Memphis, TN, United States
Memphis, TN, United States

Southern College of Optometry is a college of optometry in the United States. It is located in Memphis, Tennessee and is dedicated to the study of optometry, the field of medicine that includes not only the performance of refractive eye examinations and the fitting of necessary corrective lenses or vision therapy, but also the diagnosis and treatment of numerous ocular diseases. After completing a 4-year graduate program, students at SCO receive the degree of Doctor of Optometry .SCO has often been distinguished for its high National Board passage rates. The college has consistently surpassed the average National Passage Rate, and currently holds passage rates of 92%, 98%, and 99% on Part I, Part II, and Part III respectively of the most recent National Board Examinations. Wikipedia.

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Southern College of Optometry and University of Memphis | Date: 2012-10-02

One aspect of the invention provides a method for training a classification algorithm to detect a retinal pathology. The method includes: for a plurality of pseudo two-dimensional data sets of one-dimensional data points, each pseudo two-dimensional data point representing RNFL thickness values for a subject and corresponding index values for the data points: performing fractal analysis on the data set to calculate a plurality of fractal dimensions and calculating a plurality of slopes between each fractal dimension; combining the plurality of slopes for subjects labeled as pathologic into a pathologic data set; combining the plurality of slopes for subjects labeled as healthy into a healthy data set; and applying a linear discriminant function the pathologic data set and the healthy data set; thereby training a classification algorithm to detect the retinal pathology.

Fuller D.G.,Southern College of Optometry | Alperin D.,Case Western Reserve University
Optometry and Vision Science | Year: 2013

PURPOSE: To search for differences in corneal asphericity on the basis of ethnicity between African-American and white populations. METHODS: A prospective cohort design was used to analyze corneal asphericity (Q value) data obtained by Pentacam HR (Oculus, Wetzlar, Germany) on right eyes from African-American (n = 80) and white (n = 80). Subjects were stratified by ethnicity, age, and spherical equivalent (SE) refractive error. Q values were obtained from each quadrant (superior, nasal, inferior, and temporal) and two meridians (horizontal and vertical). RESULTS: The mean Q values were African-Americans -0.26 ± 0.19 and whites -0.20 ± 0.12, indicating that the eyes of African-Americans were significantly more prolate (p = 0.003) than those of whites. There was a significant difference between mean Q values for ethnic groups only in the 30- to 39-year olds (p = 0.01) and there was a lack of correlation with age in both ethnic groups. Q value contrasts by gender were only significant between males (p = 0.01). There was a lack of correlation between Q value and SE for either ethnic group. Age group contrasts between ethnic groups found significant differences for those with SE greater than 0.00 D to -3.00 D (p = 0.05) and greater than 0.00 D to +3.00 D (p = 0.05). Comparison of mean Q values in opposing meridians within and across ethnic groups were significant, although neither group showed significant differences between horizontal and vertical meridians. CONCLUSIONS: Corneal asphericity as represented by mean Q value varies significantly between African-Americans and whites. The greatest differences are evident in opposing quadrants and appear to be little influenced by age, gender, or SE. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Optometry.

McKean-Cowdin R.,University of Southern California | Cotter S.A.,Southern College of Optometry | Tarczy-Hornoch K.,University of Washington | Wen G.,University of Southern California | And 3 more authors.
Ophthalmology | Year: 2013

Objective: To determine the age- and race-specific prevalence of amblyopia in Asian and non-Hispanic white children aged 30 to 72 months and of strabismus in children aged 6 to 72 months. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Participants: A population-based, multiethnic sample of children aged 6 to 72 months was identified in Los Angeles and Riverside counties in California to evaluate the prevalence of ocular conditions. Methods: A comprehensive eye examination and in-clinic interview were conducted with 80% of eligible children. The examination included evaluation of ocular alignment, refractive error, and ocular structures in children aged 6 to 72 months, as well as a determination of optotype visual acuity (VA) in children aged 30 to 72 months. Main Outcome Measures: The proportion of 6- to 72-month-old participants with strabismus and 30- to 72-month-olds with optotype VA deficits and amblyopia risk factors consistent with study definitions of amblyopia. Results: Strabismus was found in 3.55% (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.68-4.60) of Asian children and 3.24% (95% CI, 2.40-4.26) of non-Hispanic white children, with a higher prevalence with each subsequent older age category from 6 to 72 months in both racial/ethnic groups (P=0.0003 and 0.02, respectively). Amblyopia was detected in 1.81% (95% CI, 1.06-2.89) of Asian and non-Hispanic white children; the prevalence of amblyopia was higher for each subsequent older age category among non-Hispanic white children (P=0.01) but showed no significant trend among Asian children (P=0.30). Conclusions: The prevalence of strabismus was similar in Asian and non-Hispanic white children and was found to be higher among older children from 6 to 72 months. The prevalence of amblyopia was the same in Asian and non-Hispanic white children; prevalence seemed to be higher among older non-Hispanic white children but was relatively stable by age in Asian children. These findings may help clinicians to better understand the patterns of strabismus and amblyopia and potentially inform planning for preschool vision screening programs. Financial Disclosure(s): The author(s) have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article. © 2013 by the American Academy of Ophthalmology.

Fuller D.G.,Southern College of Optometry
Optometry and Vision Science | Year: 2016

PURPOSE: This study examines the accuracy of neophyte clinicians’ assessments of central corneal clearance (CCC) of a corneoscleral lens using lens center thickness (CT) as a biometric scale. METHODS: A normal participant was fit with a corneoscleral lens on both eyes. Observers (n = 34) from the final semester of their fourth year in optometric clinical training were instructed to estimate the amount of CCC through the approximate geometrical center of the lens using a standardized script which included a photograph identifying various zones. Observer estimates were then compared against anterior segment-OCT (AS-OCT) values obtained during calibration. RESULTS: Mean observer estimates of central corneal clearances were OD 220.5 ± 121.microns (range 50 to 480 microns) and OS 398.0 ± 159.1 microns (range 140 to 800 microns). The mean AS-OCT values were OD 105.5 ± 11.microns (range 84 to 121 microns) and OS 340.8 ± 15.2 microns (range 315 to 362 microns). Mann-Whitney test was statistically significant for comparison of median values OD (177.0; p = 0.001) and OS (260.0; p = 0.012). CONCLUSIONS: Neophyte clinicians in the final semester of their fourth year of optometric clinical training tend to significantly overestimate the amount of CCC in a normal subject with declining accuracy as the amount of clearance diminishes. © 2016 American Academy of Optometry

Borgman C.J.,Southern College of Optometry
Clinical and Experimental Optometry | Year: 2016

Multiple myeloma is a neoplastic plasma-cell disorder resulting from malignant plasma cells in the bone marrow. It can cause a hyperviscosity syndrome secondary to the paraproteinaemia associated with the disease. The increased hyperviscosity can lead to retinal vein occlusions and other ocular problems that may challenge clinicians. In patients with multiple myeloma and hypertension and/or diabetes mellitus, retinal changes appear similar and changes due to one disease or the other may be difficult to determine. A 48-year-old white female presented to the clinic with a complaint of blurry vision in her left eye. A full comprehensive ocular examination revealed a central retinal vein occlusion presumably from the patient's history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolaemia. Further bloodwork revealed monoclonal protein in the patient's serum and an increased percentage of plasma cells in the bone marrow. She was diagnosed with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, part of the multiple myeloma disease spectrum. She was referred to a retinal specialist for initiation of intravitreal injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor. Multiple myeloma has been implicated in younger patients as an underlying cause of retinal vein occlusions. Multiple myeloma should be considered as a differential diagnosis in young patients with retinal vein occlusions, even if other risk factors for venous occlusion like hypertension, diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolaemia are present. Timely referral to the patient's primary care physician and haematologist is important for appropriate treatment and control of underlying systemic conditions. © 2015 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2015 Optometry Australia.

Lievens C.W.,Southern College of Optometry
Optometry and Vision Science | Year: 2016

PURPOSE: To assess changes in lid papillae and symptoms after use of a hydrogen peroxide–containing solution (H2O2) for 3 months by symptomatic contact lens wearers. METHODS: This randomized, controlled, investigator-masked, parallel group study enrolled symptomatic lens wearers with at least mild lid papillae who habitually used a biguanide-preserved multipurpose solution (BMPS). Subjects were randomized to habitual BMPS or H2O2 for 3 months to care for their lenses. Lid papillae severity (0–4) was graded in four zones of each eye at baseline and at 30, 60, and 90 days. Subjects rated frequency and intensity of symptoms and completed the Contact Lens Dry Eye Questionnaire (CLDEQ-8) at the same time points. Lens cases used for 1 month were collected from subjects in the H2O2 group, and residual peroxide concentration was analyzed at disinfection time. RESULTS: In all, 131 subjects were randomized to H2O2 (n = 64) or BMPS (n = 67) and underwent post-baseline assessment. The H2O2 group showed significantly greater improvements in lid papillae from baseline to day 90 than the BMPS group (H2O2, least square mean [LSM] difference [baseline–day 90] in maximum score 0.904 [95% CI 0.744–1.064]; BMPS, LSM difference 0.423 [95% CI 0.271–0.576]; p < 0.001). Frequency and intensity of symptoms, including grittiness, end-of-day dryness, irritation, burning/stinging, itchiness, and blurry vision, were significantly lower for H2O2 than for BMPS at days 30, 60, and 90 (all p ≤ 0.045), as were mean CLDEQ-8 scores (3-mo scores 10.6 ± 6.30 vs.15.0 ± 7.29, p < 0.001). Residual peroxide concentration in 61 used lens cases ranged from 6 to 55 ppm (mean, 15 ± 8 ppm) and 95% of cases had residual peroxide less than 30 ppm. CONCLUSIONS: Symptomatic contact lens wearers using the H2O2 solution showed greater reductions in lid papillae and symptoms at 90 days than did subjects using BMPS. Cases used for 1 month neutralized peroxide at disinfection time to levels below those detectable by ocular tissues. © 2016 American Academy of Optometry

Ridder W.H.,Southern College of Optometry | Zhang Y.,Pfizer | Huang J.-F.,Pfizer
Optometry and Vision Science | Year: 2013

PURPOSE: Visual disturbance is a common symptom reported by patients with dry eye disease (DED). The purpose of this study was to evaluate visual performance, including reading speed and contrast sensitivity, in control and DED subjects. METHODS: Fifty-two DED patients (mild, n = 17; moderate, n = 22; severe, n = 13; based on corneal staining and the Ocular Surface Disease Index ≥20) and 20 control subjects (Ocular Surface Disease Index <13, no corneal staining) took part in this study. The age ranges for the control and DED patients were 18 to 45 years and 19 to 84 years, respectively. Contrast sensitivity was measured using the Holladay Automated Contrast Sensitivity System, and reading speed was determined using the Wilkins Rate of Reading Test. Analysis of covariance was conducted to compare clinical characteristics among subject groups while adjusting for age, sex, and study site. Partial correlation coefficients from linear regression were used to measure the linear relationship between contrast sensitivity and reading speed with DED parameters. RESULTS: The log of the minimum angle of resolution visual acuities and contrast sensitivity were not significantly different across subject groups. The DED patients (134.9 ± 4.95 words per minute) exhibited slower reading speeds than the control subjects (158.3 ± 8.40 words per minute, p = 0.046). As DED severity increased, the reading speed decreased (141.0 ± 7.96 words per minute, 136.8 ± 7.15 words per minute, and 127.0 ± 9.63 words per minute in mild, moderate, and severe groups, respectively). Reading rate was found to correlate weakly with corneal staining based on a partial correlation coefficient (-0.345, p < 0.001) but not with other DED parameters. CONCLUSIONS: The reading rate was lower in DED subjects than that in control subjects. As the DED severity increased, the reading rate decreased. This finding is consistent with patient-reported symptoms and provides direct evidence for the impact of DED on reading performance. These findings suggest that reading speed may be used to monitor treatment benefit in DED.Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Optometry.

Edrington T.B.,Southern College of Optometry
Contact Lens and Anterior Eye | Year: 2011

Toric soft contact lenses have been in the marketplace for more than 30. years. Over this period of time, substantial improvements have been made in the areas of lens reproducibility, lens material permeability, frequency of lens replacement, and availability of lens design and parameter options. This article will review the methods used to stabilize lens rotation and their effectiveness as reported in the literature. © 2011.

Borgman C.J.,Southern College of Optometry
Optometry and Vision Science | Year: 2014

PURPOSE: Dacryocystitis is a common inflammation of the lacrimal sac, usually from an underlying bacterial infection. Most cases can be attributed to common ocular flora such as Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus pneumoniae; however, uncommon bacterial causes such as Proteus mirabilis can still occur. P. mirabilis is a gram-negative bacillus that is found abundantly in people who have undergone long-term catheterization and is uncommonly found in or around the eyes except in people who have undergone long-term catheterization. Proteus species can cause conjunctivitis, canaliculitis, and dacryocystitis and have the ability to manifest into preseptal cellulitis; therefore, timely recognition and treatment are important to prevent potential further complications. CASE REPORT: An 84-year-old white man had several recurrences of acute dacryocystitis that had marginal improvement with empiric antibiotic treatment. Resultant culture of the ocular discharge revealed an uncommon bacterium, P. mirabilis. Successful dosing of oral antibiotics resolved the infection but ultimately the patient required an external dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) procedure to maintain patency of the nasolacrimal lacrimal system and prevent recurrence. At 3 months after external DCR, the patient was symptom free with no recurrences. CONCLUSIONS: Dacryocystitis has a distinctive clinical presentation and is usually easily treated when appropriate oral antibiotics are directed at the underlying pathogen. In nonresponsive cases, culturing of the ocular discharge should be performed to identify the underlying pathogen. Cases of dacryocystitis caused by Proteus species are usually responsive to several standard antibiotics used orally in eye care; however, culturing and susceptibility testing can streamline the diagnostic and management sequence considerably in unclear or unresponsive cases. Typically, patients with dacryocystitis return to normal after appropriate treatment, but chronic recurrences and epiphora are potential sequelae. Patients should be educated that a DCR surgical procedure may be needed to prevent future recurrences in some cases. © American Academy of Optometry.

Bhakhri R.,Southern College of Optometry
Optometry and Vision Science | Year: 2013

PURPOSE: This case report presents the diagnosis and management of a patient who was ultimately diagnosed as having multiple evanescent white dot syndrome (MEWDS), a rare retinal inflammatory disorder classified under the white dot syndromes. CASE REPORT: A 34-year-old Hispanic woman presented with chief complaints of flickering lights and spots in her right eye that started 2 weeks earlier. Retinal examination revealed multiple white dots scattered across the retina, with an accompanying foveal granularity. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography and fundus autofluorescence were performed, which confirmed the diagnosis of MEWDS. The patient was monitored without treatment until resolution. CONCLUSIONS: The etiology and pathogenesis of MEWDS remain unknown; fortunately, the natural course of the disease is favorable because almost all patients retain a good outcome without the need for treatment. This case highlights the importance of considering MEWDS and other white dot syndromes in the differential diagnosis of patients who present with a history of photopsia. Because many clinical findings are absent or very subtle when patients present, the clinician should consider supplemental testing such as spectral domain optical coherence tomography and fundus autofluorescence in aiding in the diagnosis. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Optometry.

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