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Lee Y.-C.,National Pingtung University of Science and Technology | Lin C.-M.,National Kaohsiung Marine University | Huang C.-Y.,National Kaohsiung Marine University | Huang Y.-L.,National Kaohsiung Marine University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Food Protection | Year: 2013

An incident of foodborne poisoning causing illness in 67 victims due to ingestion of fried fish fillets occurred in June 2011, in southern Taiwan. Of the five suspected fish fillets, one fried sample contained 62.0 mg/100 g and one raw sample contained 89.6 mg/100 g histamine, levels which are greater than the potential hazard action level (50 mg/100 g) in most illness cases. Given the allergy-like symptoms of the victims and the high histamine content in the suspected fish samples, this foodborne poisoning was strongly suspected to be caused by histamine intoxication. Five histamine-producing bacterial strains capable of producing 59 to 562 ppm of histamine in Trypticase soy broth supplemented with 1.0% L-histidine were identified as Enterobacter aerogenes (two strains), Raoultella ornithinolytica (two strains), and Morganella morganii (one strain). The degradation loss of histamine in suspected raw fillets was 28% after they were fried at 170°C for 5 min. Copyright ©, International Association for Food Protection.


Lee Y.-C.,National Pingtung University of Science and Technology | Kung H.-F.,Tajen University | Wu C.-H.,National Kaohsiung Marine University | Hsu H.-M.,Tainan City Government | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Food and Drug Analysis | Year: 2016

An incident of food-borne poisoning causing illness in 37 victims due to ingestion of fried fish sticks occurred in September 2014, in Tainan city, southern Taiwan. Leftovers of the victims' fried fish sticks and 16 other raw fish stick samples from retail stores were collected and tested to determine the occurrence of histamine and histamine-forming bacteria. Two suspected fried fish samples contained 86.6 mg/100 g and 235.0 mg/100 g histamine; levels that are greater than the potential hazard action level (50 mg/100 g) in most illness cases. Given the allergy-like symptoms of the victims and the high histamine content in the suspected fried fish samples, this food-borne poisoning was strongly suspected to be caused by histamine intoxication. Moreover, the fish species of suspected samples was identified as milkfish (Chanos chanos), using polymerase chain reaction direct sequence analysis. In addition, four of the 16 commercial raw milkfish stick samples (25%) had histamine levels greater than the US Food & Drug Administration guideline of 5.0 mg/100 g for scombroid fish and/or products. Ten histamine-producing bacterial strains, capable of producing 373-1261 ppm of histamine in trypticase soy broth supplemented with 1.0% L-histidine, were identified as Enterobacter aerogenes (4 strains), Enterobacter cloacae (1 strain), Morganella morganii (2 strains), Serratia marcescens (1 strain), Hafnia alvei (1 strain), and Raoultella orithinolytica (1 strain), by 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing with polymerase chain reaction amplification. © 2015, Food and Drug Administration, Taiwan. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.


Chen H.C.,Southern Center for Regional Administration | Chen H.C.,National Taiwan Ocean University | Lee Y.C.,National Kaohsiung Marine University | Hwang D.F.,National Taiwan Ocean University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Food Safety | Year: 2011

An incident of foodborne poisoning causing illness in 53 victims due to ingestion of fish fillets occurred in January, 2009, in Kaohsiung city, southern Taiwan. The two suspected fish samples contained 11.3 and 37.7mg/100g of histamine, which is greater than the 5.0mg/100g allowable limit suggested by the United States Food and Drug Administration. Given the allergy-like symptoms of the victims and the high histamine content in the suspected fish samples, this foodborne poisoning was strongly suspected to be caused by histamine intoxication. Five histamine-producing bacterial strains capable of producing 1.23 to 36.48ppm of histamine in trypticase soy broth (TSB) supplemented with 1.0% L-histidine (TSBH) were identified as Bacillus subtilis (four strains) and Enterobacter aerogenes (one strain) by 16S rDNA sequencing with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. Moreover, the fish species of suspected samples were identified as mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus) by using PCR direct sequence analysis. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc..


Tsai W.-H.,The Health Bureau of Kaohsiung County Government | Chuang H.-Y.,Kaohsiung Medical University | Chen H.-H.,National Pingtung University of Science and Technology | Wu Y.-W.,I - Shou University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Chromatography A | Year: 2010

A simple sugaring-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction method combined with high-performance liquid-chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FL) was developed for the extraction and determination of sulfonamides in honey. Sample preparation consisted of acid hydrolysis to release sugar-bound sulfonamides. After derivatization with fluorescamine, the derivatives were partitioned into the organic layer under the honey (sugar)/water/acetonitrile system. The clear organic extract obtained by centrifugation could be injected into the HPLC system either directly or after dilution. Linearity was obtained with the coefficient of determination (R2) higher than 0.998 from 2 to 200ng/mL. Under the optimal conditions, recoveries were determined for honey fortified at three levels (5, 20, and 100ng/g) were 80.9-99.6% with coefficients of variation of 0.3-4.4%. Limits of detection for the sulfonamides studied were found to range from 0.6 to 0.9ng/g. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Tseng S.-P.,Southern Center for Regional Administration | Tseng S.-P.,National Cheng Kung University | Lu C.-C.,National Cheng Kung University | Liao P.-C.,National Cheng Kung University | And 3 more authors.
Dermatologica Sinica | Year: 2014

Objectives The objective of the study was to investigate the presence and distribution of endogenous steroids in human stratum corneum (SC) with respect to sex, age, anatomical site, and depth into SC, using a noninvasive sampling technique and a sensitive analytic method for quantitation. Materials and methods Corneocytes in the SC samples removed by sequential tape stripping from the forearm, forehead, and back sites were processed and analyzed using a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the quantitation of hydrocortisone, cortisone, and testosterone. Results In the 32 volunteers surveyed, testosterone was only detected at the forearm site in a single volunteer. Both hydrocortisone and cortisone were detected in 5-7 individuals out of 16 from both the age 20-35 years and age 50-65 years groups. Maximal amounts of hydrocortisone and cortisone found in SC of forehead, forearm, and back were 0.37 ng/cm2, 0.96 ng/cm2, and 0.49 ng/cm2; and 0.20 ng/cm2, 0.12 ng/cm2, and 0.06 ng/cm2, respectively, and were either higher than or comparable to those reported in human hair in terms of concentration by SC weight. In the population with either hydrocortisone or cortisone detected, no significant differences relating to sex, age groups, and anatomical sites were observed for the amount of hydrocortisone and cortisone in the SC. However, significantly higher amount of cortisone was found in the surface layers of SC than deeper layers in the age 50-65 years group. Conclusion The results demonstrate that, with the achievable sensitivity of current analytical technology, physiological concentrations of endogenous steroids, such as hydrocortisone and cortisone, can be found in the SC of some individuals. © 2013, Taiwanese Dermatological Association. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC. All rights reserved.

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