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Yang W.-H.,South Subtropical Crops Research Institute | Yang W.-H.,South China Agricultural University | Zhu X.-C.,Guangdong University of Technology | Deng S.-C.,South China Agricultural University | And 4 more authors.
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2010

Fruit development was investigated in the field in over-winter off-season (bloomed in late November) and on-season (bloomed in mid April) longans (Dimocarpus longan Lour. cv. Chuliang) in 2004-2005 and 2007-2008 crops, and in potted trees grown in phytotrons set at cold (15/10 °C, day/night, simulating winter) or warm temperatures (28/23 °C, day/night) in 2008. Development of fruit in both on-season and off-season longans could be divided into two stages based on the pattern of fresh weight increase. Stage I was characterized by the slow fruit growth, and Stage II by rapid fruit growth with aril expansion. Off-season longan had a longer period of fruit development than on-season longan, chiefly due to a longer Stage I. The development of off-season fruit, especially in Stage I, was exposed to low and abruptly fluctuating temperatures. In contrast, the temperatures during on-season fruit growth were warmer and less fluctuating. Off-season fruit were smaller with a significantly higher fruit drop. Intensive fruit drop did not occur during cold period until temperature had risen. Fruit cracking in off-season longan was severe (27.6%) in 2004-2005 with a dry and cold winter, but negligible in 2007-2008 with a wet and cold winter. In phytotron experiment, trees exposed to the cold temperature regime during early fruit development produced significantly smaller fruit compared to those exposed to the warm temperature regime (6.2. g vs 7.3. g), while there was no significant difference in fruit drop rate and cracking incidence. The results suggested temperatures lower than 15 °C were stressful for the growth of young fruit and reduced the growth potential and thus fruit size. Severe fruit drop in over-winter off-season longan might be associated with stressful cold plus abrupt temperature fluctuations, while severe fruit cracking in over-winter off-season longan might be related to cold and dry weather in the winter. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Yang W.-H.,South China Agricultural University | Yang W.-H.,South Subtropical Crops Research Institute | Deng S.-C.,South China Agricultural University | Zhu X.-C.,Guangdong University of Technology | And 3 more authors.
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2010

Fruit development was investigated in field and changes in pericarp structure were comparatively studied in over-winter off-season and on-season longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour. cv. Chuliang). The results showed developmental problems including small fruit size, severe fruit cracking and heavy fruit drop in the off-season fruit, although their seed size was not significantly affected compared to the on-season fruit. Anatomical studies showed that off-season longan fruit had a poorly developed pericarp, which was reflected by smaller fresh weight as well as thinner pericarp thickness, thinner spongy tissue, fewer cell layers in the periderm, smaller cell size and fewer cell numbers in the parenchyma tissue at the upper mesocarp, and fewer cell layers in the endocarp. In contrast, the recovery of the sclereids in the mesocarp was higher in the pericarp of the off-season fruit. The poor development of the pericarp in off-season fruit probably caused the small fruit size and severe fruit cracking. It was suggested that the adverse climatic conditions encountered by fruit development in the over-winter off-season longan suppressed cell division and expansion in the pericarp but did not affect sclereid formation. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Li W.M.,South China Agricultural University | Li W.M.,CAS South China Botanical Garden | Li W.M.,South Subtropical Crops Research Institute | Dita M.,Brazilian Research Agricultural Corporation Embrapa Cassava and Fruits | And 4 more authors.
Plant Pathology | Year: 2015

Target trait evaluation in crop wild relatives is an important prerequisite for efficiently using the potential useful genes located in this valuable germplasm. Over recent decades, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4 (Foc-TR4) has seriously threatened worldwide banana plantations. Breeding new resistant cultivars from wild banana species is expected to provide invaluable additional resources. However, knowledge on resistance to Foc-TR4 in wild Musa species is very limited. In this study, eight genotypes of wild banana relatives (Musa acuminata subsp. burmannica, M. balbisiana, M. basjoo, M. itinerans, M. nagensium, M. ruiliensis, M. velutina and M. yunnanensis) were characterized for resistance to Foc-TR4 in both greenhouse and field conditions. Most wild bananas showed higher resistance levels to Foc-TR4 than the reference cultivars 'Brazilian' (AAA, susceptible) and 'Goldfinger' (AAAB, moderate resistance). Among the wild species, M. balbisiana showed the highest levels of disease intensity followed by M. acuminata subsp. burmannica. Some individuals of M. yunnanensis, M. nagensium, M. ruiliensis and M. velutina showed low levels of rhizome discolouration in greenhouse conditions, but were resistant in the field. No symptoms were observed on M. basjoo and M. itinerans, suggesting higher levels of resistance to Foc-TR4. The results revealed different sources of resistance to Foc-TR4 in banana wild relatives, which constitute a valuable genetic resource for banana breeding programmes aiming to produce cultivars resistant to fusarium wilt. © 2015 British Society for Plant Pathology.

Wang S.-B.,South Subtropical Crops Research Institute | Wu H.-X.,South Subtropical Crops Research Institute | Ma W.-H.,South Subtropical Crops Research Institute | Ma X.-W.,South Subtropical Crops Research Institute | And 4 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2013

Mango is one of the important fruits in China. However, limited number of improved varieties are grown. Sixteen mango varieties were introduced to Zhanjiang, Guangdong province, China from Australia in 1997. Fruit quality characteristics (fruit shape, shape index, fruit color, fruit weight, edible rate, soluble solids, soluble sugar, titratable acid) and growth habits (blooming period, flowering rate of branches, sex ratio of flowers, fruit growth period, yield, etc.) were evaluated. The variety 'Zillate' was observed as late-maturing with good fruit size, high and stable yield, and considered as a potentially suitable variety for cultivation in Sichuan and Yunnan provinces. 'Mallika' which has higher yield, good quality and commercial potential, would be evaluated as the substitute for 'Deshehari' in west coast of Leizhou peninsula, Guangdong province. Whether medium-early maturing varieties, such as 'Edward', 'Saigon', 'R2E2', 'Spooner' and 'Bambaroo' are suitable in some regions of China needs to be further evaluated. © ISHS 2013.

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