Lamb V.,Southern Counties Veterinary Specialists |
McBrearty A.R.,University of Glasgow
Veterinary Record | Year: 2013
The aim of this study was to compare axillary and tympanic membrane (TM) temperature measurements to rectal temperature in a large group of clinical canine patients. We also sought to ascertain whether certain factors affected the differences between the measurements and to compare the ease of measurement. Axillary temperatures were easy to obtain but tended to be lower than rectal readings (median difference 0.6°C). In 54.7 per cent of dogs there was a difference of >0.5°C between the two readings. Weight, coat length, body condition score and breed size were significantly associated with the difference between the rectal and axillary temperature. TM temperatures were more similar to rectal temperatures (median difference 0°C) but in 25 per cent of dogs, there was a difference of >0.5°C between rectal and TM readings. TM measurements were less well tolerated than axillary measurements. None of the factors assessed were associated with the difference between the rectal and TM temperature. As a difference of >0.5°C has previously been described as unacceptable for different methods of temperature measurement, neither axillary nor TM temperatures are interchangeable with rectal temperatures for the measurement of body temperature.
Zarelli M.,University College Dublin |
Schwarz T.,University of Edinburgh |
Puggioni A.,University College Dublin |
Pinilla M.,Southern Counties Veterinary Specialists |
McAllister H.,University College Dublin
Veterinary Radiology and Ultrasound | Year: 2014
Computed tomography (CT) is commonly used in veterinary practice to evaluate dogs with suspected brain disease, however contrast resolution limitations and artifacts may reduce visualization of clinically important anatomic features. The purpose of this study was to develop an optimized CT protocol for evaluating the canine brain. The head of a 5-year-old Springer Spaniel with no neurological signs was imaged immediately following euthanasia using a 4-slice CT scanner and 282 protocols. Each protocol used a fixed tube voltage of 120 kVp and 10 cm display field of view. Other acquisition and reconstruction parameters were varied. For each protocol, four selected images of the brain were reconstructed, anonymized and saved in DICOM format. Three board-certified veterinary radiologists independently reviewed each of the four images for each protocol and recorded a numerical quality score for each image. The protocol yielding the lowest total numerical score was defined as the optimal protocol. There was overall agreement that the optimal protocol was the one with the following parameters: sequential mode, 300 mAs, 1 mm slice thickness, 1 s tube rotation time, medium image reconstruction algorithm and applied beam hardening correction. Sequential imaging provided optimal image resolution. The thin-sliced images provided a small blur due to partial volume artifacts. A high tube current resulted in a relatively low noise level. Use of a medium frequency image reconstruction algorithm provided optimal contrast resolution for brain tissue. Use of a proprietary beam hardening correction filter (Posterior Fossa Optimization) markedly reduced beam-hardening artifact. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Radiology.
Packer R.M.A.,Royal Veterinary College University of London |
Hendricks A.,Royal Veterinary College University of London |
Volk H.A.,Royal Veterinary College University of London |
Shihab N.K.,Southern Counties Veterinary Specialists |
Burn C.C.,Royal Veterinary College University of London
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013
Intervertebral disc extrusion (IVDE) is a common neurological disorder in certain dog breeds, resulting in spinal cord compression and injury that can cause pain and neurological deficits. Most disc extrusions are reported in chondrodystrophic breeds (e.g. Dachshunds, Basset Hounds, Pekingese), where selection for 'long and low' morphologies is linked with intervertebral discs abnormalities that predispose dogs to IVDE. The aim of this study was to quantify the relationship between relative thoracolumbar vertebral column length and IVDE risk in diverse breeds. A 14 month cross-sectional study of dogs entering a UK small animal referral hospital for diverse disorders including IVDE was carried out. Dogs were measured on breed-defining morphometrics, including back length (BL) and height at the withers (HW). Of 700 dogs recruited from this referral population, measured and clinically examined, 79 were diagnosed with thoracolumbar IVDE following diagnostic imaging ± surgery. The BL:HW ratio was positively associated with IVDE risk, indicating that relatively longer dogs were at increased risk, e.g. the probability of IVDE was 0.30 for Miniature Dachshunds when BL:HW ratio equalled 1.1, compared to 0.68 when BL:HW ratio equalled 1.5. Additionally, both being overweight and skeletally smaller significantly increased IVDE risk. Therefore, selection for longer backs and miniaturisation should be discouraged in high-risk breeds to reduce IVDE risk. In higher risk individuals, maintaining a lean body shape is particularly important to reduce the risk of IVDE. Results are reported as probabilities to aid decision-making regarding breed standards and screening programmes reflecting the degree of risk acceptable to stakeholders. © 2013 Packer et al.
Rodenas S.,Southern Counties Veterinary Specialists |
Guo L.T.,University of California at San Diego |
Shelton G.D.,University of California at San Diego
Journal of Comparative Pathology | Year: 2012
A 4-month-old, female collie-cross dog was presented for evaluation of slowly progressive weakness, exercise intolerance and muscle atrophy. Neurological examination and electrodiagnostic testing were consistent with a generalized myopathy or, less likely, an axonal polyneuropathy. Muscle biopsy samples revealed marked variability in myofibre size with scattered or clustered atrophic or hypotrophic type 1 fibres. Type 1 fibres were 65% smaller than type 2A fibres and the percentage of type 1 fibres exceeded reference values for both limb muscles examined. On the basis of the clinical evaluation, pathological changes and the absence of another defined congenital or acquired myopathy, a diagnosis of a myopathy associated with congenital fibre type disproportion was made. Three months later the animal was humanely euthanized because of worsening clinical signs. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Bristow P.C.,Royal Veterinary College |
Meeson R.L.,Royal Veterinary College |
Thorne R.M.,Davies Veterinary Specialists Ltd |
Butterworth S.J.,Weighbridge Referral Center |
And 8 more authors.
Veterinary Surgery | Year: 2015
Objective: To describe and compare a large population of dogs that had pancarpal arthrodesis (PCA) using either a hybrid dynamic compression plate (HDCP) or a CastLess Plate (CLP). Study Design: Multicenter, retrospective, cohort study. Animals: Dogs (n=240; 261 PCA). Methods: Medical records (2000-2012) from 12 UK orthopedic centers were reviewed for dogs that had PCA to document signalment, diagnosis, arthrodesis method, and complication rates. Follow-up data were used to compare outcome (lameness evaluation and radiographic healing) after use of HDCP and CLP plates. Results: PCA was performed with HDCP in 125 cases, CLP in 105, and by other techniques in 31. Carpal hyperextension injury was the most common diagnosis in HDCP and CLP groups. Surgical site infection (18.3%) was the most common postoperative complication. There was no difference in intra- (11% HDCP, 21% CLP) or postoperative (34% HDCP, 41% CLP) complication rates. Use of external coaptation did not affect postoperative complication rates or outcome. External coaptation related complications occurred in 32% HDCP and 18% CLP (P=.02). At median follow-up, most dogs were classified as having no or mild lameness (73% HDCP, 83% CLP) and there was radiographic healing in 40% HDCP and 46% CLP (P=.8) cases. Conclusions: CLP and HDCP may both be used successfully to achieve pancarpal arthrodesis. Adjunctive external coaptation does not appear to have a measurable clinical benefit but is associated with morbidity. © Copyright 2014 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.