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Las Vegas, NV, United States

Wert E.C.,Southern Nevada Water Authority SNWA | Rosario-Ortiz F.L.,University of Colorado at Boulder
Ozone: Science and Engineering | Year: 2011

Disinfection by-product (DBP) formation was evaluated before and after ozone implementation at two full-scale drinking water facilities in Las Vegas, NV USA. The two treatment plants used preozonation for primary disinfection followed by direct filtration with subsequent chlorination for secondary disinfection. DBP data was evaluated from the finished water of the two treatment plants along with six locations in the distribution system. Results showed that preozonation reduced the formation of total trihalomethanes (TTHM) by up to 10 μg/L and the sum of five haloacetic acids (HAA5) by up to 5 μg/L. These reductions were primarily due to decreases in the diand trichlorinated DBPs such as chloroform, bromodichloromethane, and trichloroacetic acid. Ozonation appeared to shift the speciation of TTHMs and HAA5 to favor increased formation of the di- and tribrominated species such as bromoform, chlorodibromomethane, and dibromoacteic acid. A bromide mass balance showed that <30% of the raw water bromide was accounted for by the formation of TTHMs (8-21%), HAAs (2-3%) and bromate (5%). Reducing the concentration of THMs and HAAs is often not the primary purpose of ozonation, but it can assist utilities in meeting regulatory requirements during drinking water treatment. © 2011 International Ozone Association.

Dong M.M.,University of Colorado at Boulder | Trenholm R.,Southern Nevada Water Authority SNWA | Rosario-Ortiz F.L.,University of Colorado at Boulder
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2015

The photochemical degradation of five pharmaceuticals was examined in two secondary wastewater effluents. The compounds, which included atenolol, carbamazepine, meprobamate, phenytoin and primidone, were evaluated for both direct and sensitized photolysis. In the two wastewaters, direct photolysis did not lead to significant compound degradation; however, sensitized photolysis was an important removal pathway for the five pharmaceuticals. Upon solar irradiation, hydroxyl radical (HO) was quantified using the hydroxylation of benzene and singlet oxygen (1O2) formation was monitored following the degradation of furfuryl alcohol. Degradation via sensitized photolysis was observed following five-day exposures for atenolol (69-91%), carbamazepine (67-98%), meprobamate (16-52%), phenytoin (44-85%), and primidone (34-88%). Varying removal is likely a result of the differences in reactivity with transient oxidants. Averaged steady state HO concentrations ranged from 1.2 to 4.0×10-16M, whereas the concentrations of 1O2 were 6.0-7.6×10-14M. Partial removal due to presence of HO indicates it was not the major sink for most compounds examined. Other transient oxidants, such as 1O2 and triplet state effluent organic matter, are likely to play important roles in fates of these compounds. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Wert E.C.,Southern Nevada Water Authority SNWA | Gonzales S.,University of Colorado at Boulder | Dong M.M.,University of Colorado at Boulder | Rosario-Ortiz F.L.,University of Colorado at Boulder
Water Research | Year: 2011

Enhanced coagulation (EC) using ferric chloride was evaluated as a pretreatment process to improve the efficiency of ozone (O 3) for the oxidation of trace organic contaminants in wastewater. At the applied dosages (10-30 mg/L as Fe), EC pretreatment removed between 10 and 47% of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from the three wastewaters studied. Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) showed that EC preferentially removed higher apparent molecular weight (AMW) compounds. Subsequent O 3 testing was performed using an O 3:DOC ratio of 1. Results showed that O 3 exposures were similar even though the required doses were reduced by 10-47% by the EC pretreatment process. Hydroxyl radical (HO) exposure, measured by parachlorobenzoic acid (pCBA), showed 10% reduction when using a FeCl 3 dose of 30 mg/L, likely due to the lower O 3 dose and decreased production of HO during the initial phase of O 3 decomposition (t < 30 s). The oxidation of 13 trace organic contaminants (including atenolol, carbamazepine, DEET, diclofenac, dilantin, gemfibrozil, ibuprofen, meprobamate, naproxen, primidone, sulfamethoxazole, triclosan, and trimethoprim) was evaluated after EC and O 3 treatment. EC was ineffective at removing any of the contaminants, while O 3 oxidation reduced the concentration of compounds according to their reaction rate constants with O 3 and HO. © 2011.

Wert E.C.,Southern Nevada Water Authority SNWA | Wert E.C.,University of Colorado at Boulder | Rosario-Ortiz F.L.,University of Colorado at Boulder
Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2013

The formation of total organic halogen (TOX), carbonaceous disinfection byproducts (DBPs) (trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs)), and nitrogenous DBPs (trichloronitromethane (TCNM) or chloropicrin, haloacetonitriles (HANs), and nitrosamines) was examined during the chlorination or chloramination of intracellular organic matter (IOM) extracted from Microcystis aeruginosa, Oscillatoria sp. (OSC), and Lyngbya sp. (LYN). The percentage of unknown TOX (22-38%) during chlorination indicated that the majority of DBPs were identified among THMs, HAAs, TCNM, and HANs. Bromide was readily incorporated into DBPs with speciation shifting slightly from dihalogenated species to trihalogenated species. During formation potential testing with chloramines, nitrosamine yields from IOM were measured for N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA, 10-52 ng/mgC), N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR, 14 ng/mgC), N-nitrosopiperidine (NPIP, 3.7-5.5 ng/mg C), and N-nitrosomethylethylamine (NMEA, 2.1-2.6 ng/mgC). When IOM was added to a natural water matrix, the nitrosamine yields were not realized likely due to competition from natural organic matter. Ozonation increased NDMA and NMEA formation and reduced NPYR and NPIP formation during subsequent chloramination. In addition, ozone oxidation of IOM formed detectable concentrations of aldehydes, which may contribute to DBP formation. Finally, bioluminescence-based test results showed that >99% of the IOM extracted from OSC and LYN was biodegradable. Therefore, a biological treatment process could minimize this source of DBP precursor material during drinking water treatment. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Korak J.A.,University of Colorado at Boulder | Wert E.C.,Southern Nevada Water Authority SNWA | Rosario-Ortiz F.L.,University of Colorado at Boulder
Water Research | Year: 2015

Intracellular organic matter (IOM) from cyanobacteria may be released into natural waters following cell death in aquatic ecosystems and during oxidation processes in drinking water treatment plants. Fluorescence spectroscopy was evaluated to identify the presence of IOM from three cyanobacteria species during simulated release into natural water and following oxidation processes (i.e. ozone, free chlorine, chloramine, chlorine dioxide). Peak picking and the fluorescence index (FI) were explored to determine which IOM components (e.g., pigments) provide unique and persistent fluorescence signatures with minimal interferences from the background dissolved organic matter (DOM) found in Colorado River water (CRW). When IOM was added to ultrapure water, the fluorescence signature of the three cyanobacteria species showed similarities to each other. Each IOM exhibited a strong protein-like fluorescence and fluorescence at Ex 370nm and Em 460nm (FDOM), where commercial fluorescence sensors monitor. All species also had strong phycobiliprotein fluorescence (i.e. phycocyanin or phycoerythrin) in the higher excitation range (500-650nm). All three IOM isolates had FI values greater than 2. When IOM was added to CRW, phycobiliprotein fluorescence was quenched through interactions between IOM and CRW-DOM. Mixing IOM and CRW demonstrated that protein-like and FDOM intensity responses were not a simple superposition of the starting material intensities, indicating that interactions between IOM and CRW-DOM fluorescing moieties were important. Fluorescence intensity in all regions decreased with exposure to ozone, free chlorine, and chlorine dioxide, but the FI still indicated compositional differences compared to CRW-DOM. The phycobiliproteins in IOM are not promising as a surrogate for IOM release, because their fluorescence intensity is quenched by interactions with DOM and decreased during oxidation processes. Increases in both FDOM intensity and FI are viable qualitative indicators of IOM release in natural waters and following oxidation and may provide a more robust real-time indication of the presence of IOM than conventional dissolved organic carbon or UV absorbance measurements. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

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