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Maruya K.A.,Southern California Coastal Water Research Project Authority
Integrated environmental assessment and management | Year: 2014

A scientific advisory panel was convened by the State of California to recommend monitoring for chemicals of emerging concern (CECs) in aquatic systems that receive discharge of municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent and stormwater runoff. The panel developed a risk-based screening framework that considered environmental sources and fate of CECs observed in receiving waters across the State. Using existing occurrence and risk threshold data in water, sediment, and biological tissue, the panel applied the framework to identify a priority list of CECs for initial monitoring in three representative receiving water scenarios. The initial screening list of 16 CECs identified by the panel included consumer and commercial chemicals, flame retardants, pesticides, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, and natural hormones. The panel designed an iterative, phased strategy with interpretive guidelines that direct and update management actions commensurate with potential risk identified using the risk-based framework and monitoring data. Because of the ever-changing nature of chemical use, technology, and management practices, the panel offered recommendations to improve CEC monitoring, including development of bioanalytical screening methods whose responses integrate exposure to complex mixtures and that can be linked to higher-order effects; development or refinement of models that predict the input, fate, and effects of future chemicals; and filling of key data gaps on CEC occurrence and toxicity. Finally, the panel stressed the need for adaptive management, allowing for future review of, and if warranted, modifications to the strategy to incorporate the latest science available to the water resources community. © 2013 SETAC.


Cooley S.R.,Outreach | Jewett E.B.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | Reichert J.,Annapolis flyer cab | Robbins L.,U.S. Geological Survey | And 2 more authors.
Oceanography | Year: 2015

Much of the detailed, incremental knowledge being generated by current scientific research on ocean acidification (OA) does not directly address the needs of decision makers, who are asking broad questions such as: Where will OA harm marine resources next? When will this happen? Who will be affected? And how much will it cost? In this review, we use a series of mainly US-based case studies to explore the needs of local to international-scale groups that are making decisions to address OA concerns. Decisions concerning OA have been made most naturally and easily when information needs were clearly defined and closely aligned with science outputs and initiatives. For decisions requiring more complex information, the process slows dramatically. Decision making about OA is greatly aided (1) when a mixture of specialists participates, including scientists, resource users and managers, and policy and law makers; (2) when goals can be clearly agreed upon at the beginning of the process; (3) when mixed groups of specialists plan and create translational documents explaining the likely outcomes of policy decisions on ecosystems and natural resources; (4) when regional work on OA fits into an existing set of priorities concerning climate or water quality; and (5) when decision making can be reviewed and enhanced. © 2015 by The Oceanography Society. All rights reserved.


Barton A.,Whiskey Creek Shellfish Hatchery | Waldbusser G.G.,Oregon State University | Feely R.A.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | Weisberg S.B.,Southern California Coastal Water Research Project Authority | And 8 more authors.
Oceanography | Year: 2015

In 2007, the US west coast shellfish industry began to feel the effects of unprecedented levels of larval mortality in commercial hatcheries producing the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. Subsequently, researchers at Whiskey Creek Shellfish Hatchery, working with academic and government scientists, showed a high correlation between aragonite saturation state (Ωarag) of inflowing seawater and survival of larval groups, clearly linking increased CO2 to hatchery failures. This work led the Pacific Coast Shellfish Growers Association (PCSGA) to instrument shellfish hatcheries and coastal waters, establishing a monitoring network in collaboration with university researchers and the US Integrated Ocean Observing System. Analytical developments, such as the ability to monitor Ωarag in real time, have greatly improved the industry’s understanding of carbonate chemistry and its variability and informed the development of commercial-scale water treatment systems. These treatment systems have generally proven effective, resulting in billions of additional oyster larvae supplied to Pacific Northwest oyster growers. However, significant challenges remain, and a multifaceted approach, including selective breeding of oyster stocks, expansion of hatchery capacity, continued monitoring of coastal water chemistry, and improved understanding of biological responses will all be essential to the survival of the US west coast shellfish industry.


Booth J.A.T.,City of Los Angeles Environmental Monitoring Division | Woodson C.B.,University of Georgia | Sutula M.,Southern California Coastal Water Research Project Authority | Micheli F.,Stanford University | And 6 more authors.
Limnology and Oceanography | Year: 2014

Here we examine a 50+ yr data set from a regionally coordinated southern California water quality monitoring program to assess temporal trends and determine whether nearshore waters are exhibiting changes in dissolved oxygen (DO) content similar to those reported offshore. DO in sub-mixed layer nearshore waters (≤ 10 km from shore) have declined up to four times faster than reported for offshore waters over the last 15 yr. These trends were evident over depth, and along isopycnals. They have no precedent over the past 50 yr and do not appear to be attributable primarily to large-scale climate variability in ocean DO. Coastal biophysical processes, including increased phytoplankton biomass in surface waters, are likely contributing to the recent elevated rate of DO decline in nearshore waters, as evidenced by higher rates of increase in apparent oxygen utilization. It is unclear whether these processes result from upwelling-derived or anthropogenic nutrient inputs. © 2014, by the Association for the Sciences of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc.


Sengupta A.,Southern California Coastal Water Research Project Authority | Lyons J.M.,California Regional Water Quality Control Board | Smith D.J.,California Regional Water Quality Control Board | Drewes J.E.,Colorado School of Mines | And 3 more authors.
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry | Year: 2014

To inform future monitoring and assessment of chemicals of emerging concern (CECs) in coastal urban watersheds, the occurrence and fate of more than 60 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), commercial/household chemicals, current-use pesticides, and hormones were characterized in 2 effluent-dominated rivers in southern California (USA). Water samples were collected during 2 low-flow events at locations above and below the discharge points of water reclamation plants (WRPs) and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Approximately 50% of targeted CECs were detectable at stations downstream from WRPs, compared with <31% and <10% at the reference stations above the WRPs. Concentrations of chlorinated phosphate flame retardants were highest among the CECs tested, with mean total aggregate concentrations of tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCPP), and tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) of 3400ng/L and 2400ng/L for the 2 rivers. Maximum in-stream concentrations of pyrethroids (bifenthrin and permethrin), diclofenac, and galaxolide exceeded risk-based thresholds established for monitoring of CECs in effluent-dominated receiving waters. In contrast, maximum concentrations of PPCPs commonly detected in treated wastewater (e.g., acetaminophen, N,N,diethyl-meta-toluamide [DEET], and gemfibrozil) were less than 10% of established thresholds. Attenuation of target CECs was not observed downstream of WRP discharge until dilution by seawater occurred in the tidal zone, partly because of the short hydraulic residence times in these highly channelized systems (<3 d). In addition to confirming CECs for future in-stream monitoring, these results suggest that conservative mass transport is an important boundary condition for assessment of the input, fate, and effects of CECs in estuaries at the bottom of these watersheds. © 2013 SETAC.

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