Southern California Coastal Water Research Project

Costa Mesa, CA, United States

Southern California Coastal Water Research Project

Costa Mesa, CA, United States

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Lao W.,Southern California Coastal Water Research Project | Gan J.,University of California at Riverside
Journal of Chromatography A | Year: 2010

Unusual peak profiles of warfarin were characterized on two oligoproline chiral stationary phases (CSPs). The pattern of 1st peak (S(-)) broadening and the 2nd peak (R(+)) compression was observed under mobile phase of hexane (0.1% TFA)/2-propanol (IPA) on a triproline CSP 1, and with other alcohol modifier such as ethanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-butanol, and tert-butanol as well. Through analyzing system peak of additives, the unusual peak profile was interpreted by perturbation of TFA additive system peak. The unusual peak profile was also found in enantioseparation of coumachlor and on a covalently bonded doubly tethered diproline CSP 2. The pattern of 1st peak (S(-)) broadening and the 2nd peak (R(+)) compression can change to pattern of 1st peak compression and the 2nd peak broadening from 15 to 50°C. Chiral separation of warfarin created nonlinear van't Hoff plots on CSP. No peak broadening/compression were observed with methyl tertiary butyl ether or ethyl acetate as the modifier. The peak shapes of the two warfarin enantiomers can thus be tuned by varying alcohol concentration and column temperature. High separation factor and resolution may be carried out to tune the peak profiles into Langmuir/anti-Langmuir band-shape composition. Using none hydrogen donor modifier may avoid interference of the TFA system peak. © 2010.


Lao W.,Southern California Coastal Water Research Project | Gan J.,University of California at Riverside
Chirality | Year: 2012

Environmental enantioselectivity information is important to fate assessment of chiral contaminants. Warfarin, a rodenticide and prescription medicine, is a chiral chemical but used in racemic form. Little is known about its enantioselective behavior in the environment. In this study, enantioselective degradation of warfarin in a turfgrass and a groundcover soils was examined in aerobic and ambient temperature conditions. An enantioselective analytical method was established using a novel triproline chiral stationary phase in high performance liquid chromatography. Unusual peak profile patterns, i.e., first peak (S(-)) broadening/second peak (R(+)) compression with hexane (0.1%TFA)/2-propanol (92/8, v/v) mobile phase, and first peak compression/second peak broadening with the (96/4, v/v) mobile phase, were observed in enantioseparation. This unique tunable peak property was leveraged in evaluating warfarin enantioselective degradation in two types of soil. Warfarin was extracted in high recovery from soil using methylene chloride after an aqueous phase basic-acidic conversion. No apparent degradation of warfarin was observed in the sterile turfgrass and groundcover soils during the 28 days incubation, while it showed quick degradation (half-life <7 days) in the nonsterile soils after a short lag period, suggesting warfarin degradation in the soils was mainly caused by micro-organisms. Limited enantioselectivity was found in the both soils, which was the R(+) enantiomer was preferentially degraded. The half-lives in turfgrass soil were 5.06 ± 0.13 and 5.97 ± 0.05 days, for the R(+) and the S(-) enantiomer, respectively. The corresponding values for the groundcover soil were 4.15 A± 0.11 and 4.47 A± 0.08 days. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


News Article | October 29, 2016
Site: www.PR.com

Miami, FL, October 28, 2016 --( Source Molecular’s Grace Anderson joined more than 1,000 professionals in the stormwater field to participate in the three-day event featuring stormwater-focused training workshops, presentations, and exhibits. Attendees include local, state, and federal decision makers, stormwater program coordinators, contractors, consultants, engineers, lawyers, scientists, and planners. Part of Source Molecular’s signature poster depicting caricatures of potential pollution sources was included in the presentation made by Martha Sutula of Southern California Coastal Water Research Project (SCCWRP) on “Quantifying Natural Background Concentrations of Fecal Indicator Bacteria at Reference Streams, Beaches, and Estuaries: A Primer.” The presentation is part of a full-day workshop on Bacteria Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) and Compliance Training. Source Molecular has great interest in stormwater issues because its microbial source tracking (MST) technology can help stormwater managers find out whether they are discharging untreated sewage into water systems. Ms. Anderson met up with clients, former clients and potential clients attending the conference to check up on the status of their bacteria source tracking projects. Permittees are often blamed for pollution problems in waterbodies where they are discharging and face steep fines. Permittees can use results of MST analysis as evidence or proof that they are in compliance with their permits and they are not responsible for the pollution in the waterbody. If they are at fault, results of MST analysis can help narrow down the specific storm drain that needs to be fixed and do away with an untargeted multimillion-dollar repair project. Source Molecular, the nation’s leader in the field of microbial source tracking, has a strong presence in California. It has helped and is helping numerous cities and municipalities with their fecal pollution problems. The laboratory is also in the California Environmental Data Exchange Network (CEDEN), a State Water Resources Control Board’s database for housing surface water quality related data. Source Molecular also works closely with scientists from SCCWRP in various research and development projects. Miami, FL, October 28, 2016 --( PR.com )-- Source Molecular Corporation once again makes an appearance at the annual conference hosted by the California Stormwater Quality Association (CASQA). The 12th conference was held on September 12 to 14, 2016, at Paradise Point in San Diego with the theme “Stormwater Evolution: Source to Resource.”Source Molecular’s Grace Anderson joined more than 1,000 professionals in the stormwater field to participate in the three-day event featuring stormwater-focused training workshops, presentations, and exhibits. Attendees include local, state, and federal decision makers, stormwater program coordinators, contractors, consultants, engineers, lawyers, scientists, and planners.Part of Source Molecular’s signature poster depicting caricatures of potential pollution sources was included in the presentation made by Martha Sutula of Southern California Coastal Water Research Project (SCCWRP) on “Quantifying Natural Background Concentrations of Fecal Indicator Bacteria at Reference Streams, Beaches, and Estuaries: A Primer.” The presentation is part of a full-day workshop on Bacteria Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) and Compliance Training.Source Molecular has great interest in stormwater issues because its microbial source tracking (MST) technology can help stormwater managers find out whether they are discharging untreated sewage into water systems. Ms. Anderson met up with clients, former clients and potential clients attending the conference to check up on the status of their bacteria source tracking projects.Permittees are often blamed for pollution problems in waterbodies where they are discharging and face steep fines. Permittees can use results of MST analysis as evidence or proof that they are in compliance with their permits and they are not responsible for the pollution in the waterbody. If they are at fault, results of MST analysis can help narrow down the specific storm drain that needs to be fixed and do away with an untargeted multimillion-dollar repair project.Source Molecular, the nation’s leader in the field of microbial source tracking, has a strong presence in California. It has helped and is helping numerous cities and municipalities with their fecal pollution problems. The laboratory is also in the California Environmental Data Exchange Network (CEDEN), a State Water Resources Control Board’s database for housing surface water quality related data. Source Molecular also works closely with scientists from SCCWRP in various research and development projects. Click here to view the list of recent Press Releases from Source Molecular Corporation


Bao L.-J.,CAS Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry | Bao L.-J.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Maruya K.A.,Southern California Coastal Water Research Project | Snyder S.A.,University of Arizona | Zeng E.Y.,CAS Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry
Environmental Pollution | Year: 2012

Available data were reviewed to assess the status of contamination by persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), in drinking water sources and coastal waters of China. The levels of POPs in China's waters were generally at the high end of the global range. A comparison of China's regulatory limits indicated that PCBs in rivers and coastal water may pose potential human health risk. Occurrence of DDTs in some rivers of China may also pose health risk to humans using the regulatory limits of DDTs recommended by the European Union. Future monitoring of POPs in China's waters should be directed towards analytes of concern (e.g. PCBs and PCDD/Fs) and to fill data gaps for analytes (e.g. PBDEs, PCDD/Fs, and chlordane) and in watersheds/regions (e.g. West China) where data are scarce. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Boerger C.M.,Algalita Marine Research Foundation | Lattin G.L.,Algalita Marine Research Foundation | Moore S.L.,Southern California Coastal Water Research Project | Moore C.J.,Algalita Marine Research Foundation
Marine Pollution Bulletin | Year: 2010

A significant amount of marine debris has accumulated in the North Pacific Central Gyre (NPCG). The effects on larger marine organisms have been documented through cases of entanglement and ingestion; however, little is known about the effects on lower trophic level marine organisms. This study is the first to document ingestion and quantify the amount of plastic found in the gut of common planktivorous fish in the NPCG. From February 11 to 14, 2008, 11 neuston samples were collected by manta trawl in the NPCG. Plastic from each trawl and fish stomach was counted and weighed and categorized by type, size class and color. Approximately 35% of the fish studied had ingested plastic, averaging 2.1 pieces per fish. Additional studies are needed to determine the residence time of ingested plastics and their effects on fish health and the food chain implications. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


McQuaig S.,University of South Florida | Griffith J.,Southern California Coastal Water Research Project | Harwood V.J.,University of South Florida
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2012

Water quality was assessed at two marine beaches in California by measuring the concentrations of culturable fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and by library-independent microbial source tracking (MST) methods targeting markers of human-associated microbes (human polyomavirus [HPyV] PCR and quantitative PCR, Methanobrevibacter smithii PCR, and Bacteroides sp. strain HF183 PCR) and a human pathogen (adenovirus by nested PCR). FIB levels periodically exceeded regulatory thresholds at Doheny and Avalon Beaches for enterococci (28.5% and 31.7% of samples, respectively) and fecal coliforms (20% and 5.8%, respectively). Adenoviruses were detected at four of five sites at Doheny Beach and were correlated with detection of HPyVs and human Bacteroides HF183; however, adenoviruses were not detected at Avalon Beach. The most frequently detected human source marker at both beaches was Bacteroides HF183, which was detected in 27% of samples. Correlations between FIBs and human markers were much more frequent at Doheny Beach than at Avalon Beach; e.g., adenovirus was correlated with HPyVs and HF183. Human sewage markers and adenoviruses were routinely detected in samples meeting FIB regulatory standards. The toolbox approach of FIB measurement coupled with analysis of several MST markers targeting human pathogens used here demonstrated that human sewage is at least partly responsible for the degradation of water quality, particularly at Doheny Beach, and resulted in a more definitive assessment of recreational water quality and human health risk than reliance on FIB concentrations alone could have provided. © 2012, American Society for Microbiology.


Schiff K.C.,Southern California Coastal Water Research Project | Tiefenthaler L.L.,Southern California Coastal Water Research Project
Journal of the American Water Resources Association | Year: 2011

Despite broad observations of first flush within storms, the scientific understanding of seasonal flushing remains incomplete. Seasonal flushing occurs when initial storms of the season have greater concentrations or loads than storms later in the season. The goal of this study was to census stormwater concentrations and loads from an arid, urban watershed to quantify seasonal flushing. Samples were collected every 15min during the 1997-1998 wet season from the Santa Ana River and analyzed for total suspended solids. Initial storms of the season generated event mean concentrations 3-10 times the event mean concentration of storms later in the season. Cumulative flow-weighted mean concentrations were calculated as the season progressed. Early season storms discharged only 6% of the annual volume, but influenced flow-weighted mean concentrations well past the midpoint of the wet season. Mass-based estimates also indicated a disproportionate load in the early portion of the year; over 52% of the annual load was discharged in the first 30% of the annual volume from the highly urbanized lower watershed. Other stormwater pollutants, including six trace metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni, Zn), were highly correlated with total suspended solids and also exhibited a significant seasonal flush. © 2010 American Water Resources Association.


Maraccini P.A.,Stanford University | Ferguson D.M.,Southern California Coastal Water Research Project | Boehm A.B.,Stanford University
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2012

Enterococcus species composition was determined each hour for 72 h at a polluted marine beach in Avalon, Santa Catalina Island, CA. Species composition during the day was significantly different from that at night, based on an analysis of similarity. Enterococcus faecium and E. faecalis were more prevalent at night than during the day, while E. hirae and other Enterococcus species were more prevalent during the day than the night. Enterococcus spp. containing a yellow pigment were more common during the day than the night, suggesting that the pigmented phenotype may offer a competitive advantage under sunlit conditions. A laboratory microcosm experiment established that the pigmented E. casseliflavus isolate and a pigmented E. faecalis isolate recovered from the field site decay slower than a nonpigmented E. faecalis isolate in a solar simulator in simulated, clear seawater. This further supports the idea that the yellow carotenoid pigment in Enterococcus provides protection under sunlit conditions. The findings are in accordance with previous work with other carotenoid-containing nonphotosynthetic and photosynthetic bacteria that suggests that the carotenoid is able to quench reactive oxygen species capable of causing photoinactivation and photostress. The results suggest that using enterococcal species composition as a microbial source tracking tool may be hindered by the differential environmental persistence of pigmented and nonpigmented enterococci. © 2012, American Society for Microbiology.


Greenstein D.J.,Southern California Coastal Water Research Project | Bay S.M.,Southern California Coastal Water Research Project
Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management | Year: 2012

Toxicity tests are often used in sediment assessment programs. However, the choice of methods has been largely limited to acute tests. Where sublethal methods have been used, there has been little consistency among programs in the types of the sublethal tests used. The goal of this study was to develop a method for choosing a suite of acute and sublethal tests for use in a California statewide assessment program, and to develop a set of method-specific thresholds for classifying the degree of toxicity within a multiple line of evidence framework consisting of sediment chemistry, benthic community structure, and sediment toxicity. A group of candidate methods was evaluated using feasibility and performance criteria. Toxicity thresholds were calculated based on test variability and sensitivity. As a result of the evaluation, 3 acute toxicity methods using amphipods (Eohaustorius estuarius, Rhepoxynius abronius, and Leptocheirus plumulosus), and 2 sublethal methods using a polychaete and mussel embryos (Neanthes arenaceodentata growth and Mytilus galloprovincialis embryo development at the sediment-water interface) were selected for recommendation. Thresholds for toxicity categories corresponding to Nontoxic, Low Toxicity, Moderate Toxicity, and High Toxicity were developed for each test method. Although these toxicity categories and thresholds provide a consistent framework for the interpretation of test results among different methods, additional research is needed to determine their effectiveness for predicting impacts to benthic communities. © 2011 SETAC.


Bay S.M.,Southern California Coastal Water Research Project | Weisberg S.B.,Southern California Coastal Water Research Project
Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management | Year: 2012

Integration of multiple lines of evidence (MLOE) data in a sediment quality triad assessment can be accomplished by means of numerous approaches, with most relying on some form of expert best professional judgment. Best professional judgment (BPJ) can be problematic in application to large data sets or in a regulatory setting where the assessment protocol needs to be transparent and consistently reproducible.We present a quantitative, objective framework for integrating the results of triadbased assessments and test its efficacy by applying it to 25 California sites and comparing the resulting classifications with those of 6 experts who were provided the same data. The framework is based on integrating the answers to 2 questions: 1) is there biological degradation, and 2) is chemical exposure high enough to potentially result in a biological response? The framework produced results that matched the median classifications of the experts better than did 5 of the 6 experts. Moreover, the framework was unbiased, with samples that differed from the median expert response evenly divided between those classified as more or less impacted. The framework was also evaluated by application to a set of sites from known degraded and reference areas, which the framework distinguished well. Although any framework needs to be flexible to supplemental data when they are available, the framework presented provides an objective means for using a triad-based approach in large-scale assessments for which relying on expert input for every sample is impractical. © 2010 SETAC.

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