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Geoje, South Korea

Cong L.,Yanbian University | Fang Y.,Yanbian University | He M.,Yanbian University | Wang X.,Yanbian University | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2010

Background, aim and scope: The climatic characteristic is a major parameter affecting on the distribution variation of organic pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The Tumen River is located in Northeastern of China. The winter era lasts for more than 5 months in a year, and the river water was frozen and covered by ice phase. Coal combustion is an essential heating source in the Tumen River Basin. The objective of this research is to study ice phase effect on the seasonal variation of PAHs in the Tumen River environment. Materials and methods: Samples were collected from 13 sites along the River in March, July, October, and December of 2008. In addition, the ice sample, under ice water and air particulate were also collected in winter. The samples were analyzed for 16 PAHs (naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, beazo[a]anthene, chrysene, beazo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene, dibenz(a,h)anthracene, and benzo(ghi)perylene). The compounds were extracted from the water samples and solid samples using LLE and Soxhlet extraction technique, respectively, and it is determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results and discussion: Among 16 PAHs, fluorene, phenanthrene, and pyrene were found to be present in high concentrations and at high detection frequencies. The total concentration of PAHs in the water, particulate, sediment and ice phase ranged from 35.1-1.05 × 103 ng L-1, 25.4-817 ng L-1, 117-562 ng g-1and 62.8-136 ng g-1, respectively. The levels of PAHs were generally higher in spring than other seasons. The ice phase in winter acts like a major reservoir of the pollutants and it is major contributor on the seasonal variation of PAHs in Tumen River. The PAHs found in water, particulate, and sediment in the Tumen River were possibly derived from similar pollution sources a proposition based on the compositions and isomer ratios of PAHs. Conclusions: The distribution of PAHs was showed clear seasonal variation in the Tumen River environment, the ice phase and air pollution look like an important factor affecting on the seasonal variation. Recommendations and perspectives: The ice phase as an important factor affecting on the seasonal variation of PAHs in Tumen River environment. Further studies regarding the effects of air pollution on the river and the mechanisms of migration and transformation of them in the environment are currently being conducted in our laboratory. © 2010 Springer-Verlag. Source

Kim D.,KIOST | Choi S.-H.,Ocean Data and Information Unit | Yang E.-J.,KOPRI | Kim K.-H.,KIOST | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Coastal Research | Year: 2013

Aragonite saturation states (Ωarag) were estimated for the surface and bottom waters of Jinhae Bay over four seasons to assess the major controlling factors. The surface and bottom waters of Jinhae Bay were highly supersaturated with respect to aragonite in spring, autumn, and winter. In summer, however, most of the bottom waters were undersaturated, even though the surface waters were supersaturated. This can be explained by the phytoplankton-carbonate saturation state interaction; high primary production increases Ωarag in surface waters, whereas vertical export and the subsequent remineralization of organic matter decreases Ωarag in subsurface waters. A strong linear correlation between the Ωarag values and dissolved oxygen concentrations supported the idea that biological activity is a major factor controlling Ωarag in Jinhae Bay. The ocean acidification induced by the invasion of anthropogenic CO2 also considerably affected the aragonite saturation state in all seasons, particularly in winter, when the Ωarag values have been reduced by 32-35% in the surface waters and 33-37% in the bottom waters since the preindustrial era. In Jinhae Bay, the undersaturation with respect to aragonite in summer can have large impacts on the calcifying benthic organisms; mussel calcification may no longer occur, and the oyster calcification rate is probably reduced by 50%. In addition, the pH and Ωarag decreases associated with the anthropogenic CO2 increase may reduce the calcification rates of oyster and mussel in all seasons, particularly in winter. © Coastal Education & Research Foundation 2013. Source

Choi D.-L.,South Sea Research Institute | Kim H.-J.,Maritime Security Research Center | Jou H.-T.,Maritime Security Research Center | Jeong S.-K.,Maritime Security Research Center | And 2 more authors.
Ocean Science Journal | Year: 2013

Multi-channel seismic profiles and swath bathymetric data were used to investigate the tectonic evolution of the South Korea Plateau (SKP) associated with the opening of the East Sea (Japan Sea). The SKP is a deformed fragment of continental crust with numerous horsts and sediment-filled grabens. Three sedimentary units in the plateau were identified, which consist of the lower sequence (Unit I) interpreted as syn-rifting deposition during the early to middle Miocene, and the middle and upper sequences (Units II and III) considered as post-rifting deposition since the late Miocene. The fault system in the SKP includes the South Korea Plateau Fault (SKPF) trending NNW-SSE and smaller en echelon normal faults oriented NE-SW. We interpreted the information to postulate that the formation of the SKPF is the result of divergent right-lateral strike-slip movement in the SKP. This study suggests that the dextral movement of the SKP was induced by WSW-ward propagation of the spreading center located in the Japan Basin from the early to middle Miocene times. © 2013 Korea Ocean Research & Development Institute (KORDI) and the Korean Society of Oceanography (KSO) and Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source

Seo J.-Y.,South Sea Research Institute | Lim H.-S.,Mokpo National University | Choi J.-W.,South Sea Research Institute
Ocean Science Journal | Year: 2014

For the determination of benthic community health criteria of a biotic index, Benthic Pollution Index (BPI), the faunal data on macrobenthic community of Deukryang Bay collected in 2012 were used. Each macrobenthic fauna was classified into 4 functional groups according to their feeding and life history strategies and BPI was calculated using the abundance of fauna for these functional groups. Amphipods were the dominant faunal group belonging to Functional Group (FG) II in Deukryang Bay during all seasons. The BPI value fluctuated seasonally from 55 to 61, and the overall mean value of BPI in the reference area was 60, which was estimated as the threshold value for healthy communities. We tried to use BPI as an assessment tool for macrofaunal community health status by categorizing the BPI values into 5 grades. If the BPI value of the community is more than 60, the health status of a macrobenthic community will be assessed as 'Excellent' (Grade 1) and as 'Good' (Grade 2), if between 40 and 60, as 'Fair' (Grade 3), if between 30 and 40, as 'Poor' (Grade 4), if between 20 and 30, and finally the health status of a community will be assessed as 'Very Poor' (Grade 5), if the BPI value is less than 20. This assessment tool using BPI was applied to macrobenthic communities in Jinhae Bay including the Special Management Area of South Korea. In Jinhae Bay, the FG IV containing a spionid species, Paraprionospio patiens was the most dominant group. The values of BPI in Jinhae Bay were very low and ranged from 11 to 23. The ecological health status of macrobenthic communities in Jinhae Bay was 'Very Poor' at more than 50% of sites, especially in summer. © KSO, KIOST and Springer 2014. Source

Seo J.-Y.,South Sea Research Institute | Lim H.-S.,Mokpo National University | Choi J.-W.,South Sea Research Institute
Ocean Science Journal | Year: 2014

Macrobenthic fauna were collected seasonally at 44 sites in Deukryang Bay from February to November, 2012. The species number of macrobenthic fauna was in the range of 140 to 181, and polychaetes comprised 41.4% of them. The average density of the whole study area changed seasonally from 755 to 1,507 ind. m-2, and the most abundant fauna group was crustaceans which accounted for 55.1% of total abundance. An amphipod species Nippopisella nagatai was the most dominant species and a decapod species Xenophthalmus pinnotheroides, an amphipod species Photis longicaudata, and a polychaete species Paralacydonia paradoxa were also dominant in all seasons. The mean seasonal values of Shannon's diversity index (H′) were in the range of 2.2-2.4, and those values for the evenness index and richness index were 0.7-0.7 and 4.6-5.7, respectively. From the cluster analysis, Deukryang Bay could be divided into 3 or 4 station groups with its specific fauna composition. The cluster analysis and an nMDS ordination revealed that local environmental factors such as water depth were related to the spatial delineation of macrobenthic fauna communities in Deukryang Bay. © 2014 Korea Ocean Research & Development Institute (KORDI) and the Korean Society of Oceanography (KSO) and Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source

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