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King D.A.,Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute | Fitzgerald T.W.,Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute | Miller R.,Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute | Canham N.,North West Thames Regional Genetics Service | And 6 more authors.
Genome Research

Exome sequencing of parent-offspring trios is a popular strategy for identifying causative genetic variants in children with rare diseases. This method owes its strength to the leveraging of inheritance information, which facilitates de novo variant calling, inference of compound heterozygosity, and the identification of inheritance anomalies. Uniparental disomy describes the inheritance of a homologous chromosome pair from only one parent. This aberration is important to detect in genetic disease studies because it can result in imprinting disorders and recessive diseases. We have developed a software tool to detect uniparental disomy from child-mother-father genotype data that uses a binomial test to identify chromosomes with a significant burden of uniparentally inherited genotypes. This tool is the first to read VCF-formatted genotypes, to perform integrated copy number filtering, and to use a statistical test inherently robust for use in platforms of varying genotyping density and noise characteristics. Simulations demonstrated superior accuracy compared with previously developed approaches. We implemented the method on 1057 trios from the Deciphering Developmental Disorders project, a trio-based rare disease study, and detected six validated events, a significant enrichment compared with the population prevalence of UPD (1 in 3500), suggesting that most of these events are pathogenic. One of these events represents a known imprinting disorder, and exome analyses have identified rare homozygous candidate variants, mainly in the isodisomic regions of UPD chromosomes, which, among other variants, provide targets for further genetic and functional evaluation. © 2014 Moran et al. Source

Cappello S.,Helmholtz Center Munich | Gray M.J.,University of Otago | Badouel C.,Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute | Badouel C.,University of Toronto | And 31 more authors.
Nature Genetics

The regulated proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells before the generation and migration of neurons in the cerebral cortex are central aspects of mammalian development. Periventricular neuronal heterotopia, a specific form of mislocalization of cortical neurons, can arise from neuronal progenitors that fail to negotiate aspects of these developmental processes. Here we show that mutations in genes encoding the receptor-ligand cadherin pair DCHS1 and FAT4 lead to a recessive syndrome in humans that includes periventricular neuronal heterotopia. Reducing the expression of Dchs1 or Fat4 within mouse embryonic neuroepithelium increased progenitor cell numbers and reduced their differentiation into neurons, resulting in the heterotopic accumulation of cells below the neuronal layers in the neocortex, reminiscent of the human phenotype. These effects were countered by concurrent knockdown of Yap, a transcriptional effector of the Hippo signaling pathway. These findings implicate Dchs1 and Fat4 upstream of Yap as key regulators of mammalian neurogenesis. © 2013 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Mansour S.,South West Thames Regional Genetics Service | Swinkels M.,University Utrecht | Terhal P.A.,University Utrecht | Wilson L.C.,North East Thames Regional Genetics Service | And 5 more authors.
European Journal of Human Genetics

We present six patients from five unrelated families with a condition originally described by Van Maldergem et al and provide follow-up studies of the original patient. The phenotype comprises a distinctive facial appearance that includes blepharophimosis, maxillary hypoplasia, telecanthus, microtia and atresia of the external auditory meatus, intellectual disability, digital contractures and skeletal anomalies together with subependymal and subcortical neuronal heterotopia. Affected patients typically have neonatal hypotonia, chronic feeding difficulties and respiratory problems. In our cohort, we have observed one instance of sibling recurrence and parental consanguinity in three of the families, indicating that autosomal recessive inheritance is likely. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source

Dyment D.A.,Childrens Hospital of Eastern Ontario | Smith A.C.,University of Ottawa | Alcantara D.,University of Sussex | Schwartzentruber J.A.,McGill University | And 16 more authors.
American Journal of Human Genetics

SHORT syndrome is a rare, multisystem disease characterized by short stature, anterior-chamber eye anomalies, characteristic facial features, lipodystrophy, hernias, hyperextensibility, and delayed dentition. As part of the FORGE (Finding of Rare Disease Genes) Canada Consortium, we studied individuals with clinical features of SHORT syndrome to identify the genetic etiology of this rare disease. Whole-exome sequencing in a family trio of an affected child and unaffected parents identified a de novo frameshift insertion, c.1906-1907insC (p.Asn636Thrfs18), in exon 14 of PIK3R1. Heterozygous mutations in exon 14 of PIK3R1 were subsequently identified by Sanger sequencing in three additional affected individuals and two affected family members. One of these mutations, c.1945C>T (p.Arg649Trp), was confirmed to be a de novo mutation in one affected individual and was also identified and shown to segregate with the phenotype in an unrelated family. The other mutation, a de novo truncating mutation (c.1971T>G [p.Tyr657]), was identified in another affected individual. PIK3R1 is involved in the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) signaling cascade and, as such, plays an important role in cell growth, proliferation, and survival. Functional studies on lymphoblastoid cells with the PIK3R1 c.1906-1907insC mutation showed decreased phosphorylation of the downstream S6 target of the PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway. Our findings show that PIK3R1 mutations are the major cause of SHORT syndrome and suggest that the molecular mechanism of disease might involve downregulation of the PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway. © 2013 The American Society of Human Genetics. Source

Jones G.E.,University of Leicester | Ostergaard P.,St Georges, University of London | Moore A.T.,Moorfields Eye Hospital | Connell F.C.,Guys and St. Thomas Hospital | And 17 more authors.
European Journal of Human Genetics

Microcephaly with or without chorioretinopathy, lymphoedema, or mental retardation (MCLMR) (MIM No.152950) is a rare autosomal dominant condition for which a causative gene has recently been identified. Mutations in the kinesin family member 11 (KIF11) gene have now been described in 16 families worldwide. This is a review of the condition based on the clinical features of 37 individuals from 22 families. This report includes nine previously unreported families and additional information for some of those reported previously. The condition arose de novo in 8/20 families (40%). The parental results were not available for two probands. The mutations were varied and include missense, nonsense, frameshift, and splice site and are distributed evenly throughout the KIF11 gene. In our cohort, 86% had microcephaly, 78% had an ocular abnormality consistent with the diagnosis, 46% had lymphoedema, 73% had mild-moderate learning difficulties, 8% had epilepsy, and 8% had a cardiac anomaly. We identified three individuals with KIF11 mutations but no clinical features of MCLMR demonstrating reduced penetrance. The variable expression of the phenotype and the presence of mildly affected individuals indicates that the prevalence may be higher than expected, and we would therefore recommend a low threshold for genetic testing. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved. Source

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