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Smith L.A.,Royal Infirmary | Gangopadhyay M.,Southern General Hospital Glasgow | Gaya D.R.,Royal Infirmary
World Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2015

We present a case of acute upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage in a patient with systemic vasculitis immunosuppressed on cyclophosphamide and prednisolone. The patient presented with a diffuse haemorrhagic oesophagitis and a non-specific duodenitis. Biopsies taken from the oesophagus and duodenum demonstrated infection with herpes simplex virus (HSV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) respectively. CASE REPORT WJG|www.wjgnet.com 2542 February 28, 2015|Volume 21|Issue 8| Viral infection of the upper gastrointestinal tract is a recognised complication of immunosuppression and HSV is one of the most common pathogens. CMV on the other hand most commonly causes a colitis or less commonly oesophagitis. CMV enteritis is rare as is the synchronous infection with two viral agents in an immunocompromised patient having being described in a few case series only. Viral infection of the gastrointestinal tract in immunocompromised patients should be treated with systemic anti-viral medication and consideration to withdrawal of the immunosuppressive therapy if possible and appropriate. The authors highlight the need for a high suspicion of viral infection in immunosuppressed patients presenting with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.


Torley D.,Southern General Hospital Glasgow | Futamura M.,University of Nottingham | Williams H.C.,University of Nottingham | Thomas K.S.,University of Nottingham
Clinical and Experimental Dermatology | Year: 2013

This review provides a of key findings from 24 systematic reviews of atopic eczema (AE) published or indexed between 1 August 2010 and 31 December 2011, updating published summaries from previous years. Epidemiological evidence points to the protective effects of early daycare, endotoxin exposure, consumption of unpasteurized milk, and early exposure to dogs, but antibiotic use in early life may increase the risk for AE. With regard to prevention of AE, there is currently no strong evidence of benefit for exclusive breastfeeding, hydrolysed protein formulas, soy formulas, maternal antigen avoidance, omega-3 or omega-6 fatty-acid supplementation, or use of prebiotics or probiotics. With respect to AE treatments, the most compelling new systematic review evidence was for proactive treatment with topical anti-inflammatory agents (topical corticosteroids and topical calcineurin inhibitors) for the prevention of AE flares in patients with moderate to severe AE. A meta-analysis of 4 trials confirmed the superiority of tacrolimus 0.1% over pimecrolimus for the treatment of AE, and a review of 17 trials found that tacrolimus (0.1% or 0.03%) was broadly similar in efficacy to mild/moderate topical corticosteroids. Evidence for the role of education in the management of AE was less conclusive, with evidence from randomized controlled trials showing mixed results. Further work is needed in this area to conduct high-quality trials of educational interventions that are clearly described and reproducible. There is no clear evidence for the efficacy of homeopathy, botanical extracts or Chinese herbal medicine in the treatment of AE, as large well-designed trials are lacking in these areas. Click here for the corresponding questions to this CME article. © 2013 British Association of Dermatologists.


PubMed | Southern General Hospital Glasgow
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Clinical medicine (London, England) | Year: 2013

People with spinal cord injury (SCI) suffer from the complications of paralysis in addition to the diseases of the general population. Spinal injury centres in the UK are tasked primarily with looking after newly injured patients and patients with established SCI must often turn to their local hospitals and general physicians for inpatient medical care. This paper outlines investigation and management of some of the common conditions which the physician on the general ward might expect to come across in patients with SCI and also how best to maintain the general health of the SCI patient in hospital.


PubMed | Southern General Hospital Glasgow
Type: | Journal: Frontiers in integrative neuroscience | Year: 2013

Cortical representations of the vestibular system are now well recognized. In contrast, the fact that epilepsy can affect these systems, provoking transient vestibular symptoms, is less known. Focal seizures may nonetheless manifest by prominent vestibular changes ranging from mild unsteadiness to true rotational vertigo. Most often these symptoms are associated with other subjective manifestations. In pure vestibular forms, the diagnosis may be more difficult and is often delayed. The cortical origin of these symptoms will be discussed and compared with the known vestibular cortical representations. In addition, the existence of a specific vestibular epilepsy has been suggested in some publications. This condition affects young subjects with a frequent family history and most often a benign evolution, raising the possibility of a form of idiopathic epilepsy (Hewett etal., 2011).


Futamura M.,University of Nottingham | Thomas K.S.,University of Nottingham | Grindlay D.J.C.,University of Nottingham | Doney E.J.,University of Nottingham | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background: Many research studies have been published on atopic eczema and these are often summarised in systematic reviews (SRs). Identifying SRs can be time-consuming for health professionals, and researchers. In order to facilitate the identification of important research, we have compiled an on-line resource that includes all relevant eczema reviews published since 2000. Methods: SRs were searched for in MEDLINE (Ovid), EMBASE (Ovid), PubMed, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, DARE and NHS Evidence. Selected SRs were assessed against the pre-defined eligibility criteria and relevant articles were grouped by treatment category for the included interventions. All identified systematic reviews are included in the Global Resource of EczemA Trials (GREAT) database (www.greatdatabase.org.uk) and key clinical messages are summarised here. Results: A total of 128 SRs reviews were identified, including three clinical guidelines. Of these, 46 (36%) were found in the Cochrane Library. No single database contained all of the SRs found. The number of SRs published per year has increased substantially over the last thirteen years, and reviews were published in a variety of clinical journals. Of the 128 SRs, 1 (1%) was on mechanism, 37 (29%) were on epidemiology, 40 (31%) were on eczema prevention, 29 (23%) were on topical treatments, 31 (24%) were on systemic treatments, and 24 (19%) were on other treatments. All SRs included searches of MEDLINE in their search methods. One hundred six SRs (83%) searched more than one electronic database. There were no language restrictions reported in the search methods of 52 of the SRs (41%). Conclusions: This mapping of atopic eczema reviews is a valuable resource. It will help healthcare practitioners, guideline writers, information specialists, and researchers to quickly identify relevant up-to-date evidence in the field for improving patient care. © 2013 Futamura et al.


PubMed | Southern General Hospital Glasgow
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Clinical and experimental dermatology | Year: 2013

This review provides a summary of key findings from 24 systematic reviews of atopic eczema (AE) published or indexed between 1 August 2010 and 31 December 2011, updating published summaries from previous years. Epidemiological evidence points to the protective effects of early daycare, endotoxin exposure, consumption of unpasteurized milk, and early exposure to dogs, but antibiotic use in early life may increase the risk for AE. With regard to prevention of AE, there is currently no strong evidence of benefit for exclusive breastfeeding, hydrolysed protein formulas, soy formulas, maternal antigen avoidance, omega-3 or omega-6 fatty-acid supplementation, or use of prebiotics or probiotics. With respect to AE treatments, the most compelling new systematic review evidence was for proactive treatment with topical anti-inflammatory agents (topical corticosteroids and topical calcineurin inhibitors) for the prevention of AE flares in patients with moderate to severe AE. A meta-analysis of 4 trials confirmed the superiority of tacrolimus 0.1% over pimecrolimus for the treatment of AE, and a review of 17 trials found that tacrolimus (0.1% or 0.03%) was broadly similar in efficacy to mild/moderate topical corticosteroids. Evidence for the role of education in the management of AE was less conclusive, with evidence from randomized controlled trials showing mixed results. Further work is needed in this area to conduct high-quality trials of educational interventions that are clearly described and reproducible. There is no clear evidence for the efficacy of homeopathy, botanical extracts or Chinese herbal medicine in the treatment of AE, as large well-designed trials are lacking in these areas.

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