Exeter, United Kingdom
Exeter, United Kingdom

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Cole R.F.,University of Portsmouth | Mills G.A.,University of Portsmouth | Bakir A.,University of Portsmouth | Townsend I.,South West Water Ltd. | And 2 more authors.
MethodsX | Year: 2016

Tributyltin (TBT) is a legacy pollutant in the aquatic environment, predominantly from its use in anti-foulant paints and is listed as a priority hazardous substance in the European Union's Water Framework Directive (WFD). Measuring low concentrations of TBT and other organotins (e.g. monobutyltin (MBT), dibutyltin (DBT), diphenyltin (DPhT) and triphenyltin (TPhT)) at sub ng/L concentrations in coastal waters using standard laboratory instrumentation is very challenging. Conventional, low injection volume gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) combined with liquid-liquid extraction typically achieves limits of detection for TBT ∼10 ng L−1. We describe a simple, programmed temperature vaporisation-large injection volume (50 μL), GC/MS selected ion monitoring method for measuring DBT, TBT, DPhT and TPhT in coastal waters at lower concentrations. Quantification of MBT was not possible using these injection volumes but was achieved using a 10 μL injection volume together with a reduced injection speed. This new approach offers: • When using a 50 μL injection, limits of detection = 0.70 ng L−1 and limits of quantification = 2.1 ng L−1 for TBT were achieved in derivatised standards.• Recoveries of TBT and TPhT from coastal water >97%.• Time consuming, off-line sample pre-concentration methods are unnecessary. © 2016 The Author(s)


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: WATER-2b-2015 | Award Amount: 7.90M | Year: 2016

Land, food, energy, water and climate are interconnected, comprising a coherent system (the Nexus), dominated by complexity and feedback. The integrated management of the Nexus is critical to secure the efficient and sustainable use of resources. Barriers to a resource efficient Europe are policy inconsistencies and incoherence, knowledge gaps, especially regarding integration methodologies and tools for the Nexus, and knowledge and technology lock-ins. SIM4NEXUS will develop innovative methodologies to address these barriers, by building on well-known and scientifically established existing thematic models, simulating different components/themes of the Nexus and by developing: (a) novel complexity science methodologies and approaches for integrating the outputs of the thematic models; (b) a Geoplatform for seamless integration of public domain data and metadata for decision and policy making; (c) a Knowledge Elicitation Engine for integrating strategies at different spatial and temporal scales with top down and bottom up learning process, discovering new and emergent knowledge, in the form of unknown relations between the Nexus components and policies/strategies; (d) a web-based Serious Game for multiple users, as an enhanced interactive visualisation tool, providing an immersive experience to decision- and policy-makers. The Serious Game will assist the users (as players) in better understanding and visualising policies at various geo-/spatial scales and from a holistic point of view, towards a better scientific understanding of the Nexus. The Serious Game will be validated (applied, tested, verified and used) via ten Case Studies ranging from regional to national level. Two further Strategic Serious Games at European and Global levels will also be developed for demonstration, education and further exploitation purposes, accompanied by a robust business plan and IPR framework, for taking advantage of the post-project situation and business potential.


Grant
Agency: GTR | Branch: NERC | Program: | Phase: Training Grant | Award Amount: 82.06K | Year: 2011

The uplands of Exmoor National Park receive a considerable proportion of the annual rainfall that supplies water to >500,000 consumers in the River Exe catchment. This area also contains large tracts of degraded peatland that were damaged by drainage and peat cutting in the 19th and 20th centuries. South West Water plc manage the water resources of the Exe Catchment and are investing in mire restoration for the purpose of improving the quality and quantity of water supplies. Amongst the numerous benefits of mire rewetting is the potential to alter the balance of trace gas exchange with the atmosphere to cause a net reduction in Global Warming Potential (GWP). Landowners at present do not receive financial reward for converting degraded moorland back to a natural wet state. They receive no monetary benefit for improvements in water quality or quantity, nor are they paid for enhancing rates of soil carbon sequestration or a net reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. The motivation for this study is South West Water plcs need to quantify net changes in GWP and improvements in water quantity and quality due to rewetting of upland mires for the purpose of securing funds to reward landowners that make areas of degraded peatland available for restoration. A project operated by the Environment Agency and Exeter University (and funded by South West Water plc) is underway to address the water supply and quality questions. The Bristol Open CASE PhD student will study cycling of the infrared absorbing gases carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide in the same two headwater catchments that have been instrumented for the water study. The aim of this project is to quantify atmospheric and fluvial fluxes of these key greenhouse gases before and after ditch-blocking to determine the net impact of mire rewetting on GWP. An important aspect of the study will be to estimate errors and uncertainties in the flux data, more specifically, the timeline for establishing biogeochemical equilibrium in the soils after rewetting and the range of inter-annual variation in pre-restoration baseline fluxes. The former issue will be addressed using changes in the stable isotope composition of methane which varies with trophic and aeration status in peatlands and can be used to monitor the restoration of soil biogeochemical function. During the study, flux measurements will be made at stations in adjacent unrestored catchments to assess inter-annual variability in pre-restoration baseline fluxes because it will be possible to measure only one year of surface and fluvial fluxes before ditch-blocking begins in the test catchments. The PhD student will work with staff at South West Water plc to establish a monetary value (based upon trading of CO2 equivalents) for net changes in GWP. Pending the final outcomes of this study, the information may be used by the CASE Partner to negotiate monetary rewards for landowners in the 2015-2020 water price limits set by the Water Services Regulation Authority (Ofwat). The motivation is to establish a long-term system of incentives that will encourage more landowners to allow areas of degraded peatland to be restored for the wider benefit of society.


PubMed | South West Water Ltd., University of Portsmouth and Llanelli Laboratory
Type: | Journal: MethodsX | Year: 2016

Tributyltin (TBT) is a legacy pollutant in the aquatic environment, predominantly from its use in anti-foulant paints and is listed as a priority hazardous substance in the European Unions Water Framework Directive (WFD). Measuring low concentrations of TBT and other organotins (e.g. monobutyltin (MBT), dibutyltin (DBT), diphenyltin (DPhT) and triphenyltin (TPhT)) at sub ng/L concentrations in coastal waters using standard laboratory instrumentation is very challenging. Conventional, low injection volume gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) combined with liquid-liquid extraction typically achieves limits of detection for TBT 10ngL(-1). We describe a simple, programmed temperature vaporisation-large injection volume (50L), GC/MS selected ion monitoring method for measuring DBT, TBT, DPhT and TPhT in coastal waters at lower concentrations. Quantification of MBT was not possible using these injection volumes but was achieved using a 10L injection volume together with a reduced injection speed. This new approach offers: When using a 50L injection, limits of detection=0.70ngL(-1) and limits of quantification=2.1ngL(-1) for TBT were achieved in derivatised standards.Recoveries of TBT and TPhT from coastal water >97%.Time consuming, off-line sample pre-concentration methods are unnecessary.

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