Southern Illinois University is a public research university located in Carbondale, Illinois, United States. Founded in 1869, SIU is the flagship campus of the Southern Illinois University system. The university is known as SIU Carbondale, but colloquially as SIU. SIU's total student enrollment is almost 18,000.The University is categorized as an RU/H Research University in the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education. SIU is recognized in the U.S. News & World Report rankings as a "National University," that is, a university which grants a variety of doctoral degrees and strongly emphasizes research; SIU's ranking in the 2011 US News ratings is #170. Additionally, the National Science Foundation ranks SIU #101 among public universities in the U.S. for total research and development expenditures, and #142 among all U.S. universities. The University offers more than 200 undergraduate majors, minors, and specializations, 30 doctoral and more than 60 master's degree programs; law and medical degrees. Wikipedia.
Kochel T.R.,Southern Illinois University Carbondale
Justice Quarterly | Year: 2012
This research empirically examines the role of police in promoting collective efficacy and in particular, whether higher levels of police legitimacy are associated with more neighborhood collective efficacy. The research is conducted in the developing nation of Trinidad and Tobago-providing important evidence about the generalizability of the antecedents and effects of legitimacy outside of industrialized nations. The results support a potential role for police in promoting collective efficacy, but the mechanism for doing so is not legal institution legitimacy. Instead, the research identifies a relationship between quality routine police services, levels of police misconduct, and collective efficacy. In Trinidad, the amount and nature of interactions with police appear to play an important part in residents' and neighborhood-level assessments about police services and misbehavior. © 2012 Copyright Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences.
Kochel T.R.,Southern Illinois University Carbondale
Justice Quarterly | Year: 2013
Numerous studies by Tyler and colleagues, as well as other scholars, support a normative, process model to account for variation in the public's cooperation with police in the USA and other developed nations. However, a recent study in Ghana suggests that in developing countries fraught with high levels of violent crime and corruption, cooperation may instead be accounted for by a utilitarian, rational-choice model. Our study examines whether public cooperation with police in the developing nation of Trinidad and Tobago is associated with the process model or rational-choice model. Using in-person structured interviews with residents, we examined whether victims' decisions to report to police were related to individuals' perceptions about police effectiveness or police legitimacy. We found support for the process model. We discuss possible explanations for the divergence with Tankebe's research in Ghana and suggest avenues for future research. © 2013 Copyright Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences.
Southern Illinois University Carbondale | Date: 2016-07-01
An apparatus and a method for a design and a simulation of an all-optical proteretic bi-stable device. The proteresis is a reversed hysteresis with an interesting characteristic which increases the oscillation frequency of a feed-back system with a relaxation dynamics by reducing the feed-back delay. The calculation of the bi-stable device parameters, a simulation of the theoretical device, and a simulation of the all-optical device are given. Applications of the proteretic device in ultra-high speed oscillations are also disclosed.
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: S-STEM:SCHLR SCI TECH ENG&MATH | Award Amount: 999.99K | Year: 2016
This National Science Foundation (NSF) Scholarships in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (S-STEM) project at Southern Illinois University Carbondale in Carbondale, Illinois will provide scholarships for talented, low-income students with demonstrated financial need who are pursuing STEM degrees. The program, called Pathways to STEM Leadership (PSL), will improve the recruitment, retention, graduation rates, and job placement of community college students transferring to Southern Illinois University Carbondale STEM colleges. The program is designed help STEM students become future leaders in industry by providing them with leadership training, mentoring, a cohort experience, and community service opportunities. The development of technical leaders has become a critical need for the United States in helping to maintain a competitive position in a technology-based global economy. Scholarships and support for low-income and academically talented students, who may not otherwise be able to obtain STEM degrees, will help to produce a well-trained workforce that will contribute to the economic well-being of the nation.
The project will conduct research to determine the influence of formal and experiential leadership training opportunities on student persistence and completion of STEM degrees. This work is based on the results of a prior NSF S-STEM project that emphasized the development of leadership skills. That project resulted in high rates of degree completion and successful entry into the workforce by low-income students in the college of engineering. This project will utilize a matched control group to help identify the impact of cohort-based leadership training on factors such as persistence, grades, graduation rate, and placement upon graduation. The project responds to a need expressed by technology-driven companies for improved technical leadership skills in graduates entering the workforce. The findings from the program will be disseminated widely to the STEM education community.
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: Secure &Trustworthy Cyberspace | Award Amount: 150.00K | Year: 2016
With the advancement of technologies, networked devices become ubiquitous in the society. Such devices are not limited to traditional computers and smart phones, but are increasingly extended to cover a wide variety of embedded systems (ES), such as sensors monitoring bridges, electronics controlling the operation of automobiles and industrial equipment, home medicine devices that are constantly reporting patient health information to doctors. While the wide deployment of networked ES significantly benefits various aspects of human life and society at large, it also poses daunting security challenges that can put national security as well as the privacy of ordinary citizens at risk. Adequately addressing such challenges requires advanced technologies to be developed by industries and ES designers as well as users to be well educated about the security related issues. To facilitate technology development and better educate future designers, this project develops curricula focusing on the unique challenges of the emerging ES security, which has not been systemically covered in existing computer security related curricula that emphasize security in computers and the traditional Internet.
This project makes intellectual contributions through the completion of the following objectives: 1) developing course modules (lecture notes, labs and evaluation questionnaire) to introduce ES security in the layers of software, networking, operating system, architecture, and hardware; 2) integrating the developed material into several existing undergraduate courses at PIs Universities; 3) establishing a unified ES security course with two versions (computer engineering and computer science versions) by integrating the developed course modules; 4) getting the developed material evaluated by an External Advisory/Review Committee; 5) teaching the developed material using both project-based learning and flipped classroom learning; 6) assessing the proposed teaching methods using formative and summative approaches; 7) broadly disseminating the developed material and promoting diversity in ES security education. Material to be developed will reach over 100 students per year, including many minorities and women.
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: MAJOR RESEARCH INSTRUMENTATION | Award Amount: 383.49K | Year: 2016
With this award from the Major Research Instrumentation Program (MRI) and support from the Chemistry Research Instrumentation Program (CRIF), Professor Da Chen from Southern Illinois University Carbondale (SIUC) and colleagues Michael Lydy, Yanna Liang and Dale Hales have acquired an accurate mass LC-QTOF MS (liquid chromatograph quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer). In general, mass spectrometry (MS) is one of the key analytical methods used to identify and characterize small quantities of chemical species embedded in complex mixture (matrix). In a typical experiment, the components flow into a mass spectrometer where they are broken apart into charged species and measured. This is highly sensitive technique allows detection and determination of the structure of molecules. A mass spectromter coupled with a liquid chromatograph provides additional structure identification power by separating mixtures of compounds before they reach the mass spectrometer. This instrument acquisition strengthens the research infrastructure at the University and regional area. The instrument broadens participation by involving diverse students in research using this modern analytical technique. The project also provides training opportunities to a large number of SIUC undergraduate students through a variety of programs, such as the Research Enriched Academic Challenge (REACH) Program, Undergraduate Assistantship Program, McNair Post-baccalaureate Achievement Program, Illinois Louis Strokes Alliance for Minority Participation (ILSAMP), as well as the National Science Foundation Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) program.
The award is aimed at enhancing research and education at all levels, especially in areas such as: (a) studying the environmental presence of chemicals of emerging concern and exposure in wildlife; (b) analyzing environmental transformation of emerging contaminants; (c) looking at the fate and effects of antibiotics on freshwater communities; (d) assessing the ecological impact of neonicotinoid insecticides; (e) searching for chemical signatures of cyanobacterial species and environmental conditions; (f) developing spatially resolved, tissue-specific chemical profiles of emerging contaminants in Great Lakes trout.
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: S-STEM:SCHLR SCI TECH ENG&MATH | Award Amount: 1000.00K | Year: 2016
The Southern Illinois Energy Scholarships program at Southern Illinois University Carbondale (SIUC) will matriculate talented community college students with demonstrated financial need to SIUC who will major in one of nine energy-related STEM disciplines. The goal of the project will be to provide the infrastructure and experiences necessary for scholars to complete a baccalaureate degree and enter the energy workforce or a STEM graduate program. Scholars will engage in hands-on activities led by faculty and work-force professionals. The project will increase the number of students entering the energy workforce, which has been identified as one of the areas critical to the economic development of the state.
To identify what strategies and activities are successful in helping low income community college transfer students succeed, the research team will identify a transfer student peer group from within STEM disciplines representative of race/ethnicity, gender, related program of study, and prior academic attainment. The investigators will longitudinally follow both the Energy Scholars and the peer comparison group semester-by-semester collecting hours attempted, hours earned, course performance, grade point average, retention and graduation indicators. The team will measure and compare academic attainment, retention and graduation across the Energy Scholars and the peer comparison group.
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: Environmental Chemical Science | Award Amount: 220.00K | Year: 2015
With this collaborative award, the Environmental Chemical Sciences Program of the Division of Chemistry is funding Professor Mesfin Tsige of the University of Akron and Professors Xingmao Ma and Saikat Talapatra of Southern Illinois University at Carbondale to explore solutions for removing some of the most prevalent contaminants from water using carbon-based nanomaterials. Escalating environmental pollution problems, such as contamination of water with hazardous chemicals, and the need for proper restoration of clean environment, is a global/societal concern that warrants immediate attention. This project endeavors to help elucidate the underlying mechanisms for the interactions between carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and organic contaminants, which is a major step forward in developing CNT-based environmental remediation method. The project provides training to undergraduate and graduate students in nanofabrication, characterization and computational techniques and their applications for contamination removal from water. The collaborative research team is also organizing an international workshop at Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia, in order to raise the global awareness of emerging water contamination issues.
Specifically, state of the art experimental tools as well as advanced modeling are utilized to understand how different chemical contaminants interact with different architectures of CNTs, in order to identify the most suitable carbon nanotube based materials to remove hazardous chemicals from water efficiently. The project studies (i) the nature of the adsorption for organic contaminants (in particular, the ionizable compounds) with varying molecular structures and properties, (ii) the extent to which the presence of co-contaminants as well as key environmental parameters affect the adsorption behavior of organic contaminants, and (iii) the adsorption kinetics for CNTs with different sizes or curvature and surface chemistry. The research team plans to perform systematic adsorption studies of a wide array of organic contaminants on CNTs and conduct extensive electronic structure calculations and molecular dynamics simulations to gain insights on the intermolecular forces taking place at the liquid-solid interface when contaminants are exposed to CNTs in water. The collabortive team also plans to investigate how environmental conditions such as ionic strength and pH shift the intermolecular forces and affect the adsorption behavior of organic contaminants onto CNTs. Built on the understanding of the intermolecular forces, it should be possible to examine how different surface functionalization approaches affect the adsorption behavior of organic contaminants to CNTs, setting out defining principles for the design of functional adsorbant nanoparticles.
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: COMMS, CIRCUITS & SENS SYS | Award Amount: 282.81K | Year: 2016
High electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) based on nitride material systems feature a unique combination of high breakdown voltage, high output power, high efficiency, wide bandwidth, low noise, and temperature and radiation hardness and have great potential in applications such as wireless communication, homeland security, radar and satellite systems, as well as emerging harsh-environment computing, sensing, cloud-networking and power conversion electronics. However, issues related to long-term reliability of these devices still remain a major concern. Reliability can be defined as the probability of operating a system for a given time under specified conditions without failure. For semiconductor devices, unrecoverable change of a device parameter (such as degradation in the output current) may be considered as a failure. As evidenced in recently reported stress or accelerated tests, high temperature gradients (thermal effect), high electric fields and built-in or induced mechanical stresses (inverse piezoelectric effect), and high current densities (hot carrier effect) may all induce damages or defects in the constituent materials and ultimately lead to device failure. Yet, the exact physical mechanisms governing the defect formation as well as the nature and distribution of these defects are still not clearly understood. This poses a significant challenge to not only interpreting the experimental results but also predicting or extrapolating the device lifetime, tasks that are critical, for example, for devices used in remote applications. It is well acknowledged that to study physical processes that are experimentally intractable, numerical modeling becomes essential. This project sets out to develop a multiscale and multiphysics simulation framework for modeling the time evolution of and the physical mechanisms responsible for AlGaN/GaN HEMT degradation. The developed simulator will enable device design for improved reliability. The simulator and the related instructional materials will be deployed and made freely available on nanoHUB.org for the broader community to use in research and classroom activities.
The objective of the proposed research is to develop a multiscale, multiphysics simulation framework (HEMT 3-D) for modeling device degradation mechanisms in AlGaN/GaN HEMTs. Specific fundamental issues to be addressed include: a) correlation between metal diffusion, polarization, and induced charge density, b) origin, spatial and temporal distribution of defects, and how they affect electrostatics, band structure, gate leakage, carrier deconfinement and trapping-detrapping and contact resistances, c) correlation between lattice heating and hot-electron injection into the barrier material, d) strain and inverse-piezoelectric effects and their temperature dependence, and e) device optimization through engineering geometry, material composition, channel orientation, and enhancement of heat transfer at barrier-channel and buffer-substrate interfaces via microscopic tuning of the interface characteristics. To properly treat the atomistic symmetry in the nanostructured active region as well as the underlying physical processes that are complex, nonlinear, highly stochastic and dynamically-coupled at different length and time scales, the simulator will employ a modular approach integrating first-principles molecular dynamics, lattice kinetic Monte Carlo, and quantum-corrected electron-phonon transport kernels. Portability and run-time efficiency of the simulator will be achieved through the use of open-source scientific software, compilers and libraries, as well as incorporating optimized models, algorithms and extensions for GPGPU platforms. Verification of the computational results will be considered at every stage of the software development effort against experimental data available in literature as well as through collaboration with experimentalists in research laboratories, academia and industries.
Agency: NSF | Branch: Continuing grant | Program: | Phase: OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS-DMR | Award Amount: 220.00K | Year: 2015
NON-TECHNICAL PART: The REU Site at Southern Illinois University Carbondale will provide research opportunities for an average of 14 undergraduates per year (including 2 supported internally) for a 9 week period each summer. Students will be involved in interdisciplinary projects in the broadly defined area of materials research. Inclusion of faculty mentors from various disciplines (Chemistry, Physics, Engineering, Microbiology, and the Materials Technology Center) will enable the REU students to develop skills needed to excel in both academic and industrial research environments, where interdisciplinary teams are standard and researchers must communicate effectively across disciplines. Students will also be required to think about the application of their research to new technologies and the manufacturing of new devices, and they will have the opportunity to present their results to a diverse audience. Primary goals of the site include: (1) creating a positive image of science and engineering as a career choice, (2) providing a nurturing environment and instilling a sense of confidence in the art of discussing and practicing science, (3) improving the participants oral and written communication skills, (4) teaching of basic research tools, including literature searches and the operation of modern instrumentation, (5) fostering a collaborative teamwork approach to research, and (6) increasing the number of domestic students, especially those from underrepresented groups, who choose to pursue STEM careers. A detailed assessment plan will evaluate the success of the activity.
TECHNICAL PART: The Site will recruit primarily from 2 and 4-year institutions residing in neighboring states or the Mississippi Delta region, and from those institutions with traditionally high enrollments of students from underrepresented groups. Students participating in the Site will learn to network with other scientists and engineers through various social activities including weekly lunches with faculty mentors and weekend trips to cultural, industrial, and recreational locations. The available mentored research projects promise to be excellent training grounds for working in materials and related fields. Students will be exposed to a variety of transformative projects at the forefront of science and engineering, including: (1) studies related to the synthesis of advanced functional materials (graphene, two-dimensional layered chalcogenides, metal oxide nanowires and functionalized structures, inorganic heterostructures, nanocomposites, nanoscale catalysts, novel electron-accepting materials, electrospun nanofibers, etc.), (2) materials characterization (via electron microscopies, solid- and solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, low-temperature electronic, optical/magnetic transport measurements, ultraviolet/visible/infrared spectroscopies, etc.), (3) theoretical/computational studies (wherein students will learn how to study materials via density functional theory calculations, molecular dynamics simulations, etc.), and (4) materials applications varying from energy storage and photovoltaics, to biosensors and nanoparticle-based antigen-delivery vehicles.