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Borochov-Neori H.,Southern Arava Research and Development | Judeinstein S.,Southern Arava Research and Development | Greenberg A.,Southern Arava Research and Development | Volkova N.,Lipid Research Laboratory | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2015

Date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruit phenolic-acid or flavonol fractions were examined in vitro for antioxidant and antiatherogenic properties. Two fractions of each subgroup were prepared from two date varieties, 'Amari' and 'Hallawi', by solid phase extraction on C18. The fractions were analyzed for phenolics composition by RP-HPLC and tested for ferric-reducing antioxidant power, free radical scavenging capacity, inhibition of Cu2+-induced LDL oxidation, and enhancement of HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux from macrophages. All four fractions exhibited variable capacities to reduce ferric ions, scavenge radicals, and inhibit LDL oxidation. Flavonol fractions were considerably better inhibitors of LDL oxidation compared to phenolic acid fractions, with IC50's of 9-31 nmol GAE mL-1 compared to 85-116 nmol GAE mL-1, respectively. Only the flavonol fractions stimulated cholesterol removal from macrophages. Within each subgroup, the levels of all the activities varied with fraction composition. The results demonstrated strong structure-activity relationships for date phenolics and identified date flavonols as potential antiatherogenic bioactives. © 2015 American Chemical Society.


Tripler E.,Southern Arava Research and Development | Haquin G.,Israel Atomic Energy Commission | Koch J.,Israel Atomic Energy Commission | Yehuda Z.,Southern Arava Research and Development | And 2 more authors.
Chemosphere | Year: 2014

Relatively elevated concentrations of naturally occurring radium isotopes (226Ra, 228Ra and 224Ra) are found in two main aquifers in the arid southern part of Israel, in activity concentrations frequently exceeding the limits set in the drinking water quality regulations.We aimed to explore the environmental implications of using water containing Ra for irrigation. Several crops (cucumbers, melons, radish, lettuce, alfalfa and wheat), grown in weighing lysimeters were irrigated at 3 levels of 226Ra activity concentration: Low Radium Water (LRW)<0.04BqL-1; High Radium Water (HRW) at 1.8BqL-1 and (3) Radium Enriched Water (REW) at 50 times the concentration in HRW. The HYDRUS 1-D software package was used to simulate the long-term 226Ra distribution in a soil irrigated with HRW for 15years. Radium uptake by plants was found to be controlled by its activity in the irrigation water and in the soil solution, the physical properties of the soil and the potential evapotranspiration. The 226Ra apeared to accumulate mainly in the leaves of crops following the evapotranspiration current, while its accumulation in the edible parts (fruits and roots) was minimal. The simulation of 15years of crop irrigation by HYDERUS 1-D, showed a low Ra activity concentration in the soil solution of the root zone and a limited downward mobility. It was therefore concluded that the crops investigated in this study can be irrigated with the natural occurring activity concentration of 226Ra of 0.6-1.6BqL-1. This should be accompanied by a continuous monitoring of radium in the edible parts of the crops. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Southern Arava Research and Development and Israel Atomic Energy Commission
Type: | Journal: Chemosphere | Year: 2014

Relatively elevated concentrations of naturally occurring radium isotopes ((226)Ra, (228)Ra and (224)Ra) are found in two main aquifers in the arid southern part of Israel, in activity concentrations frequently exceeding the limits set in the drinking water quality regulations. We aimed to explore the environmental implications of using water containing Ra for irrigation. Several crops (cucumbers, melons, radish, lettuce, alfalfa and wheat), grown in weighing lysimeters were irrigated at 3 levels of (226)Ra activity concentration: Low Radium Water (LRW)<0.04 Bq L(-1); High Radium Water (HRW) at 1.8 Bq L(-1) and (3) Radium Enriched Water (REW) at 50 times the concentration in HRW. The HYDRUS 1-D software package was used to simulate the long-term (226)Ra distribution in a soil irrigated with HRW for 15 years. Radium uptake by plants was found to be controlled by its activity in the irrigation water and in the soil solution, the physical properties of the soil and the potential evapotranspiration. The (226)Ra apeared to accumulate mainly in the leaves of crops following the evapotranspiration current, while its accumulation in the edible parts (fruits and roots) was minimal. The simulation of 15 years of crop irrigation by HYDERUS 1-D, showed a low Ra activity concentration in the soil solution of the root zone and a limited downward mobility. It was therefore concluded that the crops investigated in this study can be irrigated with the natural occurring activity concentration of (226)Ra of 0.6-1.6 Bq L(-1). This should be accompanied by a continuous monitoring of radium in the edible parts of the crops.


Ben-Simhon Z.,Newe Ya'ar Research Center | Judeinstein S.,Southern Arava Research and Development | Nadler-Hassar T.,Newe Ya'ar Research Center | Trainin T.,Newe Ya'ar Research Center | And 3 more authors.
Planta | Year: 2011

Anthocyanins are the major pigments responsible for the pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruit skin color. The high variability in fruit external color in pomegranate cultivars reflects variations in anthocyanin composition. To identify genes involved in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway in the pomegranate fruit skin we have isolated, expressed and characterized the pomegranate homologue of the Arabidopsis thaliana TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1 (TTG1), encoding a WD40-repeat protein. The TTG1 protein is a regulator of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins (PAs) biosynthesis in Arabidopsis, and acts by the formation of a transcriptional regulatory complex with two other regulatory proteins: bHLH and MYB. Our results reveal that the pomegranate gene, designated PgWD40, recovered the anthocyanin, PAs, trichome and seed coat mucilage phenotype in Arabidopsis ttg1 mutant. PgWD40 expression and anthocyanin composition in the skin were analyzed during pomegranate fruit development, in two accessions that differ in skin color intensity and timing of appearance. The results indicate high positive correlation between the total cyanidin derivatives quantity (red pigments) and the expression level of PgWD40. Furthermore, strong correlation was found between the steady state levels of PgWD40 transcripts and the transcripts of pomegranate homologues of the structural genes PgDFR and PgLDOX. PgWD40, PgDFR and PgLDOX expression also correlated with the expression of pomegranate homologues of the regulatory genes PgAn1 (bHLH) and PgAn2 (MYB). On the basis of our results we propose that PgWD40 is involved in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis during pomegranate fruit development and that expression of PgWD40, PgAn1 and PgAn2 in the pomegranate fruit skin is required to regulate the expression of downstream structural genes involved in the anthocyanin biosynthesis. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


Borochov-Neori H.,Southern Arava Research and Development | Judeinstein S.,Southern Arava Research and Development | Greenberg A.,Southern Arava Research and Development | Volkova N.,Rappaport Family Institute for Research in the Medical science | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2013

Date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruit soluble phenolics composition and anti-atherogenic properties were examined in nine diverse Israeli grown varieties. Ethanol and acetone extracts of 'Amari', 'Barhi', 'Deglet Noor', 'Deri', 'Hadrawi', 'Hallawi', 'Hayani', 'Medjool', and 'Zahidi' fruit were analyzed for phenolics composition by RP-HPLC and tested for anti-atherogenicity by measuring their effects on LDL susceptibility to copper ion- and free radical-induced oxidation, and on serum-mediated cholesterol efflux from macrophages. The most frequently detected phenolics were hydroxybenzoates, hydroxycinnamates, and flavonols. Significant differences in phenolics composition were established between varieties as well as extraction solvents. All extracts inhibited LDL oxidation, and most extracts also stimulated cholesterol removal from macrophages. Considerable varietal differences were measured in the levels of the bioactivities. Also, acetone extracts exhibited a significantly higher anti-atherogenic potency for most varieties. The presence of soluble ingredients with anti-atherogenic capacities in dates and the possible involvement of phenolics are discussed. © 2013 American Chemical Society.


Borochov-Neori H.,Southern Arava Research and Development | Lazarovitch N.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev | Judeinstein S.,Southern Arava Research and Development | Patil B.S.,Texas A&M University | Holland D.,Newe Ya'ar Research Center
ACS Symposium Series | Year: 2013

Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) has recently become a commercially important crop due to multitude health promoting properties attributed to different parts of the fruit. Worldwide pomegranate production has expanded greatly in traditional and new locations of diverse climatic and water conditions. The pomegranate industry demands intensely red fruit with high antioxidant content. It is therefore especially important to investigate the effects of climate and water quality on pomegranate anthocyanin and phenolics accumulation. Our research has focused on the edible part of the fruit, specifically, the arils. A diverse selection of pomegranate cultivars was employed. To explore climate effect, fruit that developed and ripened under a wide range of temperature regimes were studied. To explore water quality effect, fruit from plants irrigated with a wide range of salinities, 0.5-9 dS m-1, were studied. Anthocyanins were analyzed by RP-HPLC and phenolics content was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau assay. Both abiotic factors considerably affected arils' composition. Cooler temperatures enhanced both pigment and antioxidant accumulation. Climate also affected anthocyanin composition. Increased salinity enhanced phenolics accumulation in both accessions but reduced that of anthocyanins in a cultivar dependent manner. Our results can benefit breeding and agricultural efforts to enhance pomegranate fruit quality, especially, in face of global warming and water quality deterioration. © 2013 American Chemical Society.


Borochov-Neori H.,Southern Arava Research and Development | Borochov-Neori H.,Texas A&M University | Judeinstein S.,Southern Arava Research and Development | Harari M.,Southern Arava Research and Development | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

Worldwide pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) production has expanded greatly due to recent evidence on the fruit health attributes. The fruit's unique red color, conferred by anthocyanins, is an imperative sensory quality. Climate effects on the fruit's internal color were reported earlier. The present study investigated the influence of a wide range of temperature regimes (∼7-40 °C) on pomegranates' aril anthocyanins. The study included two deciduous and two evergreen accessions as well as desert and Mediterranean orchards. RP-HPLC analysis of the arils' anthocyanins revealed mono-and diglucosylated delphinidins and cyanidins as the major anthocyanins and pelargonidins as minor components. Anthocyanin accumulation changed inversely to the season's temperatures. Cyanidins were generally more abundant but delphinidin accumulation was enhanced in cooler season. Monoglucosylated anthocyanins prevailed at cooler temperatures and subsided during seasonal warming with a concomitant increase in diglucoside proportion. The findings can benefit breeding and agricultural efforts to enhance pomegranate quality, especially in the face of "global warming". © 2011 American Chemical Society.


Rosenblat M.,Technion - Israel Institute of Technology | Volkova N.,Technion - Israel Institute of Technology | Borochov-Neori H.,Southern Arava Research and Development | Judeinstein S.,Southern Arava Research and Development | Aviram M.,Technion - Israel Institute of Technology
Food and Function | Year: 2015

Hydrolysable tannin polyphenols in pomegranate and phenolic acids in date fruit and seeds are potent antioxidants and anti-atherogenic agents, and thus, in the present study we investigated the possible benefits of combining them in vivo in atherosclerotic apolipoprotein E KO (E0) mice, compared with the individual fruit. In vitro studies revealed that the date seed extract contains more polyphenols than Amari or Hallawi date extracts, and possesses a most impressive free radical scavenging capacity. Similarly, pomegranate juice (PJ), punicalagin, punicalain, gallic acid, and urolithins A and B are very potent antioxidants. E0 mice consumed 0.5 μmol gallic acid equivalents (GAE) per mouse per day of PJ, Hallawi extract, date seed extract, or a combination for 3 weeks. Consumption of the combination was the most potent treatment, as it decreased serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels, and increased serum paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity. Consumption of the combination also significantly reduced mouse peritoneal macrophage (MPM) oxidative stress, MPM cholesterol content, and MPM LDL uptake. Finally, the lipid peroxide content in the aortas of the mice significantly decreased, and the PON lactonase activity of the aortas increased after treatment with the combination. We thus conclude that consumption of pomegranate, together with date fruit and date seeds, has the most beneficial anti-atherogenic effects on E0 mice serum, macrophages, and aortas, probably due to their unique and varied structures. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry.


PubMed | Southern Arava Research and Development and Newe Ya'ar Research Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015

Color is an important determinant of pomegranate fruit quality and commercial value. To understand the genetic factors controlling color in pomegranate, chemical, molecular and genetic characterization of a white pomegranate was performed. This unique accession is lacking the typical pomegranate color rendered by anthocyanins in all tissues of the plant, including flowers, fruit (skin and arils) and leaves. Steady-state gene-expression analysis indicated that none of the analyzed white pomegranate tissues are able to synthesize mRNA corresponding to the PgLDOX gene (leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase, also called ANS, anthocyanidin synthase), which is one of the central structural genes in the anthocyanin-biosynthesis pathway. HPLC analysis revealed that none of the white pomegranate tissues accumulate anthocyanins, whereas other flavonoids, corresponding to biochemical reactions upstream of LDOX, were present. Molecular analysis of the white pomegranate revealed the presence of an insertion and an SNP within the coding region of PgLDOX. It was found that the SNP does not change amino acid sequence and is not fully linked with the white phenotype in all pomegranate accessions from the collection. On the other hand, genotyping of pomegranate accessions from the collection and segregating populations for the white phenotype demonstrated its complete linkage with the insertion, inherited as a recessive single-gene trait. Taken together, the results indicate that the insertion in PgLDOX is responsible for the white anthocyanin-less phenotype. These data provide the first direct molecular, genetic and chemical evidence for the effect of a natural modification in the LDOX gene on color accumulation in a fruit-bearing woody perennial deciduous tree. This modification can be further utilized to elucidate the physiological role of anthocyanins in protecting the tree organs from harmful environmental conditions, such as temperature and UV radiation.


PubMed | Southern Arava Research and Development and Technion - Israel Institute of Technology
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of agricultural and food chemistry | Year: 2015

Date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruit phenolic-acid or flavonol fractions were examined in vitro for antioxidant and antiatherogenic properties. Two fractions of each subgroup were prepared from two date varieties, Amari and Hallawi, by solid phase extraction on C18. The fractions were analyzed for phenolics composition by RP-HPLC and tested for ferric-reducing antioxidant power, free radical scavenging capacity, inhibition of Cu(2+)-induced LDL oxidation, and enhancement of HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux from macrophages. All four fractions exhibited variable capacities to reduce ferric ions, scavenge radicals, and inhibit LDL oxidation. Flavonol fractions were considerably better inhibitors of LDL oxidation compared to phenolic acid fractions, with IC50s of 9-31 nmol GAE mL(-1) compared to 85-116 nmol GAE mL(-1), respectively. Only the flavonol fractions stimulated cholesterol removal from macrophages. Within each subgroup, the levels of all the activities varied with fraction composition. The results demonstrated strong structure-activity relationships for date phenolics and identified date flavonols as potential antiatherogenic bioactives.

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