However, little is known about how the bacterial community varies among these different genetic lines of chickens, especially of those with various growth rates. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to observe and evaluate the changes in the bacterial community and GIT development of a modern multipurpose strain, high-yield strain, and a historic strain, Athens Canadian Random Bred (ACR), of broilers. All birds were fed a standard nonmedicated corn-soybean meal broiler starter diet ad libitum from 0 to 35 d of age. Intestinal measurements and bacterial analysis of the ileum were conducted at 4, 8, 14, 21, and 35 d of age. Bacterial DNA was isolated from the digesta, and the distribution of bacterial 16S rRNA sequence polymorphisms was analyzed by a combination of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms. The multipurpose chicks performed the best from 0 to 14 d of age; however, overall performance was similar for the multipurpose and the high-yield broilers. The ACR birds had the poorest performance at all periods measured. The overall relative weight of the jejunum and ileum was not different between the 3 genetic lines, but the ACR birds had the longest relative jejunum and ileum lengths. Furthermore, the multipurpose birds had the longest villi height, whereas the ACR birds had the shortest villi height in the jejunum and ileum at all measuring periods. Based on denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, the multipurpose and high-yield broilers had similar bacterial communities at all ages. Regardless of the genetic line of broiler, the bacterial community changed with age. Performance, GIT measurements, and bacterial community of the ACR differed compared with the modern broilers. The results indicate that the different genetic lines of broilers have varying rates of intestinal development, which may affect performance and the bacterial community. © 2010 Poultry Science Association Inc.


Hooge D.M.,Hooge Consulting Service Inc. | Mathis G.F.,Southern Poultry Research Inc | Lumpkins B.,Southern Poultry Research Inc | Ponebsek J.,Tanin Sevnica d. d | Moran D.,Prinova Animal Nutrition
International Journal of Poultry Science | Year: 2012

Dietary Farmatan® Powder (~73% tannins) was used to determine live performance doseresponses of male Cobb broiler chicks on built-up litter top dressed with wood shavings in a summer trial. Dietary Farmatan® tannin concentrations used were: 0 (negative control), 250, 750, or 1,000 ppm. Positive control (antibiotic) diets had BMD® 55 ppm (0-35 days) and Stafac® (35-42 days). Feeds were steam pelleted and fed as crumbles or pellets. There were 45 chicks/pen initially and 8 replicate pens/treatment (8 blocks of 6 pens each; Randomized Complete Block Design; LSD p = 0.05). The body weight (BW) gains were not significantly different from 0-21 d or 0-35 days but from 0-42 days (p = 0.002) were, respectively (kg): 2.238b, 2.238b, 2.299a, 2.282ab, 2.290a, 2.316a. Mortality-adjusted Feed Conversion Ratios (MAFCR) from 0-21 days (p = 0.002) were, respectively: 1.513a, 1.488ab, 1.476bc, 1.469bc, 1.454c and 1.442c. The MAFCR from 0-35 days (p = 0.001) were, respectively: 1.666a, 1.657ab, 1.646abc, 1.626cd, 1.621d and 1.641bcd. The MAFCR from 0-42 days (p = 0.004) were, respectively: 1.694a, 1.698a, 1.685ab, 1.665bc, 1.661bc and 1.655c. Stafac® 22 ppm in finisher (35-42 days) gave the best BW gain and feed conversion ratio. Litter moisture % at 21 days was lower (p = 0.032) using Farmatan® 500, 750, or 1,000 ppm than BMD® 55 ppm and at 42 days was lower (p = 0.046) for each Farmatan® level than for negative control. Farmatan® 750 or 1,000 ppm improved (p=0.008) 42-d litter score (0 driest to 5 wettest) compared to negative control. Mortality % from 0-42 days and litter nitrogen % at 42 days were unaffected by treatment. Farmatan® improved BW gain and MAFCR and promoted drier litter. © Asian Network for Scientific Information, 2012.


Masey O'Neill H.V.,AB Vista Feed Ingredients | Mathis G.,Southern Poultry Research Inc | Lumpkins B.S.,Southern Poultry Research Inc | Bedford M.R.,AB Vista Feed Ingredients
Poultry Science | Year: 2012

When decreasing the energy value of broiler diets, nonstarch polysaccharide degrading enzymes, such as xylanase, are often used. In doing so, they are assigned an energy value and considered to contribute energy to the diet. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of decreasing energy in a broiler diet by 100 kCal/kg on performance and whether the expected drop in performance could be recovered with the use of xylanase. Two formulations were used to provide decreased energy diets, both with and without supplementary fat. Six hundred 1-d-old male Cobb broilers were placed in a 2 × 3 full factorial design in 5 randomized complete blocks. The treatments were enzyme dose at 0 or 16,000 U/kg, and the 3 different diets [positive control (PC), negative control 1, without fat (NC1), and negative control 2 with fat (NC2)]. At no point were there any interactions between diet type and enzyme inclusion; where there was an effect of xylanase, it was consistent regardless of the diet type. There was a significant effect of diet type on feed intake between d 0 to 35; NC1 and NC2 had significantly increased feed intake compared with the PC (P = 0.006). The feed conversion ratio was significantly increased in birds fed the negative control diets during 0 to 35 d and 0 to 42 d (P = 0.003 and P = 0.002, respectively). However, feed conversion ratio was significantly improved by the addition of enzyme during periods 0 to 35 d and 0 to 42 d. There were no significant main effects between d 0 and 21 (all responses P > 0.1). Liveability was not affected by any of the treatments (P > 0.1). Decreasing energy in broiler diets results in worsened performance. The use of xylanase may improve feed conversion ratio. The use of some fat may help, so the whole diet composition should be considered in conjunction with enzyme dose to achieve the best advantage. © 2012 Poultry Science Association Inc.


Knap I.,Chr. Hansen A S | Kehlet A.B.,Chr. Hansen A S | Bennedsen M.,Chr. Hansen A S | Mathis G.F.,Southern Poultry Research Inc | And 5 more authors.
Poultry Science | Year: 2011

Salmonella continues to be a major public health burden worldwide. Poultry are known to be one of the main reservoirs for this zoonotic pathogen. It has previously been shown that a single dose of Bacillus subtilis reduces fecal shedding of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, whereas no effect on long-term colonization of the cecum has been observed. Here we report experiments that were undertaken to test the efficacy of a conventional diet supplemented with a probiotic (B. subtilis DSM17299) on 1) Salmonella colonization in the intestinal tract of broiler chickens, and 2) fecal shedding of Salmonella under production-like conditions. The trial birds fed the B. subtilis diet showed a significant 58% reduction in Salmonella-positive drag swabs compared with control birds, which had 100% presence of Salmonella. Feeding B. subtilis significantly reduced the average Salmonella load of cecum samples of the chickens, by 3 log units. This reduction in Salmonella colonization might not only positively affect broilers on the live production side by reducing the risk of infection between birds, but could also aid on the processing side by decreasing the amount of Salmonella entering the facility and improving food safety. Furthermore, numerical, but not statistically significant, improvements in feed conversion rate and BW gain at d 42 were observed in the B. subtilis-treated group compared with control birds. © 2011 Poultry Science Association Inc.


Knap I.,Chr. Hansen A S | Lund B.,Chr. Hansen A S | Kehlet A.B.,Chr. Hansen A S | Hofacre C.,University of Georgia | Mathis G.,Southern Poultry Research Inc.
Avian Diseases | Year: 2010

Thúree studies were conducted using Clostridium perfringens as an intestinal challenge to produce necrotic enteritis (NE). The studies consisted of two battery screening studies and one production study in floor pens, which were used to test the effect of the addition of Bacillus licheniformis (DSM 17236) spores at different doses and feeding periods in comparison to birds fed diets with subtherapeutic levels of virginiamycin (15 g/ton feed). In all three studies the use of B. licheniformis (1.6 × 1068 × 10 7 CFUs/g) or virginiamycin (15 g/ton feed) showed no difference in effect with regard to feed conversion ratio, weight gain, NE lesion score, and NE mortality. In the two battery studies, both treatments showed a significantly decreased feed conversion ratio, increased weight gain, reduced NE lesion score, and NE-reduced mortality compared to the nonmedicated C. perfringenschallenged group. In general, none of the treatments performed as well as the no-challenge group. The present data indicate that the use of B. licheniformis spores as a probiotic or direct-fed microbial could be an alternative to adding medication to the feed to overcome NE under commercial-like conditions and could therefore be of direct use in preventing antibiotic-resistant pathogens in chickens. © 2010 American Association of Avian Pathologists.


Brennan K.M.,Alltech Inc. | Graugnard D.E.,Alltech Inc. | Xiao R.,Alltech Inc. | Spry M.L.,Alltech Inc. | And 3 more authors.
British Poultry Science | Year: 2013

1. The addition of yeast cell wall (YCW) mannan fractions or low concentrations of antibiotics to the diet of broilers positively affects gut health by improving intestinal cell morphology and improves feed efficiency and performance; however the exact mechanisms are unclear. Based on these production responses, the objective of this study was to compare the effects of supplementing YCW and bacitracin methylene disalicylate (BMD) in the diet on mRNA levels in the jejunum of 6-week-old broilers. 2. Dietary treatments were a maize-soya control diet and the control diet with the addition of YCW or BMD. Birds (n = 7) from each dietary treatment were randomly selected and killed at d 42. Whole jejunum (with serosa) samples were collected for RNA isolation. Gene expression analysis was performed using the AffymetrixGeneChip Chicken Genome Array (Santa Clara, CA, USA). 3. Supplementation with YCW resulted in 928 genes that were significantly changed (456 down-regulated, 472 up-regulated) and supplementation with BMD resulted in 857 genes that significantly changed (408 down-regulated, 449 up-regulated). In addition, 316 genes were significantly changed by both YCW and BMD (146 down-regulated, 170 up-regulated). 4. BMD increased the expression of genes involved in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism and decreased expression of genes associated with T-helper cell pathways. Gene expression profiles from birds fed on diets containing YCW showed changes on a genomic level that correspond to slower gut cell turnover and therefore increased energy preservation for growth. 5. In conclusion, supplementation with BMD or YCW had similar influences on the number of differentially expressed genes in the jejunum. Biological functions common to both YCW and BMD with positive activation scores included antiviral response and antimicrobial response. Genes that were affected by BMD or YCW classified into both different and common biological functions and pathways related to improved metabolism and health in the jejunum. © 2013 Copyright © 2013 British Poultry Science Ltd.


Jenkins M.C.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | O'Brien C.N.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Fuller L.,University of Georgia | Mathis G.F.,Southern Poultry Research Inc. | Fetterer R.,U.S. Department of Agriculture
Veterinary Parasitology | Year: 2014

Standard methods of determining the ionophore sensitivity of Eimeria rely on infecting chickens with an isolate or a mixture of Eimeria spp. oocysts in the presence of different anti-coccidial drugs. The purpose of this study was to develop a rapid in vitro method for assessing salinomycin and monensin sensitivity in Eimeria tenella. Cultures of MDBK cells were grown to 85% confluency, and then inoculated with excysted E. tenella laboratory strain (APU-1) sporozoites in the presence of different concentrations of salinomycin or monensin. At various timepoints, the monolayers were fixed for counting intraceullar sporozoites, or were subjected to DNA extraction, followed by molecular analysis using quantitative (qPCR) or semi-quantitative PCR (sqPCR). Preliminary experiments showed that 24. h was the optimum time for harvesting the E. tenella-infected cell cultures. The average number of E. tenella sporozoites relative to untreated controls displayed a linear decrease between 0.3 and 33.0. μg/ml salinomycin and between 0.3 and 3.3. μg/ml monensin. A similar pattern was observed in the relative amount of E. tenella DNA as measured by sqPCR. A linear decrease in the relative amount of E. tenella DNA was observed over the entire range of salinomycin and monensin concentrations as measured by qPCR possibly reflecting the greater sensitivity of this assay. Comparison of sporozoite counting, sqPCR, and qPCR signals using a criterion of 50% inhibition in sporozoite numbers or level of PCR amplification product showed good agreement between the three assays. E. tenella field isolates (FS-1 and FS-2) displaying resistance to salinomycin and monensin were evaluated in the in vitro assay using qPCR and sqPCR. Compared to E. tenella APU-1, the E. tenella FS-1 and FS-2 isolates showed higher levels of E. tenella DNA at 24. h by both qPCR and sqPCR. This in vitro assay represents a significant advance in developing rapid, cost-effective methods for assessing ionophore sensitivity in E. tenella. © 2014.


Amerah A.M.,Danisco | Mathis G.,Southern Poultry Research Inc | Hofacre C.L.,University of Georgia
Poultry Science | Year: 2012

The present experiment examined the influence of xylanase supplementation and a blend of essential oils (EO; cinnamaldehyde and thymol) on performance and Salmonella horizontal transmission in broiler chickens challenged with Salmonella. Two thousand 1-d-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 5 dietary treatments (8 pens/treatment of 50 male broilers each). Four dietary treatments were challenged with Salmonella: 1) control, 2) basal diets supplemented with EO, 3) basal diet supplemented with xylanase (2,000 U/kg of feed), and 4) basal diet supplemented with a combination of EO and xylanase (2,000 U/kg of feed). One treatment served as an unchallenged control and was not supplemented with either additive. Broiler starter and finisher diets, based on wheat and soybean meal, were formulated, pelleted, and fed ad libitum. At d 1, before placement, half of the birds from each pen were tagged and dosed with Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg (5 × 10 5 cfu/mL). On d 42, 5 random untagged birds from each pen were killed and their ceca removed and tested for Salmonella. Performance data were analyzed as a completely randomized design using GLM. The frequency of positive Salmonella in the untagged birds was compared between treatments by using a chi-squared test of homogeneity. Challenging the birds with Salmonella had no effect (P > 0.05) on any of the measured performance parameters. Xylanase and EO supplementation improved (P < 0.05) the 42-d BW gain and feed efficiency, with no effect (P > 0.05) on feed intake, compared with that of the control treatment. Xylanase supplementation improved (P < 0.05) BW gain and feed efficiency compared with the results of EO supplementation. The combination treatment of xylanase and EO numerically improved BW gain and feed efficiency compared with the xylanase treatment. Xylanase and EO supplementation reduced (P < 0.05) the incidence of horizontal transmission of Salmonella infection between birds by 61 and 77%, respectively, compared with the control. The results of the current study suggested that dietary addition of EO and xylanase could improve broiler performance and contribute to food safety by lowering the incidence of horizontal transmission of Salmonella infection. © 2012 Poultry Science Association Inc.


Srinivasan R.,Mississippi State University | Lumpkins B.,Southern Poultry Research Inc. | Kim E.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Fuller L.,University of Georgia | Jordan J.,Mississippi State University
Journal of Applied Poultry Research | Year: 2013

The Elusieve process, a combination of sieving and elutriation (air classification), has been found to be effective in separating fiber from ground corn, distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), and soybean meal (SBM). The objective of this study was to determine the effect of removing fiber from ground corn, DDGS, and SBM on broiler live performance during the 42-d experimental period and assess the economic effect. A total of 6 dietary treatments were evaluated in which 3 treatments incorporated an additional nonstarch polysaccharide (NSP) enzyme corresponding to the following 3 treatments: regular diet, direct substituted enhanced diet, and an isocaloric, isonitrogenous enhanced diet. The study consisted of 48 pens with 45 male broiler chicks per pen. Elusieve processing increased starch content of corn by 7.8% and increased protein content of DDGS and SBM by 2.3 and 0.9%, respectively. Enhanced diets resulted in birds with 4.6 to 5.0% higher BW gain, higher breast weight by 7.1 to 11.3% and feed conversion improvement by 4 to 6 percentage points (2.4 to 3.2%) compared with regular diet. There was no effect of NSP enzyme on performance and feed consumption. Interaction effect (between NSP enzyme and dietary type) was observed only in 2 of a total of 12 performance indicators. The increase in profit due to implementation of the Elusieve process in a 1,000 t/d feed mill is estimated to be $0.5 to 2.5 million/yr, which is 0.8 to 4.3 cents/bird produced. The payback period is estimated to be 0.9 to 4.7 yr. © 2013 Poultry Science Association, Inc.


PubMed | Southern Poultry Research Inc., University of Georgia and U.S. Department of Agriculture
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Veterinary parasitology | Year: 2014

Standard methods of determining the ionophore sensitivity of Eimeria rely on infecting chickens with an isolate or a mixture of Eimeria spp. oocysts in the presence of different anti-coccidial drugs. The purpose of this study was to develop a rapid in vitro method for assessing salinomycin and monensin sensitivity in Eimeria tenella. Cultures of MDBK cells were grown to 85% confluency, and then inoculated with excysted E. tenella laboratory strain (APU-1) sporozoites in the presence of different concentrations of salinomycin or monensin. At various timepoints, the monolayers were fixed for counting intraceullar sporozoites, or were subjected to DNA extraction, followed by molecular analysis using quantitative (qPCR) or semi-quantitative PCR (sqPCR). Preliminary experiments showed that 24h was the optimum time for harvesting the E. tenella-infected cell cultures. The average number of E. tenella sporozoites relative to untreated controls displayed a linear decrease between 0.3 and 33.0 g/ml salinomycin and between 0.3 and 3.3 g/ml monensin. A similar pattern was observed in the relative amount of E. tenella DNA as measured by sqPCR. A linear decrease in the relative amount of E. tenella DNA was observed over the entire range of salinomycin and monensin concentrations as measured by qPCR possibly reflecting the greater sensitivity of this assay. Comparison of sporozoite counting, sqPCR, and qPCR signals using a criterion of 50% inhibition in sporozoite numbers or level of PCR amplification product showed good agreement between the three assays. E. tenella field isolates (FS-1 and FS-2) displaying resistance to salinomycin and monensin were evaluated in the in vitro assay using qPCR and sqPCR. Compared to E. tenella APU-1, the E. tenella FS-1 and FS-2 isolates showed higher levels of E. tenella DNA at 24h by both qPCR and sqPCR. This in vitro assay represents a significant advance in developing rapid, cost-effective methods for assessing ionophore sensitivity in E. tenella.

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