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Yamin S.,Southern Health | Vaddadi K.,Monash Medical Center
International Review of Psychiatry | Year: 2010

Pharmacological intervention using antipsychotic agents is the cornerstone of treatment in schizophrenia. Polypharmacy and the use of higher doses is often practised in the hope of getting better symptom control in multi-episode, chronically unwell, people with schizophrenia. However, these regimes often pose unacceptable and at times dangerous risks. The current review examines the factors that influence dosing and argues that optimization is transient and needs ongoing consideration throughout the course of the illness. What is defined as 'the optimal dose' changes over the course of the illness and this should be reflected in treatment. The evidence presented in the current paper suggests that given the negative symptoms associated with neuroleptic medication, dosage should be discussed as part of the case review process and dosage should be systematically reduced as part of the standard treatment protocol. A case-study is presented of a patient who had her dosage of clozapine reduced and the subsequent health and lifestyle benefits from this reduction. We argue that the focus needs to be shifted away from the specific aim of treatment of psychotic symptoms to a more holistic view of treatment that incorporates function and psychosocial function as a measure of improvement. © 2010 Institute of Psychiatry.

Srivastava R.,Southern Health
The Medical journal of Australia | Year: 2012

Winner, practitioner category, MJA, MDA National, Nossal Global Health Prize.

Meek R.,Monash University | Tong R.L.-K.,Southern Health
EMA - Emergency Medicine Australasia | Year: 2012

Objectives: To determine the incidence and risk factors for symptomatic venous thromboembolism (VTE) in adults who are discharged from the ED with rigid immobilization for lower limb injury. Methods: Eligible patients presenting between 1 December 2008 and 31 December 2010 were identified retrospectively from the Southern Health ED (Monash Medical Centre, Dandenong Hospital, Casey Hospital, all located in Melbourne, Australia) information system. Age, sex, diagnosis, type of splint and other defined potential VTE risk factors were recorded. VTE was confirmed from archived diagnostic imaging or hospital re-attendance records. Patients presenting between 1 October 2010 and 31 December 2010 were contacted to detect VTE diagnosed and treated outside of Southern Health. VTE incidence is reported, and comparison of risk factors performed. Results: VTE was initially confirmed in 33 of 1231 patients (2.7%, 95% confidence interval 1.9-3.7). VTE was reported by 3 of 174 in the contacted subgroup (1.7%, 0.4-4.6). Applying this 'missed rate' to the whole sample, the estimated VTE incidence is between 3.1% and 7.1%. Multivariate risk factor analysis found VTE risk to increase with age and a diagnosis of Achilles tendon rupture. Conclusion: The estimated VTE incidence was between 3% and 7% in this ED population with age and diagnosis of Achilles tendon rupture increasing risk. Prospective research to more accurately determine incidence, severity and risk stratification is required before firm recommendations on the likely risk versus benefit profile of thromboprophylaxis can be made for this population. © 2012 The Authors. EMA © 2012 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

Misso M.L.,Monash University | Wong J.L.A.,Southern Health | Teede H.J.,Monash University | Hart R.,University of Western Australia | And 4 more authors.
Human Reproduction Update | Year: 2012

BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of aromatase inhibitors (AIs) in the treatment of anovulatory polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) remains unclear. The objective was to determine whether AIs are effective in improving fertility outcomes in women with PCOS. METHODS: Databases were searched until July 2011. Inclusion criteria were women with PCOS, who are infertile, receiving any type, dose and frequency of AI compared with placebo, no other treatment or other infertility treatment. Outcomes were rates of: ovulation, pregnancy, live birth, multiple pregnancies, miscarriage and adverse events, as well as quality of life and cost effectiveness. Data were extracted and risk of bias was assessed. A random-effects model was used for the meta-analyses, using odds ratios (ORs) and rate ratios (RRs). RESULTS: The search returned 4981 articles, 78 articles addressed AIs and 13 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) met the inclusion criteria. No RCTs compared AIs versus placebo or no treatment, in therapy naïve women with PCOS. Meta-analyses of six RCTs comparing letrozole with clompihene citrate (CC) demonstrated that letrozole improved the ovulation rate per patient [OR 2.90 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.72, 4.88), I2 = 0%, P < 0.0001]; however, there was no statistical difference for the ovulation rate per cycle or the pregnancy, live birth, multiple pregnancy or miscarriage rates. Letrozole also did not improve pregnancy or live birth rates compared with placebo or with CC plus metoformin in women with CC-resistant PCOS. Results of comparisons of letrozole and anastrozole in women with CC-resistant PCOS were conflicting in terms of ovulation and pregnancy rates. CONCLUSIONS: In the absence of supportive high-quality evidence, AIs should not be recommended as the first-line pharmacological therapy for infertility in women with PCOS, and further research is needed. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved.

Williams C.M.,Southern Health | Tinley P.,Charles Sturt University | Curtin M.,Charles Sturt University
Gait and Posture | Year: 2010

Background: The diagnosis of idiopathic toe walking (ITW) is achieved by the exclusion of all medical causes associated with toe walking. In order to identify children with this gait type, an online Toe Walking Tool questionnaire was developed that utilized questions to identify healthy idiopathic toe walkers and excluded those who toe walk as a result of a medical condition. Method: A Delphi panel process was conducted to establish the relevance and validity of the questions. A group of 10 allied health professionals assessed 12 children utilizing the Toe Walking Tool. A kappa was calculated to determine reliability. Results: Clinicians agreed the questionnaire was an appropriate and effective assessment tool. The tool proved valid in that no child tested who toe walked as a result of a medical condition was able to progress through the testing process. Testing group of practitioners had a Fleiss Kappa agreement of 0.928. Conclusion: The Toe Walking Tool is a valid and reliable method of assessing children who present to the general allied health clinician with toe walking. This tool can assist with the decision of when to refer a child for further specialist investigation of their toe walking. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

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