South Sea Research Institute

Geoje, South Korea

South Sea Research Institute

Geoje, South Korea
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Jung Y.-H.,National Marine Biodiversity Institute of Korea | Park H.-S.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | Yoon K.-T.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | Kim H.-J.,National Marine Biodiversity Institute of Korea | Shim W.-J.,South Sea Research Institute
Ocean Science Journal | Year: 2017

The Hebei Spirit oil spill reached the west coast of Taean County, Korea, on December 7, 2007. At that time, this was the largest oil spill that had occurred in the country. The incident devastated local marine ecosystems. In this study, we examined changes in these ecosystems and the recovery pattern on impacted rocky shores. Macrobenthos monitoring of polluted and control sites was performed seasonally from January 2008 through October 2013. At polluted sites, ecological indices increased gradually from 2009, thereby providing evidence of recovery. However, the mean density of macrobenthos was still less than 50% of the level at the control site, indicating that the ecological status of the polluted sites has still not recovered to that which prevailed before the oil spill. Although densities of the most dominant species were higher in the control site than in polluted sites, the densities of Lottia spp. and Odostomia aomori were higher in polluted sites. These two taxa were found in lower numbers at the control site, where they were out-competed by Chthamalus challengeri. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling ordination divided the macrobenthic community structure into three clusters according to differences in the abundance of dominant species over the 6 years after the oil spill. An ANOSIM test detected significant differences between the polluted and control sites. Consistent long-term differences indicate that complete recovery had not occurred during the duration of our study. © 2017 Korea Ocean Research & Development Institute (KORDI) and the Korean Society of Oceanography (KSO) and Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht


Kim E.S.,South Sea Research Institute | Li Z.,South Sea Research Institute | Oh S.J.,Korea University | Yoon Y.H.,Chonnam National University | Shin H.H.,South Sea Research Institute
Ocean Science Journal | Year: 2017

Outbreaks of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) and dense blooms caused by Alexandrium species in Jinhae-Masan Bay, Korea have been nearly annual events for many years. However, excluding some Alexandrium species responsible for PSP, there are no critical reports on the morphology of Alexandrium species in this bay. To identify the Alexandrium species based on detailed morphological features, vegetative cells collected water samples and established by the incubation of resting cysts isolated from sediment trap samples were analyzed. Four species of Alexandrium were identified: Alexandrium affine, A. fundyense, A. catenella, and A. insuetum. Morphological features of these species were basically consistent with those outlined in previous studies. However, the ventral pore and the connecting pore on the sulcal plate, which have been accepted as diagnostic characteristics for the identification of A. fundyense and A. catenella, need to be reevaluated, indicating that useful morphological features for identifying these two species should be recommended to avoid confusion in the classification of species in genus Alexandrium. © 2017 Korea Ocean Research & Development Institute (KORDI) and the Korean Society of Oceanography (KSO) and Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht


Park J.-K.,Chungnam National University | Choi M.-S.,Chungnam National University | Song Y.,Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources | Lim D.-I.,South Sea Research Institute
Ocean Science Journal | Year: 2017

To investigate the factors controlling lead (Pb) concentration and identify the sources of Pb in Yellow Sea sediments along the Korean coast, the concentration of Pb and Pb isotopes in 87 surface and 6 core sediment samples were analyzed. The 1 M HCl leached Pb concentrations had a similar geographic distribution to those of fine-grained sediments, while the distribution of residual Pb concentrations resembled that of coarse-grained sediments. Leached Pb was presumed to be associated with manganese (Mn) oxide and iron (Fe) oxy/hydroxide, while residual Pb was associated with potassium (K)-feldspar, based on good linear relationships between the leached Pb and the Fe/Mn concentrations, and the residual Pb and K concentrations. Based on a ratio–ratio plot with three isotopes (207Pb/206Pb and 208Pb/206Pb) and the geographic location of each sediment, sediments were categorized into two groups of samples as group1 and group2. Group 1 sediments, which were distributed in Gyeonggi Bay and offshore (north of 36.5°N), were determined to be a mixture of anthropogenic and natural Pb originating from the Han River, based on a 208Pb/206Pb against a Cs/Pbleached mixing plot of core and surface sediments. Group 2 sediments, which were distributed in the south of 36.5°N, also showed a two endmembers mixing relationship between materials from the Geum River and offshore materials, which had very different Pb concentrations and isotope ratios. Based on the isotopes and their concentrations in core and surface sediments, this mixing relationship was interpreted as materials from two geographically different origins being mixed, rather than anthropogenic or natural mixing of materials with the same origin. Therefore, the relative percentage of materials supplied from the Geum River was calculated using a two endmembers mixing model and estimated to be as much as about 50% at 35°N. The spatial distribution of materials derived from the Geum River represented that of fine-grained sediments originating from the Geum River. It was concluded that Pb isotopes in sediments could be used as a tracer in studies of the origin of fine-grained sediments along the Korean Yellow Sea coast. © 2017 Korea Ocean Research & Development Institute (KORDI) and the Korean Society of Oceanography (KSO) and Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht


Loh A.,South Sea Research Institute | Loh A.,Korean University of Science and Technology | Yim U.H.,South Sea Research Institute | Yim U.H.,Korean University of Science and Technology | And 4 more authors.
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology | Year: 2017

After the collision of the Singapore-registered oil tanker M/V Wu Yi San into the oil terminal of Yeosu, Korea on January 31, 2014, approximately 900 m3 of oil and oil mixture were released from the ruptured pipelines. The oil affected more than 10 km of coastline along Gwangyang Bay. Emergency oil spill responses recovered bulk oil at sea and cleaned up the stranded oil on shore. As part of an emergency environmental impact assessment, region-wide monitoring of oil contamination in oyster had been conducted for 2 months. Highly elevated concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were detected at most of the spill affected sites. Four days after the spill, the levels of PAHs in oysters increased dramatically to 627–81,000 ng/g, the average of which was 20 times higher than those found before the spill (321–4040 ng/g). The level of PAHs in these oysters increased until 10 days after the spill and then decreased. Due to the strong tidal current and easterly winter winds, the eastern part of the Bay—the Namhae region—was heavily contaminated compared with other regions. The accumulation and depuration of spilled oil in oyster corresponded with the duration and intensity of the cleanup activities, which is the first field observation in oil spill cases. Human health risk assessments showed that benzo[a]pyrene equivalent concentrations exceeded levels of concern in the highly contaminated sites, even 60 days after the spill. © 2017, Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Seo J.-Y.,South Sea Research Institute | An S.-M.,Pusan National University | Lim D.-I.,South Sea Research Institute | Choi J.-W.,South Sea Research Institute
Ocean Science Journal | Year: 2017

Macrobenthic fauna in an estuarine Gwangyang Bay, southern Korean coast, were investigated to uncover recent variations in their community structures. In the study area, macrobenthic faunal communities were mainly composed of polychaete worms which were the most abundant faunal group with the highest values in species number and density, while mollusks accounted for the highest proportion in total biomass. There was no clear seasonal difference in species richness during the two year period of the investigation, but the mean density and biomass increased every spring and summer due to the mass recruitment of Theora fragilis. The Shannon’s diversity index (H') was more than 2.0 during most sampling seasons and did not show any significant seasonal difference except for the data in August, 2011 when azoic conditions occurred. The community structures of macrobenthos in Gwangyang Bay did not show any remarkable change in the dominance of the two top dominant species, Scoletoma longifolia and Heteromastus filiformis, which abundantly occurred in all seasons, except for the abundance peaks associated with high occurrence of T. fragilis and Paraprionospio cordifolia, especially in spring and summer and in autumn, respectively. These fauna changes reflected the changes in the macrobenthic community health status in Gwangyang Bay, where stable conditions and a healthy status prevailed in winter, but a slightly disturbed status prevailed from spring to autumn. © 2017 Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology (KIOST) and the Korean Society of Oceanography (KSO) and Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Seo J.-Y.,South Sea Research Institute | Kim J.-H.,South Sea Research Institute | Choi J.-W.,South Sea Research Institute
Ocean and Polar Research | Year: 2017

This study was carried out to investigate the spatial distributions of the macrobenthic communities in the Seomjin River estuary from May, 2015 to May, 2016. The number of species was 163, the mean density was 1,865 ind.m-2, biomass was 204 g·wet m-2 during this study period. The highest number of species and density appeared among polychaetes whereas the most biomass was contributed by mollusks due to the presence of Corbicula japonica in every season. The study area was divided into 3 regions with similar benthic fauna responding to the gradient of the salinity. Praxillella praetermissa was the dominant species in regions of over 30 psu during all seasons. C. japonica and Hediste diadroma were dominant in the upper regions of the Seomjin River where the salinity was less than 10 psu. Heteromastus filiformis showed the broadest distributional range and dominated in all seasons except for the most upper stream at st. 7. From the result of the Bio-Env analysis, salinity was the most important environmental factor affecting the formation of macrobenthic communities in the study area, and salinity and TOC were the highest contributors to the macrobenthic communities. From the correlation analysis between major dominant species and environmental factors, C. japonica, Prionospio japonica and H. diadroma showed a negative correlation with salinity, while P. praetermissa and Scolectoma longifolia showed a positive correlation. H. filiformis was little affected by salinity but showed a positive correlation with TOC or silt content of sediment. © 2017, Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute. All rights reserved.


Lee C.-H.,NeoEnBiz Co. | Lee J.-H.,NeoEnBiz Co. | Sung C.-G.,NeoEnBiz Co. | Sung C.-G.,University of Seoul | And 6 more authors.
Marine Pollution Bulletin | Year: 2013

Ecotoxicological monitoring of intertidal sediments was performed for 5. years after the Hebei Spirit oil spill in Taean, Korea. Sediment toxicity was observed on most of the beaches 4. months after the spill and later decreased rapidly to nontoxic levels 8. months after the spill. The concentrations of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (TPAHs) in the sediments ranged from 2 to 530,000. ng/g during the monitoring. More than half of the samples exhibited significant toxicity 5. years after the Hebei Spirit oil spill. Using a logistic regression model, the median lethal concentration of TPAHs to amphipod Monocorophium uenoi was estimated to be 36,000. ng/g. From the 63 chemistry and toxicity data, the effect range-low, effect range median, threshold effect level, and probable effect level were derived to be 3190, 54,100, 2480, and 29,000. ng/g, respectively. The relative compositions of the PAH groups indicated that the weathering process is still ongoing. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Seo J.-Y.,South Sea Research Institute | Lim H.-S.,Mokpo National University | Choi J.-W.,South Sea Research Institute
Ocean Science Journal | Year: 2014

For the determination of benthic community health criteria of a biotic index, Benthic Pollution Index (BPI), the faunal data on macrobenthic community of Deukryang Bay collected in 2012 were used. Each macrobenthic fauna was classified into 4 functional groups according to their feeding and life history strategies and BPI was calculated using the abundance of fauna for these functional groups. Amphipods were the dominant faunal group belonging to Functional Group (FG) II in Deukryang Bay during all seasons. The BPI value fluctuated seasonally from 55 to 61, and the overall mean value of BPI in the reference area was 60, which was estimated as the threshold value for healthy communities. We tried to use BPI as an assessment tool for macrofaunal community health status by categorizing the BPI values into 5 grades. If the BPI value of the community is more than 60, the health status of a macrobenthic community will be assessed as 'Excellent' (Grade 1) and as 'Good' (Grade 2), if between 40 and 60, as 'Fair' (Grade 3), if between 30 and 40, as 'Poor' (Grade 4), if between 20 and 30, and finally the health status of a community will be assessed as 'Very Poor' (Grade 5), if the BPI value is less than 20. This assessment tool using BPI was applied to macrobenthic communities in Jinhae Bay including the Special Management Area of South Korea. In Jinhae Bay, the FG IV containing a spionid species, Paraprionospio patiens was the most dominant group. The values of BPI in Jinhae Bay were very low and ranged from 11 to 23. The ecological health status of macrobenthic communities in Jinhae Bay was 'Very Poor' at more than 50% of sites, especially in summer. © KSO, KIOST and Springer 2014.


Seo J.-Y.,South Sea Research Institute | Lim H.-S.,Mokpo National University | Choi J.-W.,South Sea Research Institute
Ocean Science Journal | Year: 2014

Macrobenthic fauna were collected seasonally at 44 sites in Deukryang Bay from February to November, 2012. The species number of macrobenthic fauna was in the range of 140 to 181, and polychaetes comprised 41.4% of them. The average density of the whole study area changed seasonally from 755 to 1,507 ind. m-2, and the most abundant fauna group was crustaceans which accounted for 55.1% of total abundance. An amphipod species Nippopisella nagatai was the most dominant species and a decapod species Xenophthalmus pinnotheroides, an amphipod species Photis longicaudata, and a polychaete species Paralacydonia paradoxa were also dominant in all seasons. The mean seasonal values of Shannon's diversity index (H′) were in the range of 2.2-2.4, and those values for the evenness index and richness index were 0.7-0.7 and 4.6-5.7, respectively. From the cluster analysis, Deukryang Bay could be divided into 3 or 4 station groups with its specific fauna composition. The cluster analysis and an nMDS ordination revealed that local environmental factors such as water depth were related to the spatial delineation of macrobenthic fauna communities in Deukryang Bay. © 2014 Korea Ocean Research & Development Institute (KORDI) and the Korean Society of Oceanography (KSO) and Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Loh A.,South Sea Research Institute | Loh A.,Korean University of Science and Technology | Shim W.J.,South Sea Research Institute | Shim W.J.,Korean University of Science and Technology | And 3 more authors.
Ocean Science Journal | Year: 2014

Oil suspended particulate matter (SPM) aggregates (OSA) are naturally occurring phenomena where oil droplets and particles interact to form aggregates. This aggregation could aid cleanup processes of oil contaminated waters. When OSA is formed, it makes oil less sticky and would facilitate the dispersion of oil into the water column. Increased oil-water surface contact by OSA formation enhances biodegradation of oil. Its applicability as a natural oil clean-up mechanism has been effectively demonstrated over past decades. There are many factors affecting the formation of OSA and its stability in the natural environment that need to be understood. This review provides a current understanding of (1) types of OSA that could be formed in the natural environment; (2) controlling factors and environmental parameters for the formation of OSA; (3) environmental parameters; and (4) fate of OSA and its applicability for oil spill remediation processes. © 2014, Korea Ocean Research & Development Institute (KORDI) and the Korean Society of Oceanography (KSO) and Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

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