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Huntley, MT, United States

Martin J.M.,Montana State University | Berg J.E.,Montana State University | Hofer P.,Montana State University | Kephart K.D.,Southern Agriculture Res Center | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Cereal Science | Year: 2011

Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity is a factor in time-dependent discoloration of Asian noodles. At least two major genes Ppo- A1 and Ppo- D1 control kernel PPO activity in wheat. The goal was to determine the relative importance of allelic variation for Ppo- A1 and Ppo- D1 on Chinese raw noodle color profile and kernel and flour characteristics using a winter wheat recombinant inbred population segregating for Ppo- A1 and Ppo- D1. Ppo- A1 allelic variation explained 80% and Ppo- D1 allelic variation explained 2% of the variation in kernel PPO activity. The low PPO allele at each locus gave noodles that were brighter (greater L*), more yellow (greater b*) and more red (greater a*) at 24 h, and noodles with less change in L* but more change in a* and b* with time (0-24 h). The two loci combined explained 27, 35, and 17% of variation in L*, a*, and b* at 24 h, and 51, 55, and 58% of the variation in change in L*, a*, and b* with time, respectively. Allelic variation at Ppo- D1 explained a larger percentage of variation than did Ppo- A1 in each case except b* at 24 h where the two loci explained equal amounts. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Nasseer A.M.,Ministry of Agriculture | Martin J.M.,Montana State University | Heo H.Y.,Montana State University | Blake N.K.,Montana State University | And 6 more authors.
Crop Science | Year: 2016

Variability of production environments challenges wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) breeders to develop genotypes with the potential to perform well under different levels of resource availability. An important trait that may provide plasticity to wheat is productive tiller number (PTN). This paper reports two studies. The first study tested the impact of a quantitative trait locus (QTL) for PTN on yield and other traits in a set of near-isogenic lines (NILs) grown over nine environments in the Pacific Northwest. Results showed that an allele for high tiller number at QTn.mst-6B enhanced early tiller (ETN) formation regardless of environments. Under favorable conditions, the large number of early tillers translated into a capacity for high PTN. Seed weight and seed diameter were negatively affected by the QTn.mst-6B high tiller allele. The second study assessed the impact of QTn. mst-6B under different competition and soil resource levels in three trials in Bozeman, MT. Three treatments were imposed on NIL pairs in replicated experiments: (i) bordered rows that limited soil resources to each NIL, (ii) nonbordered rows with less competition that provided more soil resources to each NIL, and (iii) space-planted plants with limited competition for soil resources. Results complemented those found in the multienvironment trials, as the high tiller allele caused high PTN at low competition levels when soil resources were more abundant. Increased yield as a result of the high tiller allele at QTn.mst-6B was only detectable in the highest resource treatment and environment. © Crop Science Society of America | 5585 Guilford Rd., Madison, WI 53711 USA All rights reserved. Source

Sherman J.D.,Montana State University | Blake N.K.,Montana State University | Martin J.M.,Montana State University | Kephart K.D.,Southern Agriculture Res Center | And 9 more authors.
Crop Science | Year: 2015

The primary trait in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to prevent damage caused by the wheat stem sawfly (WSS) (Cephus cinctus) is antibiosis facilitated by solid stems. The pith of solid stems impedes development of larvae, often resulting in their death inside the stem. A key question regarding solid stems is the possible impact on grain yield potential due to photosynthate partitioning to stem pith instead of to grain. Molecular markers for the major gene controlling stem solidness, Qss.msub-3BL, were used to develop near-isogenic lines (NIL) for alleles at Qss.msub-3BL in six genetic backgrounds. The NIL were grown in replicated trials in 12 locations that varied for yield potential in Montana, Washington, and Idaho. There was no significant impact of the solid stem allele on grain yield based on mean performance over recurrent parents and locations. Individually, solid-stemmed NIL were significantly lower yielding in one of six genetic backgrounds. Based on means over all crosses, the solid-stemmed NIL had lower yield in only one high-yielding environment. These results suggest that in general the allele for solid stems at Qss.msub-3BL does not result in yield reduction. Development of solidstemmed cultivars with yield potential similar to the best hollow-stemmed cultivars is a reasonable goal for wheat breeding programs in areas impacted by the WSS. © Crop Science Society of America. Source

Lanning S.P.,Montana State University | Martin J.M.,Montana State University | Stougaard R.N.,Northwestern Agriculture Res Center | Guillen-Portal F.R.,Sustainable Oils LLC | And 7 more authors.
Crop Science | Year: 2012

The most common genes for semidwarf habit in modern wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars are found at the Rht-B1 and Rht-D1 loci on chromosomes 4B and 4D, respectively. An alternative gene for semidwarf habit, Rht8, has shown potential as a replacement for Rht- B1b and Rht-D1b in some environments. The objective of the present study was to assess the impact of the height-reducing gene Rht8 relative to Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b on performance of spring wheat in Montana and Washington environments characterized by terminal drought stress. Evaluation of near-isogenic lines developed in four genetic backgrounds showed that Rht-B1b, Rht-D1b, and Rht8 caused height reduction of 19, 20, and 6.5%, respectively, relative to wildtype near-isogenic lines over 12 environments. An increase in grain yield was associated with reduced height for lines containing Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b based on means over the four genetic backgrounds and 10 environments. Height reduction and yield increase associated with Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b were significant in most environments. Lines with Rht8 yielded less than wild-type based on means over environments and in 3 of 10 individual environments. Reduced height lines with Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b tended to have a higher harvest index and more seed per spike than wild-type lines and reduced height lines with Rht8. In sum, our results suggest that Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b are superior to Rht8 as a source for height reduction for spring wheat in the tested environments. © Crop Science Society of America. Source

Blake N.K.,Montana State University | Clark D.,Monsanto Corporation | Lanning S.P.,Montana State University | Carlson G.R.,Northern Agriculture Res Center | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Plant Registrations | Year: 2013

'WB9879CLP' hard red spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) (Reg. No. CV-1086, PI 666046) was developed by the Montana Agricultural Experiment Station and released in 2012 to the commercial partner Westbred, a subsidiary of Monsanto. WB9879CLP is a two-gene Clearfield wheat for use with the imidazolinone herbicide Beyond (BASF). WB9879CLP was developed by backcrossing alleles for resistance to the imidazolinone herbicide class into the recurrent parent 'Choteau'. Choteau has solid stems, which provide resistance to the wheat stem sawfly (Cephus cinctus Nort.). The wheat stem sawfly is a major yield-reducing pest in large areas of Montana and surrounding regions. Alleles for herbicide resistance at TaAHAS1D and TaAHAS1B were selected during the backcrossing process and line derivation using polymerase chain reaction markers developed by BASF. Two years of replicated yield trials at a total of 16 sites showed that WB9879CLP is similar to Choteau in most agronomic characteristics. WB9879CLP showed no symptoms of damage at any of 13 testing sites when imidazolinone herbicide was applied at two times the recommended rate. WB9879CLP is the first Clearfield solid-stem wheat variety for sawfly infested sites in Montana and adjoining regions. © Crop Science Society of America. Source

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