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Birmingham, AL, United States

The Southern Company is an American electric utility holding company based in the southern United States. It is headquartered in Atlanta, Georgia, with executive offices also located in Birmingham, Alabama. The company is currently the 16th largest utility company in the world and the fourth largest in the U.S. Through its subsidiaries it owns and operates more than 42,000 megawatts of generation capacity and serves 4.3 million customers in Alabama, Georgia, Florida, and Mississippi. Southern Company’s regulated regional electric utilities serve a 120,000-square-mile territory with 27,000 miles of distribution lines. Wikipedia.


Guo T.,Southern Company
Shiyou Kantan Yu Kaifa/Petroleum Exploration and Development | Year: 2013

Based on the data from multiple sample analysis and tests and exploration practice, key factors controlling gas accumulation, enrichment and high production in the continental Triassic Xujiahe-Jurassic Ziliujing formations in Yuanba, Tongnanba and other areas, northern Sichuan Basin, were discussed. Natural gas in continental strata in this part of the basin are derived from the source rocks in the same strata, which are good-very good source rocks with high abundance of organic matter (mostly type III) and generally in high mature-overmature gas generating stage. Depending on provenance, multi-period (fan) delta systems are developed in the research area, where the main fluvial channel sands are superimposed in multi periods and distributed extensively, and reservoirs and source rocks form the "lower generation and upper storage" and "inter-bedded" assemblages. Five typical high-yield wells in the Jiulongshan, Malubei and Yuanba areas are investigated and an overall concept for exploration and research in the area is proposed: sedimentary source controls rock types, cementation types and sedimentary microfacies; source rocks control the size and location of gas accumulation; structural types control the magnitude and location of fractures; the combination of fracture and reservoir determines the level and retention duration of gas production. According to this model, the following areas have enriched gas and high production: Xu-3 and Xu-4 members of Xujiahe Formation in the western Yuanba and Jiange, Xu-4 member and Ziliujing Formation in the mid-eastern Yuanba, Zhenzhuchong and Xu-2 members in Malubei and Hebachang areas in the Tongnanba structure. Source


Successful exploration and development of shale-gas in the United States and Canada suggest a new solution to the energy problem in China. The Longmaxi Formation in the Sichuan Basin is regarded as a strong potential play for shale-gas with the following significant features: (1) complex structural types caused by multiphase tectonic superposition and reconstruction; (2) varied slippage processes that enhance porosity and permeability; (3) high thermal maturation of organic matter (Ro>2.5%); (4) high brittle mineral contents; (5) high and constant thicknesses of shale horizons within the formation. Evaluation of shale-gas prospects in this area should consider not only hydrocarbon parameters, but also preservation conditions and structural stability. Data from several new exploration wells in the Sichuan Basin indicate that tectonically induced net-shaped fractures effectively enhance shale reservoir properties. Structural types providing favorable storage conditions for shale-gas are described and evaluated. The high-yielding shale gas reservoir shares the same characteristics of conventional gas reservoirs except for its consubstantial source rock and reservoir in South China. © 2013 China University of Geosciences and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Based on the observation of outcrops and cores as well as on the interpretation of well-log and seismic data, the present paper studied sequence strata of the Changxing and Feixianguan formations in the Yuanba area, and recognized sequence boundaries and system tract boundaries. The Changxing and Feixianguan formations could be divided into four third-order sequences, namely SQ1, SQ2, SQ3 and SQ4. The comprehensive study on the reservoirs and sequences indicated that (1) the distribution of reservoirs was clearly controlled by the system tract of the third-order sequence and sedimentary facies; (2) reservoirs were mainly distributed in high stand system tracts of the SQ1, SQ2 and SQ3 sequences, which were composed of shallow-shoal facies and reef-shoal facies of the platform edge; (3) reservoirs in the Changxing Formation were lithologically dominated by bioclastic dolomites and bioclastic limestones with good physical property, while reservoirs in the Feixianguan Formation were mainly composed of oosparites with medium physical property. Source


Disclosed herein are viral vectors based on modifications of the Citrus Tristeza virus useful for transfecting citrus trees for beneficial purposes. Included in the disclosure are viral vectors including one or more gene cassettes that encode spinach defensin peptide(s). The gene cassettes are positioned at desirable locations on the viral genome so as to enable expression while preserving functionality of the virus. Also disclosed are methods of transfecting plants and plants transfected with viral vector embodiments.


A coal feed system to feed pulverized low rank coals containing up to 25 wt % moisture to gasifiers operating up to 1000 psig pressure is described. The system includes gas distributor and collector gas permeable pipes imbedded in the lock vessel. Different methods of operation of the feed system are disclosed to minimize feed problems associated with bridging and packing of the pulverized coal. The method of maintaining the feed system and feeder device exit pressures using gas addition or extraction with the pressure control device is also described.

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