Yu Q.,Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory |
Estevez C.N.,Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory |
Estevez C.N.,Texas College |
Roth J.P.,Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory |
And 2 more authors.
Virus Genes | Year: 2011
The second matrix (M2) gene of avian metapneumovirus subgroup C (aMPV-C) contains two overlapping open reading frames (ORFs), encoding two putative proteins, M2-1 and M2-2. Both proteins are believed to be involved in viral RNA transcription or replication. To further characterize the function of the M2-2 protein in virus replication, the non-overlapping region of the M2-2 ORF was deleted from an infectious cDNA clone of the aMPV-C strain, and a viable virus was rescued by using reverse genetics technology. The recombinant virus, raMPV-C ΔM2-2, was characterized in vitro and in vivo. In Vero cells, raMPV-C ΔM2-2 replicated slightly less efficiently than the parental virus, 10-fold reduction at 48-h post-infection. The raMPV-C ΔM2-2 virus induced typical cytopathic effects (CPE) that were indistinguishable from those seen with the parental virus infection. In specific-pathogen-free (SPF) turkeys, raMPV-C ΔM2-2 was attenuated and caused no clinical signs of disease. Less than 20% of the inoculated birds shed detectable virus in tracheal tissue during the first 5 days post-infection, and no virus shedding was detected afterward. Forty percent of infected birds produced a weak antibody response at 14 days post-infection. Upon challenge with a virulent aMPV-C strain, more than 80% of the raMPV-C ΔM2-2-inoculated birds showed typical disease signs and virus shedding in tracheal tissue. These results suggest that the M2-2 protein of aMPV-C virus is not essential for virus replication in vitro, but is required for sufficient virus replication to maintain pathogenicity and immunogenicity in the natural host. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.
Spatz S.J.,Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory |
Volkening J.D.,BASE2BIO |
Keeler C.L.,University of Delaware |
Kutish G.F.,University of Connecticut |
And 8 more authors.
Virus Genes | Year: 2012
Gallid herpesvirus-1 (GaHV-1), commonly named infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) virus, causes the respiratory disease in chickens known as ILT. The molecular determinants associated with differences in pathogenicity of GaHV-1 strains are not completely understood, and a comparison of genomic sequences of isolates that belong to different genotypes could help identify genes involved in virulence. Dideoxy sequencing, 454 pyrosequencing and Illumina sequencing-by-synthesis were used to determine the nucleotide sequences of four genotypes of virulent strains from GaHV-1 groups I-VI. Three hundred and twenty-five open reading frames (ORFs) were compared with those of the recently sequenced genome of the Serva vaccine strain. Only four ORFs, ORF C, U L37, ICP4 and U S2 differed in amino acid (aa) lengths among the newly sequenced genomes. Genome sequence alignments were used to identify two regions (5′ terminus and the unique short/repeat short junction) that contained deletions. Seventy-eight synonymous and 118 non-synonymous amino acid substitutions were identified with the examined ORFs. Exclusive to the genome of the Serva vaccine strain, seven non-synonymous mutations were identified in the predicted translation products of the genes encoding glycoproteins gB, gE, gL and gM and three non-structural proteins U L28 (DNA packaging protein), U L5 (helicase-primase) and the immediate early protein ICP4. Furthermore, our comparative sequence analysis of published and newly sequenced GaHV-1 isolates has provided evidence placing the cleavage/packaging site (a-like sequence) within the inverted repeats instead of its placement at the 3′ end of the U L region as annotated in the GenBank's entries NC006623 and HQ630064. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC (Outside the USA) 2011.
Zsak L.,Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory |
Day J.M.,Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory |
Oakley B.B.,Poultry Microbiological Safety Research Unit |
Seal B.S.,Poultry Microbiological Safety Research Unit
Virology Journal | Year: 2011
The genomic DNA sequence of a novel enteric uncultured microphage, φφCA82 from a turkey gastrointestinal system was determined utilizing metagenomics techniques. The entire circular, single-stranded nucleotide sequence of the genome was 5,514 nucleotides. The φCA82 genome is quite different from other microviruses as indicated by comparisons of nucleotide similarity, predicted protein similarity, and functional classifications. Only three genes showed significant similarity to microviral proteins as determined by local alignments using BLAST analysis. ORF1 encoded a predicted phage F capsid protein that was phylogenetically most similar to the Microviridae MH2K member's major coat protein. The φCA82 genome also encoded a predicted minor capsid protein (ORF2) and putative replication initiation protein (ORF3) most similar to the microviral bacteriophage SpV4. The distant evolutionary relationship of φCA82 suggests that the divergence of this novel turkey microvirus from other microviruses may reflect unique evolutionary pressures encountered within the turkey gastrointestinal system. © 2011 Zsak et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Gilbert M.,Wildlife Conservation Society |
Jambal L.,Wildlife Conservation Society |
Karesh W.B.,Wildlife Conservation Society |
Fine A.,Wildlife Conservation Society |
And 13 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012
Mongolia combines a near absence of domestic poultry, with an abundance of migratory waterbirds, to create an ideal location to study the epidemiology of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) in a purely wild bird system. Here we present the findings of active and passive surveillance for HPAIV subtype H5N1 in Mongolia from 2005-2011, together with the results of five outbreak investigations. In total eight HPAIV outbreaks were confirmed in Mongolia during this period. Of these, one was detected during active surveillance employed by this project, three by active surveillance performed by Mongolian government agencies, and four through passive surveillance. A further three outbreaks were recorded in the neighbouring Tyva Republic of Russia on a lake that bisects the international border. No HPAIV was isolated (cultured) from 7,855 environmental fecal samples (primarily from ducks), or from 2,765 live, clinically healthy birds captured during active surveillance (primarily shelducks, geese and swans), while four HPAIVs were isolated from 141 clinically ill or dead birds located through active surveillance. Two low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) were cultured from ill or dead birds during active surveillance, while environmental feces and live healthy birds yielded 56 and 1 LPAIV respectively. All Mongolian outbreaks occurred in 2005 and 2006 (clade 2.2), or 2009 and 2010 (clade 184.108.40.206); all years in which spring HPAIV outbreaks were reported in Tibet and/or Qinghai provinces in China. The occurrence of outbreaks in areas deficient in domestic poultry is strong evidence that wild birds can carry HPAIV over at least moderate distances. However, failure to detect further outbreaks of clade 2.2 after June 2006, and clade 220.127.116.11 after June 2010 suggests that wild birds migrating to and from Mongolia may not be competent as indefinite reservoirs of HPAIV, or that HPAIV did not reach susceptible populations during our study.
Menendez K.R.,University of Maryland University College |
Garcia M.,University of Georgia |
Spatz S.,Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory |
Tablante N.L.,University of Maryland University College
Avian Pathology | Year: 2014
Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an economically important respiratory disease of poultry that affects the poultry industry worldwide. The disease is caused by gallid herpesvirus I (GaHV-1), a member of the genus Iltovirus, family Herpesviridae, subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae. The current incidence of the disease is heavily influenced by live attenuated vaccines, which have been used extensively since their introduction in the mid-twentieth century. The capability of current live attenuated vaccine viruses to revert to virulence and spread from bird to bird has shaped the molecular epidemiology of ILT. Because of the antigenic homogeneity among GaHV-1 strains, differentiation of strains has been achieved by targeting genomic differences between outbreak-related isolates and vaccine strains. Numerous genes and genomic regions have been utilized in the development of DNA-based diagnostic assays to differentiate outbreak-related isolates from vaccine strains in countries where ILT outbreaks have occurred. More recently, full genome sequences have allowed determination of the origin of some of the outbreak-related isolates circulating in some poultry production countries. Overall, molecular typing data collected worldwide have identified live attenuated vaccine-related isolates as the primary source for outbreaks of the disease. © 2014 © 2014 Houghton Trust Ltd.
Toro H.,Auburn University |
Suarez D.L.,Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory |
Tang D.-C.C.,Vaxin Inc |
Van Ginkel F.W.,Auburn University |
Breedlove C.,Auburn University
Avian Diseases | Year: 2011
We evaluated protection conferred by mucosal vaccination with replication-competent adenovirus-free recombinant adenovirus expressing a codon-optimized avian influenza (AI) H5 gene from A/turkey/WI/68 (AdTW68.H5 ck). Commercial, layer-type chicken groups were either singly vaccinated ocularly at 5 days of age, singly vaccinated via spray at 5 days of age, or ocularly primed at 5 days and ocularly boosted at 15 days of age. Only chickens primed and boosted via the ocular route developed AI systemic antibodies with maximum hemagglutination inhibition mean titers of 3.9 log 2 at 32 days of age. In contrast, single vaccination via the ocular or spray routes maintained an antibody status similar to unvaccinated controls. All chickens (16/16) subjected to ocular priming and boosting with AdTW68.H5 ck survived challenge with highly pathogenic AI virus A/chicken/Queretaro/14588-19/95 (H5N2). Single ocular vaccination resulted in 63% (10/16) of birds surviving the challenge followed by a 44% (7/16) survival of single-sprayed vaccinated birds. Birds vaccinated twice via the ocular route also showed significantly lower (P < 0.05) AI virus RNA concentrations in oropharyngeal swabs compared to unvaccinated-challenged controls. © 2011 American Association of Avian Pathologists.
Silva M.S.E.,Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory |
Rissi D.R.,University of Georgia |
Swayne D.E.,Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory
Avian Diseases | Year: 2016
Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is an important pathogen of chickens causing negative economic impacts in poultry industries worldwide. IBDV has a variable range of virulence, with very virulent (vvIBDV) strains being responsible for the greatest losses from mortality and decreased performance. Previous vvIBDV studies using conventional broilers reported resistance to lethal effects and decreased performance as compared to specific-pathogen-free (SPF) layers, but the potential contribution of the conventional vs. SPF status to resistance has not been examined. In this study we compared differences in the acute pathologic effects of infection by the California rA strain of vvIBDV for SPF white leghorn egg-laying chickens and SPF white Plymouth Rock broiler chickens over a 7-day experimental period. Based on the clinical signs and mortality observed, as well as on the more-severe pathologic changes in lymphoid tissues and kidneys, white leghorns were shown to be more susceptible to the deleterious effects of vvIBDV infection than were white Plymouth Rocks. This study provides important information on the impact of chicken breed on susceptibility to vvIBDV and the absence of impact from conventional vs. SPF status on the outcome. © 2016 American Association of Avian Pathologists.
Slomka M.J.,Veterinary Laboratories Agency VLA Weybridge |
Densham A.L.E.,Veterinary Laboratories Agency VLA Weybridge |
Coward V.J.,Veterinary Laboratories Agency VLA Weybridge |
Essen S.,Veterinary Laboratories Agency VLA Weybridge |
And 8 more authors.
Influenza and other Respiratory Viruses | Year: 2010
Background: There is a requirement to detect and differentiate pandemic (H1N1) 2009 (H1N1v) and established swine influenza A viruses (SIVs) by real time reverse transcription (RRT) PCR methods. Objectives: First, modify an existing matrix (M) gene RRT PCR for sensitive generic detection of H1N1v and other European SIVs. Second, design an H1 RRT PCR to specifically detect H1N1v infections. Methods: RRT PCR assays were used to test laboratory isolates of SIV (n = 51; 37 European and 14 North American), H1N1v (n = 5) and avian influenza virus (AIV; n = 43). Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were calculated for swabs (n = 133) and tissues (n = 116) collected from field cases and pigs infected experimentally with SIVs and H1N1v. Results: The " perfect match" M gene RRT PCR was the most sensitive variant of this test for detection of established European SIVs and H1N1v. H1 RRT PCR specifically detected H1N1v but not European SIVs. Validation with clinical specimens included comparison with virus isolation (VI) as a " gold standard" , while field infection with H1N1v in swine was independently confirmed by sequencing H1N1v amplified by conventional RT PCR. " Perfect match" M gene RRT PCR had 100% sensitivity and 95·2% specificity for swabs, 93·6% and 98·6% for tissues. H1 RRT PCR demonstrated sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 99·1%, respectively, for the swabs, and 100% and 100% for the tissues. Conclusions: Two RRT PCRs for the purposes of (i) generic detection of SIV and H1N1v infection in European pigs, and for (ii) specific detection of H1N1v (pandemic influenza) infection were validated. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
PubMed | Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, South Dakota State University and University of Georgia
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: Biologicals : journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization | Year: 2015
While there is typically 100% survivability in birds challenged with vNDV under experimental conditions, either with vaccines formulated with a strain homologous or heterologous (different genotype) to the challenge virus, vaccine deficiencies are often noted in the field. We have developed an improved and more stringent protocol to experimentally evaluate live NDV vaccines, and showed for the first time under experimental conditions that a statistically significant reduction in mortality can be detected with genotype matched vaccines. Using both vaccine evaluation protocols (traditional and improved), birds were challenged with a vNDV of genotype XIII and the efficacy of live heterologous (genotype II) and homologous (genotype XIII) NDV vaccines was compared. Under traditional vaccination conditions there were no differences in survival upon challenge, but the homologous vaccine induced significantly higher levels of antibodies specific to the challenge virus. With the more stringent challenge system (multiple vaccine doses and early challenge with high titers of vNDV), the birds administered the homologous vaccine had superior humoral responses, reduced clinical signs, and reduced mortality levels than those vaccinated with the heterologous vaccine. These results provide basis for the implementation of more sensitive methods to evaluate vaccine efficacy.
Suarez D.L.,Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory
Avian Diseases | Year: 2012
Vaccination for both low pathogenicity avian influenza and highly pathogenic avian influenza is commonly used by countries that have become endemic for avian influenza virus, but stamping-out policies are still common for countries with recently introduced disease. Stamping-out policies of euthanatizing infected and at-risk flocks has been an effective control tool, but it comes at a high social and economic cost. Efforts to identify alternative ways to respond to outbreaks without widespread stamping out has become a goal for organizations like the World Organisation for Animal Health. A major issue with vaccination for avian influenza is trade considerations because countries that vaccinate are often considered to be endemic for the disease and they typically lose their export markets. Primarily as a tool to promote trade, the concept of DIVA (differentiate infected from vaccinated animals) has been considered for avian influenza, but the goal for trade is to differentiate vaccinated and not-infected from vaccinated and infected animals because trading partners are unwilling to accept infected birds. Several different strategies have been investigated for a DIVA strategy, but each has advantages and disadvantages. A review of current knowledge on the research and implementation of the DIVA strategy will be discussed with possible ways to implement this strategy in the field. The increased desire for a workable DIVA strategy may lead to one of these ideas moving from the experimental to the practical.