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Parkes L.,Bangor University | Quinitio E.T.,Southeast Asia Fisheries Development Center | Le Vay L.,Bangor University
Aquaculture International | Year: 2011

Hatchery-reared animals for stock enhancement should be competent to survive and grow at rates equivalent to those of wild conspecifics. However, morphological differences are often observed, and pre-conditioning steps may be required to improve the fitness of hatchery-reared juveniles prior to release. In the present study, hatchery-reared Scylla serrata juveniles were reared either individually (HR-solitary) or groups in tanks (HR-communal), the latter group being exposed to intraspecific competition and foraging for food. After 21 days, both groups were compared to similar size wild-caught juveniles in terms of morphometric measurements of carapace spination, abnormalities and carapace colouration. There were some limited significant differences between HR-communal crabs and HR-solitary crabs in terms of length of 8th and 9th lateral spines and in body-weight-carapace width ratio, but both treatments differed from wild crabs, which were heavier and had longer carapace spines for their size. In contrast, both HR treatments exhibited common abnormalities including deformities in the shape of the abdomen, in particular occurrence of an asymmetrical telson or a deeply folded telson. In all cases, abnormalities persisted through moulting. Initially, carapace colour differed in all measures of colour between HR and wild crabs. However, these differences reduced after a period of 4-8 days of conditioning on coloured tank backgrounds or dark sand or mud backgrounds, without moulting. Similarly, hatchery-reared crabs exhibited very limited burying behaviour on first exposure to sediment, but this increased to levels observed in wild crabs within 2-4 days. Thus, short-term conditioning of hatchery-reared crabs on dark sediments may be effective in increasing predator avoidance and survivorship in released animals, and present results suggest that this can be achieved after relatively short periods of 1 week or less. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

Yunque D.A.T.,Southeast Asia Fisheries Development Center | Tibubos K.R.,Southeast Asia Fisheries Development Center | Hurtado A.Q.,Southeast Asia Fisheries Development Center | Critchley A.T.,Acadian Seaplants Ltd
Journal of Applied Phycology | Year: 2011

To improve the production of Kappaphycus plantlets in tissue culture, optimum media concentrations of an Ascophyllum nodosum extract (Acadian Marine Plant Extract Powder, AMPEP), plant growth regulators (PGR), pH-temperature combinations, and explant density were determined. Kappaphycus alvarezii var. tambalang purple (PUR), kapilaran brown (KAP), vanguard brown (VAN), adik-adik (AA), tungawan green (TGR), and K. striatum var. sacol green (GS) were used as explants. Based on the shortest period for shoot emergence and the economical use of AMPEP, the optimum enriched media was 3. 0 mg L -1 AMPEP and 0. 1 mg L -1 AMPEP + PGR 1 mg L -1 each phenylacetic acid (PAA) and zeatin for PUR, 1. 0 mg L -1 AMPEP + PGR for KAP and GS, 0. 1 mg L -1 AMPEP + PGR for VAN, and 3. 0 mg L -1 AMPEP and 0. 001 mg L -1 AMPEP + PGR for AA and TGR. Results showed that the addition of PGR to low concentrations of AMPEP hastened shoot formation. pH-temperature combinations for the most rapid shoot formation were determined for the brown (KAP) and purple (PUR) color morphotypes of K. alvarezii var. tambalang and the green morphotype of K. striatum var. sacol (GS) cultured in 1. 0 mg L -1 AMPEP + PGR. The brown morphotype produced the most number of shoots at pH 7. 7 at 20°C after as little as 20 days. Purple K. alvarezii showed an increased shoot formation at pH 6. 7 at 25°C and the green K. striatum morphotype at pH 8. 7 at 25°C. The optimum number of explants added to the culture media was also determined for tungawan green (TGR), brown (KAP), and tambalang purple (PUR) varieties of K. alvarezii in 1. 0 mg L -1 AMPEP + PGR. The number of explants and the volume of the culture media combination were also tested. The highest average number of shoots formed occurred in two explants:1 mL culture media (2:1) for KAP and PUR (35. 00% and 16. 67%, respectively) and 1 explant: 2 mL culture media for the TGR (100. 00%) with a range of 0. 5-3. 0 mm shoot length after 40 days in culture. The earliest shoot formation was observed after 21 days for the brown and 9 days for both the green and purple color morphotypes of Kappaphycus, in all densities investigated. This indicated that within the range tested, the density of explants did not have a significant effect on the rate of shoot formation but did influence the average number generated from the culture. The rate of production of new and improved Kappaphycus explants for a commercial nursery stock was improved through the use of AMPEP with optimized culture media pH, temperature, and density conditions. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

Tendencia E.A.,Southeast Asia Fisheries Development Center | De La Pena M.R.,Southeast Asia Fisheries Development Center
Philippine Agricultural Scientist | Year: 2010

Luminous bacterial disease caused by Vibrio harveyi has devasted the shrimp industry. The use of different strains of tilapia and other fish species polycultured with shrimp cultured at a salinity of 24 ppt to control luminous bacteria has been reported. These species, however, could not tolerate salinities higher than 24 ppt. Alternative species/strains that could be used to control luminous bacteria at high salinities need to be investigated. Likewise, the effect of fish size on the growth of luminous bacteria is worth studying. Shrimp (Penaeus monodon Fabricius) were stocked in concrete tanks filled with 34 ppt cartridge filtered seawater. Tanks were stocked with two sizes (16 pcs, average body weight (ABW) = 55 g and 6 pcs ABW=250 g) of the red tilapia hybrid Oreochromis mossambicus Peters x O. niloticus Linnaeus, except for the tanks that served as the control. Luminous bacteria (V. harveyi) were inoculated into the tank water to a density of 10 4 Cfu mL -1. Significantly lower luminous bacterial count was observed in tanks with either of the two sizes of red tilapia hybrid compared with the control, after 5-7 d. Bacteria isolated from the fish feces, mucus and rearing water; and the fish feces and mucus themselves demonstrated anti-V. harveyi activity. Results showed that the red tilapia hybrid could be used to control luminous bacteria at salinities as high as 34 ppt and that the size of the fish did not affect its efficiency. The ability of the red tilapia hybrid to control the growth of the luminous bacteria V. harveyi is attributed to different factors such as the mucus, the feces and the bacteria associated with tilapia culture. Bacteria associated with the fish mucus and feces also contributed to the anti-V. harveyi activity of these biological substances. Source

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