Smit H.A.,Stellenbosch University |
Watson J.,South Tourism |
Jansen van Vuuren B.,Stellenbosch University
Journal of Biogeography | Year: 2010
Aim: When interpreting genetic patterns across a landscape it is surprisingly difficult to disentangle the effects of landscape connectivity from those of species biology. Here, the spatial distributions of genetic variation of two sympatric elephant-shrew species, the western rock elephant-shrew (. Elephantulus rupestris) and the round-eared elephant-shrew (. Macroscelides proboscideus), are determined and compared. We selected these species because they have similar biologies but differ markedly in habitat use, the rationale being that differences in their genetic structure should be a result largely of landscape variables directly or indirectly affecting dispersal rather than of the biology of the species. Location: South Africa and Namibia. Methods: Mitochondrial sequence data (control region and cytochrome b) were used to describe the phylogeographic structure of these elephant-shrew species across their distribution. To determine whether genetic variation is significantly structured, spatial analyses of molecular variation were performed. Isolation-by-distance versus alternative patterns of genetic structure was investigated using a Mantel test. Results: Our analyses indicated an overall structured genetic profile for E. rupestris, a species closely associated with rocky outcrops. This was in contrast to a pattern mostly of isolation-by-distance across the distribution of M. proboscideus, a species found on gravel plains. Main conclusions: Specific landscape features will differentially affect gene flow (both historical and current), and therefore also the spatial genetic structure, of species with markedly different habitat requirements. The genetic profiles for the two species included here support predictions based on the connectivity of their respective occupied habitats. The results also support the more general prediction that species with a naturally clustered distribution (such as E. rupestris) should have a more structured genetic pattern than those having a more continuous distribution (. M. proboscideus). © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Song S.Y.,Hallym University |
Pang C.-H.,Hallym University |
Kim C.H.,Hallym University |
Kim J.,Seoul Sacred Heart General Hospital |
And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Sports Medicine | Year: 2015
Background: In vivo length change behavior of native medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) fibers throughout the range of knee motion has not been reported in vivo. Purpose: To measure the length changes of various fibers of the MPFL and to determine their length change patterns during in vivo passive knee flexion. Study Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Methods: The right knees of 11 living subjects were scanned with a high-resolution computed tomography scanner at 0°, 30°,60°, 90°, and 120° of knee flexion, and 3-dimensional (3D) models were constructed using customized software. Five patellar points were determined: 20% (point 20), 30% (point 30), 40% (point 40), 50% (point 50), and 60% (point 60) from the superior pole of the patella. The Scho° ttle femoral point (point F) was marked on a translucent 3D model of a true lateral view. Five virtual fibers connecting these points on the 3D knee model were created, and the lengths of various fibers were digitally measured. Results: The average length changes were 9.1 ± 2.5 mm in F20, 9.1 ± 2.5 mm in F30, 8.1 ± 2.6 mm in F40, 6.9 ± 2.4 mm in F50, and 6.9 ± 1.7 mm in F60. There were significant differences in length changes of these 5 fibers (P<.001). The lengths of 2 superior fibers (F20 and F30) increased as the knee flexed from 0° to 30° and decreased as the knee flexed over 30°. The lengths of a middle fiber (F40) and an inferior fiber (F50) increased from 0° to 30°reached a plateau from 30° to 60°, and then decreased from 60° to 120°. F60 showed an increase from 0° to 30°and then a plateau pattern from 30° to 90°, followed by a decrease during further flexion. Conclusion: Superior fibers exhibited their maximum lengths at low flexion angles, and inferior fibers exhibited their maximum lengths at midflexion angles. The MPFL is a complex of functionally various fibers with some taut and others slack over the whole range of knee motion. Clinical Relevance: The results for lengths and length change patterns of various MPFL fibers are expected to serve as a theoretical background for anatomic double-bundle MPFL reconstruction. © 2014 The Author(s).
Shevon Harvey I.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign |
Cook L.,South Tourism
Chronic Illness | Year: 2010
Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the role of spirituality in the self-management of chronic illness among older women with chronic conditions. Methods: A sample of 41 African-American and non-Hispanic White women, of age 66 and older, participated in the process of self-care study. Data were collected from semi-structured interviews and analysed for common themes using the Grounded Theory method. Results: Audiotaped and transcribed interviews identified four categories that emerged to suggest the influence of spirituality in behavioural change and disease management: (1) God's involvement in illness management; (2) prayer as a mediator; (3) spirituality as a coping mechanism; and (4) the combination of conventional and spiritual practices. Discussion: Older women with various chronic illnesses defined in a broad, holistic way, and the findings suggest that spirituality played a part in documenting the self-management process. Knowledge of spirituality and the role it plays in illness management may assist public health gerontologists in designing effective and culturally appropriate self-management programmes. © 2010 The Author(s).
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: ERANET.2007.1 | Award Amount: 2.11M | Year: 2008
The ERNEST European Research Network on Sustainable Tourism project will address the issue of sustainable development in tourism through coordination and collaboration among regional research programmes. ERNEST will be a horizontal ERA NET action, not directly linked to one specific cooperation theme but with much European added value. The overall objective is to develop and strengthen a framework for coordinating regional research programmes on sustainable tourism. Within this platform regions will share and build on research work already underway at regional level, making it more productive and efficient through exchange and planning and implementation of joint activities. The specific objectives are as follows: identify and exchange information and knowledge on research programmes that regions wish to coordinate; identify within the research programmes elements related to social dialogue (participative processes for programming including all relevant stakeholders) and measurement of tourism impact; define and prepare joint research activities on tourism research; implement joint activities in these fields according to common needs, particularly concentrating on training, exchange and evaluation at an interregional level; fund joint interregional research on sustainable tourism through joint calls; promote productive cooperation and collaboration in research both in terms of interregional cooperation and cooperation at regional level, including public private partnerships; allow partners to define together long-term and ambitious strategies in line with the European Union policy of sustainable development that each region could not easily reach on its own.
Park J.,South Tourism |
Song Y.,Korea Creative Content Agency |
Teng C.-I.,Chang Gung University
Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking | Year: 2011
The present study explores the links between personality traits and motivations to play online games. We identified the underlying dimensions of motivations to play online games, examined how personality traits predict motivation, and investigated how personality traits predict online gaming behavior (i.e., playing time and preference for game genres). Factor analyses identified five motivational factors: relationships, adventure, escapism, relaxation, and achievement. The regression analyses indicated that two personality traits, extraversion and agreeableness, predicted various motivations; however, personality traits did not affect the playing time and game genre preference. © Copyright 2011, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
Zhang Z.,Harbin Institute of Technology |
Law R.,Hong Kong Polytechnic University |
Law R.,South Tourism
Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research | Year: 2014
This study examines the relationship between attribute performance of a restaurant and customers' positive and negative word of mouth (WOM). We present an analysis of 168,262 customer reviews, which consist of an overall rating of a dining experience, ratings of food, physical environment and employee service, and real expenditure for a meal, totally covering 1,542 Chinese restaurants on a restaurant guide website. The results indicate that the performance of attributes has an asymmetric impact on positive and negative WOM for the restaurant industry as well as for low-end and mid-to-high-end restaurants. Our results also show that, in most cases, there is a combined effect of two attributes on both positive and negative WOM. © 2012 Asia Pacific Tourism Association.
Yang C.-G.,South Tourism
International Journal of Applied Engineering Research | Year: 2015
This study is to determine the impact of the ICT industry ofthe economic aspects - though it occupies a significant percentage of the global economy, the ICT industry has been largely unnoticed in other industrial researches in the meantime. In other words, from the perspective of a single country's ICT industry, this study identifies the global ICT industry's latest trends and proposes a strategy through the relevance between the global ICT industry environment and economic indicators in a macroscopic point of view. This study determines the causal relationship between GDP and recent ICT trade due to theglobalization of the ICT industry and derives a strategy for GDP increase. The results of this study suggest two important points: (1)the ICT industry is experiencing specialization through the selection and focus within the global economic environment to ensure the country-specific ICT industry and for increase in GDP;(2) the fusion service capacity needs to be expanded through ICT business-to-M&A guided, and national focus on fundamental technology in the ICT industry are major strategies. © Research India Publications.
Park J.,South Tourism |
Kim K.,Yonsei University
Journal of Rural Studies | Year: 2016
The present study explores a residential movement of elderly households, which is postulated based on the probabilistic choice theory. This study intends to develop a residential location choice model integrating micro- and macro-approaches by adding regional factors to the probabilistic choice model in terms of the individual level. With the movement to rural areas being given more focus, the estimated results will have implications on local governments' policies with regard to the shrinking population. The findings suggest that the propensities associated with the decision to move to rural areas vary in different regions. The unemployed elderly or the elderly who live with their children are most likely to move to urban areas, while elderly couples show more inclination to migrate to rural areas than the spouseless elderly. This study presents that the probability that the urban elderly will move to rural areas is lower than that of the rural elderly. © 2016 The Authors.
Kim J.H.,South Tourism |
Kim M.Y.,Jeju National University
Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology | Year: 2012
Although several methods have been developed to make gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) accumulate in tea, the active ingredients and health benefits vary widely depending on the manufacturing process of tea products. In this study, the levels of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity in tea leaves given the continuous anaerobic condition were investigated. GABA and other free amino acids such as alanine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, proline, and asparagine were increased in tea leaves after anaerobic treatment, whereas the contents of organic and fatty acids remained almost constant. Compared with untreated tea, anaerobically incubated tea possesses higher (-)-epigallocatechin and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate contents, and lower IC50 values in the 1,1- diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging, superoxide radical scavenging, nitric oxide scavenging and xanthine oxidase inhibition assays, which may indicate that continuous anaerobic incubation enhances antioxidant activity. These results suggest that the continuous anaerobic treatment during manufacturing process may provide high quality GABA tea.