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Kogut M.H.,Southern Plains Agricultural Research Center | Chiang H.-I.,Texas A&M University | Swaggerty C.L.,Southern Plains Agricultural Research Center | Pevzner I.Y.,Cobb Vantress Inc. | And 2 more authors.
Frontiers in Genetics | Year: 2012

Previously conducted studies using two chicken lines (A and B) show that line A birds have increased resistance to a number of bacterial and protozoan challenges and that heterophils isolated from line A birds are functionally more responsive. Furthermore, when stimulated with Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists, heterophils from line A expressed a totally different cytokine and chemokine mRNA expression pattern than heterophils from line B. A large-scale gene expression profile using an Agilent 44K microarray on heterophils isolated from line A and line B also revealed significantly differential expression in many immune-related genes following Salmonella enteritidis (SE) stimulation, which included genes involved in the TLR pathway. Therefore, we hypothesize the differences between the lines result from distinctive TLR pathway signaling cascades that mediate heterophil function and, thus, innate immune responsiveness to SE. Using quantitative RT-PCR on mRNA from heterophils isolated from control and SE-stimulated heterophils of each line, we profiled the expression of all chicken homologous genes identified in a reference TLR pathway. Several differentially expressed genes found were involved in the TLR-induced My88-dependent pathway, showing higher gene expression in lineAthan line B heterophils following SE stimulation. These genes included the TLR genes TLR4, TLR15, TLR21, MD-2, the adaptor proteins Toll-interleukin 1 receptor domain-containing adaptor protein (TIRAP), Tumor necrosis factor-receptor associated factor 3 (TRAF3), the IΚB kinases transforming growth factor-β-activating kinase 1 (TAK1), IKKε and IKKα, the transcription factors NFkB2 and interferon regulatory factor 7, phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI-3K), and the mitogen-activated protein kinase p38. These results indicate that higher expression of TLR signaling activation of both MyD88-dependent and TRIF-dependent pathways are more beneficial to avian heterophil-mediated innate immunity and a complicated regulation of downstream adaptors is involved in stronger induction of aTLR-mediated innate response in the resistant line A. These findings identify new targets for genetic selection of chickens to increase resistance to bacterial infections. © 2012 Kogut, Chiang, Swaggerty, Pevzner and Zhou.

Wang C.,University of California at Riverside | Ulloa M.,Western Integrated Cropping Systems Research Unit | Mullens T.R.,University of California at Riverside | Yu J.Z.,Southern Plains Agricultural Research Center | Roberts P.A.,University of California at Riverside
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

The southern root-knot nematode (RKN, Meloidogyne incognita) is a major soil-inhabiting plant parasite that causes significant yield losses in cotton (Gossypium spp.). Progeny from crosses between cotton genotypes susceptible to RKN produced segregants in subsequent populations which were highly resistant to this parasite. A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of 138 lines developed from a cross between Upland cotton TM-1 (G. hirsutum L.) and Pima 3-79 (G. barbadense L.), both susceptible to RKN, was used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) determining responses to RKN in greenhouse infection assays with simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Compared to both parents, 53.6% and 52.1% of RILs showed less (P<0.05) root-galling index (GI) and had lower (P<0.05) nematode egg production (eggs per gram root, EGR). Highly resistant lines (transgressive segregants) were identified in this RIL population for GI and/or EGR in two greenhouse experiments. QTLs were identified using the single-marker analysis nonparametric mapping Kruskal-Wallis test. Four major QTLs located on chromosomes 3, 4, 11, and 17 were identified to account for 8.0 to 12.3% of the phenotypic variance (R 2) in root-galling. Two major QTLs accounting for 9.7% and 10.6% of EGR variance were identified on chromosomes 14 and 23 (P<0.005), respectively. In addition, 19 putative QTLs (P<0.05) accounted for 4.5-7.7% of phenotypic variance (R 2) in GI, and 15 QTLs accounted for 4.2-7.3% of phenotypic variance in EGR. In lines with alleles positive for resistance contributed by both parents in combinations of two to four QTLs, dramatic reductions of >50% in both GI and EGR were observed. The transgressive segregants with epistatic effects derived from susceptible parents indicate that high levels of nematode resistance in cotton may be attained by pyramiding positive alleles using a QTL mapping approach.

Brown E.G.,Stephen F. Austin State University | Anderson R.C.,Southern Plains Agricultural Research Center | Carstens G.E.,Texas A&M University | Gutierrez-Banuelos H.,Autonomous University of Zacatecas | And 4 more authors.
Animal Feed Science and Technology | Year: 2011

Methane is a potent greenhouse gas and its release to the atmosphere is widely believed to contribute to global warming. Ruminal enteric CH4 production represents a loss of 2-15% of the animal's gross energy (GE) intake and contributes nearly 20% of US CH4 emissions. Studies have evaluated the CH4 inhibiting potential of select short chain nitrocompounds, such as nitroethane, but results demonstrating their effects on ruminant exhaled CH4 emissions are lacking. Our study determined effects of oral nitroethane administration on CH4 emissions, accumulations of volatile fatty acids (VFA) and on ruminal CH4 producing activity in steers fed a forage based diet containing 8.8MJ/kg of metabolizable energy on a dry matter (DM) basis. Effects of nitroethane administration on ruminal nitroethane reducing activity were also determined. Holstein steers (n=24) of 317±6.5kg body weight (BW) were assigned to 4 treatments that included: 0, 30, 60 and 120mgnitroethane/kgBW/d. Treatments were administered via oral gavage twice daily at 08:00 and 16:00h for 8d. DM intake decreased quadratically as level of nitroethane increased with steers administered 60 and 120mgnitroethane/kgBW consuming 14 and 7% lower DM, respectively, than steers administered 0 or 30mgnitroethane/kgBW. Methane emissions as a proportion of GE intake and ruminal CH4 producing activity both decreased linearly (P<0.001) as level of nitroethane increased. Compared to control steers, daily administration of nitroethane at 60 and 120mg/kg BW reduced CH4 emissions as a proportion of GE intake 9-22% and ruminal CH4 producing activity 24-26%. Ruminal VFA accumulations were unaffected by nitroethane treatment. Results demonstrate that short term oral administration of nitroethane may be an effective anti-methanogenic compound in steers fed high forage diets. Further research is warranted to determine if strategies using nitroethane lower enteric CH4 emissions in ruminants long term. Ultimately, nitrocompounds which can be reduced by rumen microbes to yield compounds with nutritional value for the host, such as amino acids, would be preferred.This paper is part of the special issue entitled: Greenhouse Gases in Animal Agriculture - Finding a Balance between Food and Emissions, Guest Edited by T.A. McAllister, Section Guest Editors: K.A. Beauchemin, X. Hao, S. McGinn and Editor for Animal Feed Science and Technology, P.H. Robinson. © 2011.

PubMed | University of Delaware, Emory University and Southern Plains Agricultural Research Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Poultry science | Year: 2016

Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (ST) is a serious infectious disease throughout the world, and a major reservoir for Salmonella is chicken. Chicken infected with Salmonella do not develop clinical disease, this may be the result of important host interactions with key virulence proteins. To study this, we inoculated chicken with mutant Salmonella Typhimurium that lacked the virulence protein AvrA (AvrA(-)). AvrA is referred to as an avirulence factor, as it moderates the host immune response. The lack of the AvrA virulence gene in ST resulted in reduced weight gain, enhanced persistence and greater extraintestinal organ invasion in chickens, as compared to wild-type (WT) ST. Kinome analysis was performed on inoculated cecal tissue. The majority of the signal transduction pathways induced by AvrA(-) and WT ST were similar; however, we observed alterations in innate immune system signaling. In addition, a leukocyte migration pathway was altered by AvrA(-) ST that may allow greater gut barrier permeability and invasion by the mutant. Cytokine expression did not appear significantly altered at 7 d post-inoculation; at 14 d post-inoculation, there was an observed increase in the expression of anti-inflammatory IL-10 in the WT inoculated ceca. This study is the first to describe mutant AvrA(-) ST infection of chicken and provides further insight into the Salmonella responses observed in chicken relative to other species such as humans and cattle.

Xue X.,Nanjing Research Institute for Agriculture Mechanization | Lan Y.,Southern Plains Agricultural Research Center
Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery | Year: 2013

The United States has the most advanced equipment and applications in agricultural aviation. It also has a complete service system in agricultural aviation. This article introduced the current status of aerial applications including service, equipment, and aerial application techniques. It had a complete system including various components for aerial applications which could fit into the different applications. It had practical application of different advanced technologies such as GPS autonomous guidance, variable rate technology, and application models. This article also summarized the techniques in remote sensing, spatial statistic, and variable rate controls, and how these technologies had been used in yield estimation and monitoring for crop water and nutrient stresses, and also pest damages. This article also showed the current status of USA precision aerial application and also provided some thought of the future direction in precision aerial applications including real-time imaging processing, variable rate technologies, and multisensory data fusion.

PubMed | Biosciences Research Laboratory, Chungbuk National University, Southern Plains Agricultural Research Center and Texas A&M University
Type: | Journal: Food chemistry | Year: 2016

Lipolysis and biohydrogenation in ruminal animals promote the accumulation of saturated fatty acids in their meat and milk. Antibodies were generated against key ruminal lipase contributors Anaerovibrio lipolyticus, Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, Propionibacterium avidum and acnes. An anti-Pseudomonas lipase antibody was generated to determine if an antibody against a purified protein would be more effective. Each bacterium was cultured and assayed without or with increasing levels of each antibody. Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens H17C also participates in biohydrogenation and therefore the antibody was tested to determine if it could effectively reduce biohydrogenation. Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens was assayed without and with the anti-B. fibrisolvens antibody and linoleic or -linolenic acid. All antibodies were effective at reducing lipolysis with the anti-Pseudomonas lipase averaging a 78% reduction. The anti-B. fibrisolvens showed a tendency for a reduction (P=0.0713) in biohydrogenation products of -linolenic acid. Results demonstrate that lipolysis and biohydrogenation can be immunologically inhibited in vitro.

Pechal J.L.,University of Dayton | Pechal J.L.,Texas A&M University | Crippen T.L.,Southern Plains Agricultural Research Center | Tarone A.M.,Texas A&M University | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Microorganisms play a critical role in the decomposition of organic matter, which contributes to energy and nutrient transformation in every ecosystem. Yet, little is known about the functional activity of epinecrotic microbial communities associated with carrion. The objective of this study was to provide a description of the carrion associated microbial community functional activity using differential carbon source use throughout decomposition over seasons, between years and when microbial communities were isolated from eukaryotic colonizers (e.g., necrophagous insects). Additionally, microbial communities were identified at the phyletic level using high throughput sequencing during a single study. We hypothesized that carrion microbial community functional profiles would change over the duration of decomposition, and that this change would depend on season, year and presence of necrophagous insect colonization. Biolog EcoPlates™ were used to measure the variation in epinecrotic microbial community function by the differential use of 29 carbon sources throughout vertebrate carrion decomposition. Pyrosequencing was used to describe the bacterial community composition in one experiment to identify key phyla associated with community functional changes. Overall, microbial functional activity increased throughout decomposition in spring, summer and winter while it decreased in autumn. Additionally, microbial functional activity was higher in 2011 when necrophagous arthropod colonizer effects were tested. There were inconsistent trends in the microbial function of communities isolated from remains colonized by necrophagous insects between 2010 and 2011, suggesting a greater need for a mechanistic understanding of the process. These data indicate that functional analyses can be implemented in carrion studies and will be important in understanding the influence of microbial communities on an essential ecosystem process, carrion decomposition. © 2013 Pechal et al.

Li X.,Texas A&M University | Swaggerty C.L.,Southern Plains Agricultural Research Center | Kogut M.H.,Southern Plains Agricultural Research Center | Chiang H.-I.,Texas A&M University | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010

Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) is one of the most common causes of human bacterial enteritis worldwide primarily due to contaminated poultry products. Previously, we found a significant difference in C. jejuni colonization in the ceca between two genetically distinct broiler lines (Line A (resistant) has less colony than line B (susceptible) on day 7 post inoculation). We hypothesize that different mechanisms between these two genetic lines may affect their ability to resist C. jejuni colonization in chickens. The molecular mechanisms of the local host response to C. jejuni colonization in chickens have not been well understood. In the present study, to profile the cecal gene expression in the response to C. jejuni colonization and to compare differences between two lines at the molecular level, RNA of ceca from two genetic lines of chickens (A and B) were applied to a chicken whole genome microarray for a pair-comparison between inoculated (I) and non-inoculated (N) chickens within each line and between lines. Our results demonstrated that metabolism process and insulin receptor signaling pathways are key contributors to the different response to C. jejuni colonization between lines A and B. With C. jejuni inoculation, lymphocyte activation and lymphoid organ development functions are important for line A host defenses, while cell differentiation, communication and signaling pathways are important for line B. Interestingly, circadian rhythm appears play a critical role in host response of the more resistant A line to C. jejuni colonization. A dramatic differential host response was observed between these two lines of chickens. The more susceptible line B chickens responded to C. jejuni inoculation with a dramatic up-regulation in lipid, glucose, and amino acid metabolism, which is undoubtedly for use in the response to the colonization with little or no change in immune host defenses. However, in more resistant line A birds the host defense responses were characterized by an up-regulation lymphocyte activation, probably by regulatory T cells and an increased expression of the NLR recognition receptor NALP1. To our knowledge, this is the first time each of these responses has been observed in the avian response to an intestinal bacterial pathogen.

Creech C.F.,University of Nebraska - Lincoln | Henry R.S.,University of Nebraska - Lincoln | Fritz B.K.,Southern Plains Agricultural Research Center | Kruger G.R.,University of Nebraska - Lincoln
Weed Technology | Year: 2015

Recent concerns regarding herbicide spray drift, its subsequent effect on the surrounding environment, and herbicide efficacy have prompted applicators to focus on methods to reduce offtarget movement of herbicides. Herbicide applications are complex processes, and as such, few studies have been conducted that consider multiple variables that affect the droplet spectrum of herbicide sprays. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of nozzle type, orifice size, herbicide active ingredient, pressure, and carrier volume on the droplet spectra of the herbicide spray. Droplet spectrum data were collected on 720 combinations of spray-application variables, which included six spray solutions (five herbicides and water alone), four carrier volumes, five nozzles, two orifice sizes, and three operating pressures. The laboratory study was conducted using a Sympatec laser diffraction instrument to determine the droplet spectrum characteristics of each treatment combination. When averaged over each main effect, nozzle type had the greatest effect on droplet size. Droplet size rankings for nozzles, ranked smallest to largest using volume median diameter (Dv0.5) values, were the XR, TT, AIXR, AI, and TTI nozzle with 176% change in Dv0.5 values from the XR to the TTI nozzle. On average, increasing the nozzle orifice size from a 11003 orifice to a 11005 increased the Dv0.5 values 8%. When compared with the water treatment, cloransulam (FirstRate) did not change the Dv0.5 value. Clethodim (Select Max), glyphosate (Roundup PowerMax), lactofen (Cobra), and glufosinate (Ignite) all reduced the Dv0.5 value 5, 11, 11, and 18%, respectively, when compared with water averaged over the other variables. Increasing the pressure of AIXR, TT, TTI, and XR nozzles from 138 to 276 kPa and the AI nozzle from 276 to 414 kPa decreased the Dv0.5 value 25%. Increasing the pressure from 276 to 414 kPa and from 414 to 552 kPa for the same nozzle group and AI nozzle decreased the Dv0.5 value 14%. Carrier volume had the least effect on the Dv0.5 value. Increasing the carrier volume from 47 to 187 L ha-1 increased the Dv0.5 value 5%, indicating that droplet size of the herbicides tested were not highly dependent on delivery volume. The effect on droplet size of the variables examined in this study from greatest effect to least effect were nozzle, operating pressure, herbicide, nozzle orifice size, and carrier volume. Nomenclature: Clethodim; cloransulam; glufosinate; glyphosate; lactofen.

Arsenault R.J.,Southern Plains Agricultural Research Center | Kogut M.H.,Southern Plains Agricultural Research Center | He H.,Southern Plains Agricultural Research Center
Cellular Signalling | Year: 2013

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) bind to components of microbes, activate cellular signal transduction pathways and stimulate innate immune responses. Previously, we have shown in chicken monocytes that the combination of CpG, the ligand for TLR21 (the chicken equivalent of TLR9), and poly I:C, the ligand for TLR3, results in a synergistic immune response. In order to further characterize this synergy, kinome analysis was performed on chicken monocytes stimulated with either unmethylated CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG) and polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) individually or in combination for either 1. h or 4. h. The analysis was carried out using chicken species-specific peptide arrays to study the kinase activity induced by the two ligands. The arrays are comprised of kinase target sequences immobilized on an array surface. Active kinases phosphorylate their respective target sequences, and these phosphorylated peptides are then visualized and quantified. A significant number of peptides exhibited altered phosphorylation when CpG and poly I:C were given together, that was not observed when either CpG or poly I:C was given separately. The unique, synergistic TLR agonist affected peptides represent protein members of signaling pathways including calcium signaling pathway, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction and Endocytosis at the 1. h time point. At the 4. h time point, TLR agonist synergy influenced pathways included Adipocytokine signaling pathway, cell cycle, calcium signaling pathway, NOD-like receptor signaling pathway and RIG-I-like receptor signaling pathway. Using nitric oxide (NO) production as the readout, TLR ligand synergy was also investigated using signaling protein inhibitors. A number of inhibitors were able to inhibit NO response in cells given CpG alone but not in cells given both CpG and poly I:C, as poly I:C alone does not elicit a significant NO response. The unique peptide phosphorylation induced by the combination of CpG and poly I:C and the unique signaling protein requirements for synergy determined by inhibitor assays both show that synergistic signaling is not a simple addition of TLR pathways. A set of secondary pathways activated by the ligand combination are proposed, leading to the activation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), nuclear factor κB (NFκB) and ultimately of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Since many microbes can stimulate more than one TLR, this synergistic influence on cellular signaling may be an important consideration for the study of immune response and what we consider to be the canonical TLR signaling pathways. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

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