Hampshire, United Kingdom
Hampshire, United Kingdom

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Zarelli M.,University College Dublin | Schwarz T.,University of Edinburgh | Puggioni A.,University College Dublin | Pinilla M.,Southern Counties Veterinary Specialists | McAllister H.,University College Dublin
Veterinary Radiology and Ultrasound | Year: 2014

Computed tomography (CT) is commonly used in veterinary practice to evaluate dogs with suspected brain disease, however contrast resolution limitations and artifacts may reduce visualization of clinically important anatomic features. The purpose of this study was to develop an optimized CT protocol for evaluating the canine brain. The head of a 5-year-old Springer Spaniel with no neurological signs was imaged immediately following euthanasia using a 4-slice CT scanner and 282 protocols. Each protocol used a fixed tube voltage of 120 kVp and 10 cm display field of view. Other acquisition and reconstruction parameters were varied. For each protocol, four selected images of the brain were reconstructed, anonymized and saved in DICOM format. Three board-certified veterinary radiologists independently reviewed each of the four images for each protocol and recorded a numerical quality score for each image. The protocol yielding the lowest total numerical score was defined as the optimal protocol. There was overall agreement that the optimal protocol was the one with the following parameters: sequential mode, 300 mAs, 1 mm slice thickness, 1 s tube rotation time, medium image reconstruction algorithm and applied beam hardening correction. Sequential imaging provided optimal image resolution. The thin-sliced images provided a small blur due to partial volume artifacts. A high tube current resulted in a relatively low noise level. Use of a medium frequency image reconstruction algorithm provided optimal contrast resolution for brain tissue. Use of a proprietary beam hardening correction filter (Posterior Fossa Optimization) markedly reduced beam-hardening artifact. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Radiology.


Lamb V.,Southern Counties Veterinary Specialists | McBrearty A.R.,University of Glasgow
Veterinary Record | Year: 2013

The aim of this study was to compare axillary and tympanic membrane (TM) temperature measurements to rectal temperature in a large group of clinical canine patients. We also sought to ascertain whether certain factors affected the differences between the measurements and to compare the ease of measurement. Axillary temperatures were easy to obtain but tended to be lower than rectal readings (median difference 0.6°C). In 54.7 per cent of dogs there was a difference of >0.5°C between the two readings. Weight, coat length, body condition score and breed size were significantly associated with the difference between the rectal and axillary temperature. TM temperatures were more similar to rectal temperatures (median difference 0°C) but in 25 per cent of dogs, there was a difference of >0.5°C between rectal and TM readings. TM measurements were less well tolerated than axillary measurements. None of the factors assessed were associated with the difference between the rectal and TM temperature. As a difference of >0.5°C has previously been described as unacceptable for different methods of temperature measurement, neither axillary nor TM temperatures are interchangeable with rectal temperatures for the measurement of body temperature.


Packer R.M.A.,Royal Veterinary College University of London | Hendricks A.,Royal Veterinary College University of London | Volk H.A.,Royal Veterinary College University of London | Shihab N.K.,Southern Counties Veterinary Specialists | Burn C.C.,Royal Veterinary College University of London
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Intervertebral disc extrusion (IVDE) is a common neurological disorder in certain dog breeds, resulting in spinal cord compression and injury that can cause pain and neurological deficits. Most disc extrusions are reported in chondrodystrophic breeds (e.g. Dachshunds, Basset Hounds, Pekingese), where selection for 'long and low' morphologies is linked with intervertebral discs abnormalities that predispose dogs to IVDE. The aim of this study was to quantify the relationship between relative thoracolumbar vertebral column length and IVDE risk in diverse breeds. A 14 month cross-sectional study of dogs entering a UK small animal referral hospital for diverse disorders including IVDE was carried out. Dogs were measured on breed-defining morphometrics, including back length (BL) and height at the withers (HW). Of 700 dogs recruited from this referral population, measured and clinically examined, 79 were diagnosed with thoracolumbar IVDE following diagnostic imaging ± surgery. The BL:HW ratio was positively associated with IVDE risk, indicating that relatively longer dogs were at increased risk, e.g. the probability of IVDE was 0.30 for Miniature Dachshunds when BL:HW ratio equalled 1.1, compared to 0.68 when BL:HW ratio equalled 1.5. Additionally, both being overweight and skeletally smaller significantly increased IVDE risk. Therefore, selection for longer backs and miniaturisation should be discouraged in high-risk breeds to reduce IVDE risk. In higher risk individuals, maintaining a lean body shape is particularly important to reduce the risk of IVDE. Results are reported as probabilities to aid decision-making regarding breed standards and screening programmes reflecting the degree of risk acceptable to stakeholders. © 2013 Packer et al.


Witte P.G.,Southern Counties Veterinary Specialists | Scott H.W.,Southern Counties Veterinary Specialists
Veterinary Surgery | Year: 2014

Objectives: To report clinical experiences with tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) to address cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) disease in small breed dogs with high tibial plateau angles (TPA) using a specific 4-hole locking T-plate. Study design: Retrospective case series. Animals: Small breed dogs (<15kg) with high TPA (>30°): n=19 (29 CCL ruptures). Methods: TPLO was performed by standard technique using a 1.9/2.5mm 4-hole locking T-plate. Preoperative, immediate postoperative, and 6-8 weeks postoperative TPA were measured from radiographs. Lameness was scored subjectively preoperatively and 6-8 weeks postoperatively. Mid to long term follow-up was by client telephone questionnaire (mean, 12.1 months after surgery). Results: Mean±SD preoperative TPA was 37.0±4.9°, immediate postoperative TPA, 6.4±2.8° and 6-8 weeks postoperative TPA, 8.0±4.9°. Postoperative complications occurred in 4 dogs (13.8%) all of which had been operated as single-session bilateral procedures. Three stifles had failure of a single screw and postoperative increase in TPA. Periprosthetic infection necessitated plate removal in 1 dog. Lameness scores by veterinary assessment reduced from mean 3.4/5 preoperatively to 0.4/5 at 6-8 weeks postoperatively. Mid to long-term follow-up revealed no lameness by owner assessment. Conclusion: A 4-hole 1.9/2.5mm locking T-plate may be used in the stabilization of unilateral TPLO in small breed dogs with high TPA. © Copyright 2014 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.


Witte P.G.,Southern Counties Veterinary Specialists | Bush M.A.,Southern Counties Veterinary Specialists | Scott H.W.,Southern Counties Veterinary Specialists
Journal of Small Animal Practice | Year: 2014

Objective: To document the results of management of feline distal tibial fractures with circular-linear hybrid external skeletal fixators. Methods: Retrospective examination of case records and radiographs of cats with distal tibial fractures managed with hybrid external skeletal fixators. Signalment, pre-operative fracture conformation, post-operative fracture reduction, implant complications, time to tibial and fibular fracture healing and time to hybrid external skeletal fixators removal were analysed. Results: Case records of eight cats were reviewed and included three closed fractures and five type 1 open fractures. Post-operative fracture reduction was considered appropriate in all cases. Healing of five tibial fractures was complete and hybrid external skeletal fixators were removed within a mean of 13 weeks. Healing of the fibular fracture was complete within a mean of 12 · 1 weeks. Three tibial fractures demonstrated non-union and were revised after a mean duration of 24 weeks. All three non-union fractures were open on presentation. Clinical Significance: Feline distal tibial fractures may be managed with hybrid external skeletal fixators, however, non-union still occurs. In this study type I open feline distal tibial fractures appeared more likely to develop non-union. © 2014 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.


Szabo D.,Southern Counties Veterinary Specialists | Ryan T.,Southern Counties Veterinary Specialists | Scott H.W.,Southern Counties Veterinary Specialists
Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology | Year: 2011

Carpal canal syndrome, or carpal tunnel syndrome, is the most common entrapment neuropathy in humans and is caused by compression of the median nerve as it courses through the carpal canal. A similar condition has been reported in horses, however there have not been any reported cases of a dog showing lameness secondary to compression within the carpal canal. This report describes the case of a dog exhibiting lameness secondary to a lipoma within the carpal canal. Lameness improved after surgical removal of the mass. This case highlights the need to consider compression of the tendons and nerves in the carpal canal as a cause of forelimb lameness in dogs when pain is localised to the carpus. © Schattauer 2011.


Collins S.A.,Southern Counties Veterinary Specialists | Patteson M.W.,Southern Counties Veterinary Specialists | Connolly D.J.,Lane College | Brodbelt D.C.,Lane College | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Veterinary Cardiology | Year: 2010

Objectives: To determine whether serum N-terminal B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) concentration in normal dogs, and dogs with heart disease, is affected by freezing, or by sample ageing when stored at room temperature. Animals, materials and methods: Thirty six dogs with heart disease and ten normal dogs. Serum NT-proBNP was measured within 60 min of sample collection. Serum was also frozen at -20 °C and NT-proBNP measurement was repeated at 1, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h after thawing. Results: Median NT-proBNP increased significantly after freezing (p < 0.005) and then progressively decreased at all time points after thawing (p < 0.005). Conclusions: Serum NT-proBNP concentration increases with freezing, and then rapidly decreases over time when stored at room temperature. Concentrations were sufficiently increased after freezing and decreased after 24 h at room temperature to affect interpretation. The authors recommend that serum for NT-proBNP assay should be frozen within 1 h of sampling and submitted frozen in cold packs. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Rodenas S.,Southern Counties Veterinary Specialists | Guo L.T.,University of California at San Diego | Shelton G.D.,University of California at San Diego
Journal of Comparative Pathology | Year: 2012

A 4-month-old, female collie-cross dog was presented for evaluation of slowly progressive weakness, exercise intolerance and muscle atrophy. Neurological examination and electrodiagnostic testing were consistent with a generalized myopathy or, less likely, an axonal polyneuropathy. Muscle biopsy samples revealed marked variability in myofibre size with scattered or clustered atrophic or hypotrophic type 1 fibres. Type 1 fibres were 65% smaller than type 2A fibres and the percentage of type 1 fibres exceeded reference values for both limb muscles examined. On the basis of the clinical evaluation, pathological changes and the absence of another defined congenital or acquired myopathy, a diagnosis of a myopathy associated with congenital fibre type disproportion was made. Three months later the animal was humanely euthanized because of worsening clinical signs. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | Southern Counties Veterinary Specialists
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Veterinary record | Year: 2013

When hyperthyroidism is treated with radioiodine, up to 75 per cent of the injected dose is excreted in the faeces and urine, which poses hazards to handlers. Three groups of hyperthyroid cats were treated with 120, 150 and 200 megabecquerel (MBq) of radioiodine, and samples of faeces and urine-soaked litter (USL) were collected over a 24-hour period, once a week, for four weeks. The amount of radioactivity in each homogenised sample was then measured using a sodium iodide detector. Radioactivity significantly decreased in both the faecal and USL samples over the first three weeks. Regardless of dose, there was no significant difference in faecal and USL samples between weeks 3 and 4. Faecal radioactivity was generally higher than the USL, but both were variable between cats at each time point. There were some significant differences in radioactivity between doses at various time points, but these were very small compared with the differences between time points. From the results, the maximum likely exposure to a worker or owner handling the waste was calculated. For cats treated with up to 200 MBq, radioactivity levels after two weeks were such that the waste could be designated as very low level waste (a UK statutory definition) for disposal purposes.


PubMed | Southern Counties Veterinary Specialists
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Journal of small animal practice | Year: 2014

To document the results of management of feline distal tibial fractures with circular-linear hybrid external skeletal fixators.Retrospective examination of case records and radiographs of cats with distal tibial fractures managed with hybrid external skeletal fixators. Signalment, pre-operative fracture conformation, post-operative fracture reduction, implant complications, time to tibial and fibular fracture healing and time to hybrid external skeletal fixators removal were analysed.Case records of eight cats were reviewed and included three closed fractures and five type 1 open fractures. Post-operative fracture reduction was considered appropriate in all cases. Healing of five tibial fractures was complete and hybrid external skeletal fixators were removed within a mean of 13 weeks. Healing of the fibular fracture was complete within a mean of 12 1 weeks. Three tibial fractures demonstrated non-union and were revised after a mean duration of 24 weeks. All three non-union fractures were open on presentation.Feline distal tibial fractures may be managed with hybrid external skeletal fixators, however, non-union still occurs. In this study type I open feline distal tibial fractures appeared more likely to develop non-union.

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