Southern Knights Laboratory LLP

Okinawa, Japan

Southern Knights Laboratory LLP

Okinawa, Japan
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PubMed | Okinawa Kyodo Hospital, Tomishiro Central Hospital, Southern Knights Laboratory LLP, Nanbu Tokushukai Hospital and Sakumoto Urology and Dermatology Clinic
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Lower urinary tract symptoms | Year: 2016

To clarify the influence of naftopidil, an 1D/A -adrenergic receptor antagonist, on the autonomic nervous system, we examined the relation between lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and the plasma monoamine levels before and after naftopidil treatment in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients.A total of 43 patients with BPH were studied. The frequency of urination, international prostate symptom score (IPSS), quality of life (QOL) index, overactive bladder symptom score (OABSS), and plasma monoamine levels (adrenaline, noradrenaline, dopamine, and serotonin) were evaluated before and after naftopidil treatment.Naftopidil significantly improved urinary frequency in daytime and nighttime, IPSS, QOL index and OABSS in all patients, and decreased the plasma adrenaline level at 8 weeks. When the patients were divided into two groups based on the median adrenaline level (40.5 pg/mL) before treatment, urinary frequency in daytime and/or nighttime, incomplete emptying and poor flow in the IPSS, and the QOL index were significantly improved in the high adrenaline (HA) group, but not in the low adrenaline (LA) group. The pretreatment plasma serotonin level was significantly lower in the HA group than in the LA group, but it increased gradually after the start of treatment until there was no difference between the groups.The modulation of plasma adrenaline and serotonin levels by naftopidil in patients with increased sympathetic activity contributed to improvement of LUTS associated with BPH, in addition to its antagonistic effects of 1D/A -adrenergic receptor on the detrusor and prostatic urethral smooth muscle, the urothelium, and the central nervous system.


Sugaya K.,Kitakami Central Hospital | Sugaya K.,Southern Knights Laboratory LLP | Sekiguchi Y.,Yokohama Motomachi Womens Clinic LUNA | Satoh T.,Satoh Continence Clinic | And 5 more authors.
International Journal of Urology | Year: 2014

Objectives: To investigate whether the anticholinergic agent, propiverine hydrochloride, is clinically effective for stress urinary incontinence. Methods: The participants were adult female patients with the chief complaint of stress incontinence. Propiverine (20 mg once daily) was given for 8 weeks. If the response was inadequate after 4 weeks of treatment, the dose was increased to 40 mg/day. Before and after 4 and 8 weeks of treatment, lower urinary tract symptoms were assessed. The urethral pressure and blood catecholamine levels were also measured. Results: A total of 37 patients (mean age 69 ± 11 years) were enrolled, including 15 patients with stress incontinence and 22 with mixed incontinence. The number of episodes of stress incontinence decreased significantly from 2.6 ± 2.3 times per day to 1.3 ± 2.2 times per day after 4 weeks, and 0.4 ± 0.6 times per day after 8 weeks. The daytime and night-time frequency of urination, and quality of life score showed significant improvement. The maximum urethral closing pressure and the functional urethral length increased significantly after treatment, but blood catecholamine levels, blood pressure and pulse rate at 8 weeks were not significantly different from those at baseline. Conclusions: Propiverine could be an effective drug for stress urinary incontinence by increasing urethral closing pressure without increasing blood catecholamine levels. © 2014 The Japanese Urological Association.


Kadekawa K.,Southern Knights Laboratory LLP | Kadekawa K.,Okinawa Kyodo Hospital | Nishijima S.,Southern Knights Laboratory LLP | Ashitomi K.,Southern Knights Laboratory LLP | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Urology | Year: 2012

Objectives: To investigate the effects of the antimuscarinic agent, propiverine, on the bladder and urethra in rats. Methods: A total of 54 female rats were given propiverine, imidafenacin (an antimuscarinic agent), or distilled water by gavage once or twice daily. After 2weeks, bladder and urethral activity were recorded under urethane anesthesia. In the propiverine group, the changes of bladder and urethral activity before and after intravenous injection of α 1-adrenergic antagonists (prazosin, silodosin and naftopidil) were also recorded. Furthermore, the leak point pressure after electrical stimulation of abdominal wall muscles was measured in rats with vaginal distension from the control and propiverine groups. Results: Intravesical baseline pressure was significantly lower in the propiverine and imidafenacin groups compared with the control group, whereas the urethral baseline pressure was significantly higher in the propiverine group compared with the control or imidafenacin groups. Intravenous injection of prazosin (an α 1-receptor antagonist) significantly decreased the urethral baseline pressure in both of the propiverine and control groups. Intravenous injection of silodosin and naftopidil (α 1A- and α 1D-receptor antagonists, respectively) significantly decreased the maximum contraction pressure and the urethral baseline pressure in the propiverine group. The leak point pressure of the propiverine group was significantly higher than that of the control group. Conclusions: An increase of catecholamines after propiverine administration might activate smooth muscle of the proximal urethra via α 1A- and α 1D-adrenergic receptors, as well as activating urethral and pelvic floor striated muscle via the spinal motoneurons. © 2012 The Japanese Urological Association.


Nishijima S.,Southern Knights Laboratory LLP | Sugaya K.,Southern Knights Laboratory LLP | Kadekawa K.,Southern Knights Laboratory LLP | Ashitomi K.,Southern Knights Laboratory LLP | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Urology | Year: 2016

Objective: To investigate whether propiverine has a noradrenaline re-uptake inhibitor and whether it acts on the lumbosacral cord or the urethral wall. In addition, we aimed to examine the effect of propiverine on leak point pressure in rats. Methods: A total of 72 female and 30 male rats were used to examine the following: (i) the change of leak point pressure caused by intravenous agents in rats with vaginal distention; (ii) the change of leak point pressure caused by intrathecal agents in rats with vaginal distention; (iii) the noradrenaline re-uptake inhibitor action of propiverine; and (iv) catecholamine levels in the bladder wall, urethral wall, cerebrospinal fluid and plasma after oral administration of propiverine. Results: Intravenous injection of propiverine, imipramine and duloxetine increased the leak point pressure in rats with vaginal distention. Intrathecal naftopidil decreased the leak point pressure, whereas subsequent intravenous propiverine restored the leak point pressure to the level before intrathecal naftopidil in rats with vaginal distention. Propiverine acted like a noradrenaline re-uptake inhibitor, increasing noradrenaline and/or dopamine levels in the plasma, cerebrospinal fluid, and urethral wall perfusion fluid. Conclusion: Propiverine inhibits noradrenaline re-uptake, as well as having antimuscarinic and Ca-antagonist actions. The inhibition of noradrenaline re-uptake by propiverine mainly occurs at the urethral level and partially in the central nervous system, and might stimulate the smooth muscle of the bladder neck and proximal urethra through α1-adrenergic receptors, as well as stimulating the striated muscle of the urethra and pelvic floor by activation of spinal motoneurons. Therefore, propiverine might be effective for both stress and urge incontinence. © 2016 The Japanese Urological Association.


Nishijima S.,Southern Knights Laboratory LLP | Sugaya K.,Southern Knights Laboratory LLP | Kadekawa K.,Southern Knights Laboratory LLP | Ashitomi K.,Southern Knights Laboratory LLP | Yamamoto H.,University of Ryukyus
Life Sciences | Year: 2011

Aims: We examined the influence of propiverine hydrochloride, an anticholinergic agent, on the micturition reflex, blood pressure, and plasma catecholamine levels in young rats and old rats. Main method: Male F344/DuCrlCrlj Fischer rats (young rats aged 2 months and old rats aged 26 months) were divided into the following 4 groups: a young sham group, an old sham group, a young propiverine group, and an old propiverine group. Rats from the young (body weight: 215 ± 7 g) or old propiverine groups (body weight: 414 ± 22 g) were administered propiverine hydrochloride (5 or 10 mg, respectively) dissolved in distilled water (0.5 mL) into the stomach through a fine catheter once daily. Rats from the young and old sham groups were administered the same volume of distilled water. After 2 weeks of treatment, continuous cystometry was done with physiological saline and 0.1% acetic acid, and measurement of plasma catecholamines, blood pressure, and heart rate was performed. Key findings: The old rats had a longer interval between bladder contractions and higher plasma catecholamine levels than the young rats. Bladder stimulation by 0.1% acetic acid induced frequency in both young and old rats. Administration of propiverine inhibited the induction of frequency in the old rats, but not in the young rats. Propiverine increased plasma catecholamine levels in the young rats, but not in the old rats. Significance: These findings show that bladder activity varies with aging, and the response to propiverine also changes in an age-related manner. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Nishijima S.,Southern Knights Laboratory LLP | Sugaya K.,Southern Knights Laboratory LLP | Kadekawa K.,Southern Knights Laboratory LLP | Ashitomi K.,Southern Knights Laboratory LLP | And 2 more authors.
Life Sciences | Year: 2013

Aim We investigated whether the high-dose administration of tranilast could be used to create an animal model of interstitial cystitis (IC). Then, we used this model to assess the relationship between IC and changes in the vascular permeability of the bladder. Main methods Female rats were divided into the following 4 groups: a control group, a tranilast group, a carbazochrome group and a combination (tranilast + carbazochrome) group. Continuous cystometry, bladder distension, and the Evans blue dye extravasation test were performed 4 weeks after drug administration. Locomotor activity, the plasma TGF-β1 level, and collagen fibers in the bladder wall were also examined in the control and tranilast groups. Key findings The interval between bladder contractions was shorter and the leakage of Evans blue dye into the bladder wall was greater in the tranilast group than in the control group. Glomerulations of the bladder wall after bladder distention and thinning of the collagen fiber layer in the bladder were observed in the tranilast group. Locomotor activity in darkness and the plasma TGF-β1 level were both lower in the tranilast group than in the control group. In the combination group, the leakage of Evans blue dye was greater than in the control group; however, it was less prominent than in the tranilast group. Significance These results suggest that high-dose administration of tranilast to rats can create an IC-like rat model and that an increase in the vascular permeability of the bladder wall may be one cause of IC symptoms. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.


PubMed | Southern Knights Laboratory LLP and University of Ryukyus
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association | Year: 2016

To investigate whether propiverine has a noradrenaline re-uptake inhibitor and whether it acts on the lumbosacral cord or the urethral wall. In addition, we aimed to examine the effect of propiverine on leak point pressure in rats.A total of 72 female and 30 male rats were used to examine the following: (i) the change of leak point pressure caused by intravenous agents in rats with vaginal distention; (ii) the change of leak point pressure caused by intrathecal agents in rats with vaginal distention; (iii) the noradrenaline re-uptake inhibitor action of propiverine; and (iv) catecholamine levels in the bladder wall, urethral wall, cerebrospinal fluid and plasma after oral administration of propiverine.Intravenous injection of propiverine, imipramine and duloxetine increased the leak point pressure in rats with vaginal distention. Intrathecal naftopidil decreased the leak point pressure, whereas subsequent intravenous propiverine restored the leak point pressure to the level before intrathecal naftopidil in rats with vaginal distention. Propiverine acted like a noradrenaline re-uptake inhibitor, increasing noradrenaline and/or dopamine levels in the plasma, cerebrospinal fluid, and urethral wall perfusion fluid.Propiverine inhibits noradrenaline re-uptake, as well as having antimuscarinic and Ca-antagonist actions. The inhibition of noradrenaline re-uptake by propiverine mainly occurs at the urethral level and partially in the central nervous system, and might stimulate the smooth muscle of the bladder neck and proximal urethra through 1-adrenergic receptors, as well as stimulating the striated muscle of the urethra and pelvic floor by activation of spinal motoneurons. Therefore, propiverine might be effective for both stress and urge incontinence.


PubMed | Southern Knights Laboratory LLP and University of Ryukyus
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association | Year: 2016

To determine whether castration combined with pelvic congestion could cause chronic prostatitis, and to examine the effect of eviprostat in this rat model.Male rats were divided into three groups, which were the sham, castration combined with pelvic congestion and castration combined with pelvic congestion plus eviprostat groups. Rats in the castration combined with pelvic congestion and castration combined with pelvic congestion plus eviprostat groups were anesthetized with isoflurane, after which ligation of the bilateral common iliac veins and castration were carried out. The sham and castration combined with pelvic congestion groups were fed a standard diet, whereas the castration combined with pelvic congestion plus eviprostat group was fed the same diet containing 0.1% eviprostat. After 4 weeks, continuous cystometry was carried out under urethane anesthesia. Then the bladder and the prostate gland were subjected to histological examination.There was no significant difference of the interval between bladder contractions in the sham and castration combined with pelvic congestion plus eviprostat groups, but the interval in the castration combined with pelvic congestion group was significantly shorter than the other groups. There was no difference in the maximum bladder contraction pressure among the three groups. Pathological inflammatory changes of the bladder wall were slightly more severe in the castration combined with pelvic congestion and castration combined with pelvic congestion plus eviprostat groups than in the sham group, whereas bladder vascularity was increased in the castration combined with pelvic congestion plus eviprostat group. In addition, pathological inflammatory changes and glandular atrophy of the prostate were more severe in the castration combined with pelvic congestion and castration combined with pelvic congestion plus eviprostat groups than in the sham group.This rat model of pelvic congestion with castration might assist in the development of new treatments for chronic prostatitis and frequency.


PubMed | Southern Knights Laboratory LLP and University of Ryukyus
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: Life sciences | Year: 2014

We investigated the spinal mechanism through which naftopidil inhibits the micturition reflex by comparing the effects of noradrenaline and naftopidil in rats.The following were investigated: the influence of oral naftopidil on plasma monoamine and amino acid levels, the distribution of oral 14C-naftopidil, the effects of intravenous (IV) or intrathecal (IT) injection of noradrenaline or naftopidil on isovolumetric bladder contractions, amino acid levels in the lumbosacral spinal cord after IT noradrenaline or naftopidil, and the effects of IT naftopidil and strychnine and/or bicuculline on isovolumetric bladder contractions.Oral naftopidil decreased the plasma adrenaline level, while it increased the serotonin and glycine levels. After oral administration, 14C-naftopidil was detected in the spinal cord and cerebrum, as well as in plasma and the prostate gland. When the bladder volume was below the threshold for isovolumetric reflex contractions, IV (0.1mg) or IT (0.1g) noradrenaline evoked bladder contractions, but IV (1mg) or IT (0.01-1g) naftopidil did not. When the bladder volume was above the threshold for isovolumetric reflex contractions, IV or IT noradrenaline transiently abolished bladder contractions. IT noradrenaline decreased the levels of glycine and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the lumbosacral cord, while IT naftopidil increased the GABA level. IT strychnine and/or bicuculline blocked the inhibitory effect of IT naftopidil on bladder contractions.Naftopidil inhibits the micturition reflex by blocking 1 receptors, as well as by the activation of serotonergic, glycinergic, and GABAergic neurons in the central nervous system.


Kadekawa K.,Southern Knights Laboratory LLP | Sugaya K.,Southern Knights Laboratory LLP | Ashitomi K.,Southern Knights Laboratory LLP | Nishijima S.,Southern Knights Laboratory LLP
LUTS: Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms | Year: 2010

Objectives: The clinical efficacy and safety of 75 mg/day of naftopidil, an α1-adrenargic receptor antagonist, was assessed in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Methods: A total of 28 patients (mean age, 71.1 years; range, 46-86 years) with BPH were studied. Inclusion criteria were: (i) International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) ≥8; and (ii) quality of life (QOL) index ≥3. IPSS, QOL index, Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS), and bladder diary (urinary frequency in daytime and nighttime, frequency of urinary incontinence and urgency) were evaluated before and 4 weeks after treatment with naftopidil at 75 mg/day. Results: Total IPSS and QOL index were significantly decreased after treatment. Total OABSS tended to decrease after treatment, with significant improvements in the "urgency" parameter. From the bladder diary, urinary frequency in daytime and nighttime and frequency of urgency were significantly decreased after treatment. Total IPSS and QOL index in patients with previous treatment were significantly improved after treatment, with significant improvements in the "incomplete emptying," "poor flow" and "nocturia" parameters of IPSS. One case with a mild adverse effect of dizziness was encountered. Conclusion: These results suggest that administration of naftopidil at 75 mg/day was safe and effective for patients with BPH, regardless of the presence of previous treatment. This study indicates the feasibility of naftopidil at 75 mg/day as a first-line treatment for men with BPH, or a second-line treatment in cases with symptoms of incomplete emptying, poor flow and nocturia. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

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