South Sea Research Institute

Geoje, South Korea

South Sea Research Institute

Geoje, South Korea

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Jung Y.-H.,National Marine Biodiversity Institute of Korea | Park H.-S.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | Yoon K.-T.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | Kim H.-J.,National Marine Biodiversity Institute of Korea | Shim W.-J.,South Sea Research Institute
Ocean Science Journal | Year: 2017

The Hebei Spirit oil spill reached the west coast of Taean County, Korea, on December 7, 2007. At that time, this was the largest oil spill that had occurred in the country. The incident devastated local marine ecosystems. In this study, we examined changes in these ecosystems and the recovery pattern on impacted rocky shores. Macrobenthos monitoring of polluted and control sites was performed seasonally from January 2008 through October 2013. At polluted sites, ecological indices increased gradually from 2009, thereby providing evidence of recovery. However, the mean density of macrobenthos was still less than 50% of the level at the control site, indicating that the ecological status of the polluted sites has still not recovered to that which prevailed before the oil spill. Although densities of the most dominant species were higher in the control site than in polluted sites, the densities of Lottia spp. and Odostomia aomori were higher in polluted sites. These two taxa were found in lower numbers at the control site, where they were out-competed by Chthamalus challengeri. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling ordination divided the macrobenthic community structure into three clusters according to differences in the abundance of dominant species over the 6 years after the oil spill. An ANOSIM test detected significant differences between the polluted and control sites. Consistent long-term differences indicate that complete recovery had not occurred during the duration of our study. © 2017 Korea Ocean Research & Development Institute (KORDI) and the Korean Society of Oceanography (KSO) and Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht


Kim D.,KIOST | Choi S.-H.,Ocean Data and Information Unit | Yang E.-J.,KOPRI | Kim K.-H.,KIOST | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Coastal Research | Year: 2013

Aragonite saturation states (Ωarag) were estimated for the surface and bottom waters of Jinhae Bay over four seasons to assess the major controlling factors. The surface and bottom waters of Jinhae Bay were highly supersaturated with respect to aragonite in spring, autumn, and winter. In summer, however, most of the bottom waters were undersaturated, even though the surface waters were supersaturated. This can be explained by the phytoplankton-carbonate saturation state interaction; high primary production increases Ωarag in surface waters, whereas vertical export and the subsequent remineralization of organic matter decreases Ωarag in subsurface waters. A strong linear correlation between the Ωarag values and dissolved oxygen concentrations supported the idea that biological activity is a major factor controlling Ωarag in Jinhae Bay. The ocean acidification induced by the invasion of anthropogenic CO2 also considerably affected the aragonite saturation state in all seasons, particularly in winter, when the Ωarag values have been reduced by 32-35% in the surface waters and 33-37% in the bottom waters since the preindustrial era. In Jinhae Bay, the undersaturation with respect to aragonite in summer can have large impacts on the calcifying benthic organisms; mussel calcification may no longer occur, and the oyster calcification rate is probably reduced by 50%. In addition, the pH and Ωarag decreases associated with the anthropogenic CO2 increase may reduce the calcification rates of oyster and mussel in all seasons, particularly in winter. © Coastal Education & Research Foundation 2013.


Lee C.-H.,NeoEnBiz Co. | Lee J.-H.,NeoEnBiz Co. | Sung C.-G.,NeoEnBiz Co. | Sung C.-G.,University of Seoul | And 6 more authors.
Marine Pollution Bulletin | Year: 2013

Ecotoxicological monitoring of intertidal sediments was performed for 5. years after the Hebei Spirit oil spill in Taean, Korea. Sediment toxicity was observed on most of the beaches 4. months after the spill and later decreased rapidly to nontoxic levels 8. months after the spill. The concentrations of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (TPAHs) in the sediments ranged from 2 to 530,000. ng/g during the monitoring. More than half of the samples exhibited significant toxicity 5. years after the Hebei Spirit oil spill. Using a logistic regression model, the median lethal concentration of TPAHs to amphipod Monocorophium uenoi was estimated to be 36,000. ng/g. From the 63 chemistry and toxicity data, the effect range-low, effect range median, threshold effect level, and probable effect level were derived to be 3190, 54,100, 2480, and 29,000. ng/g, respectively. The relative compositions of the PAH groups indicated that the weathering process is still ongoing. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Cong L.,Yanbian University | Fang Y.,Yanbian University | He M.,Yanbian University | Wang X.,Yanbian University | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2010

Background, aim and scope: The climatic characteristic is a major parameter affecting on the distribution variation of organic pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The Tumen River is located in Northeastern of China. The winter era lasts for more than 5 months in a year, and the river water was frozen and covered by ice phase. Coal combustion is an essential heating source in the Tumen River Basin. The objective of this research is to study ice phase effect on the seasonal variation of PAHs in the Tumen River environment. Materials and methods: Samples were collected from 13 sites along the River in March, July, October, and December of 2008. In addition, the ice sample, under ice water and air particulate were also collected in winter. The samples were analyzed for 16 PAHs (naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, beazo[a]anthene, chrysene, beazo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene, dibenz(a,h)anthracene, and benzo(ghi)perylene). The compounds were extracted from the water samples and solid samples using LLE and Soxhlet extraction technique, respectively, and it is determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results and discussion: Among 16 PAHs, fluorene, phenanthrene, and pyrene were found to be present in high concentrations and at high detection frequencies. The total concentration of PAHs in the water, particulate, sediment and ice phase ranged from 35.1-1.05 × 103 ng L-1, 25.4-817 ng L-1, 117-562 ng g-1and 62.8-136 ng g-1, respectively. The levels of PAHs were generally higher in spring than other seasons. The ice phase in winter acts like a major reservoir of the pollutants and it is major contributor on the seasonal variation of PAHs in Tumen River. The PAHs found in water, particulate, and sediment in the Tumen River were possibly derived from similar pollution sources a proposition based on the compositions and isomer ratios of PAHs. Conclusions: The distribution of PAHs was showed clear seasonal variation in the Tumen River environment, the ice phase and air pollution look like an important factor affecting on the seasonal variation. Recommendations and perspectives: The ice phase as an important factor affecting on the seasonal variation of PAHs in Tumen River environment. Further studies regarding the effects of air pollution on the river and the mechanisms of migration and transformation of them in the environment are currently being conducted in our laboratory. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.


Kim Y.-O.,South Sea Research Institute | Shin K.,South Sea Research Institute | Jang P.-G.,South Sea Research Institute | Choi H.-W.,Oceanogaphic Data and Information Center | And 4 more authors.
Ocean Science Journal | Year: 2012

This study examined seasonal and annual occurrences of warm oceanic tintinnid species in southern Korea coastal waters. The indicative species of tintinnids was monitored using three approaches: monitoring from cruises traveling from the warm pool in the western North Pacific to the Korea Strait; biweekly or monthly monitoring in the Korea Strait; and daily monitoring in the nearshore water. Annual pulses of warm oceanic indicator species were regularly observed in the Korea Strait. In September 2008 recorded a maximum species number of warm water indicators, a representative species for warm oceanic waters, Climacocylis scalaroides was simultaneously detected in the nearshore water as well as the Korea Strait. The result indicates that the greater warm water extension into Korean coastal areas was in September 2008. Sharp declines in species diversity were observed in the transitional area between neritic and Kuroshio zone in East China Sea (ECS). Epiplocyloides reticulata, reported previously as a Kuroshio indicator, was considered an ECS indicator species, as it was undetected in the western North Pacific central zone but was found abundantly in the ECS. Tintinnid species can be used as biological indicators to detect the inflow of warm oceanic waters into Korean coastal waters. © 2012 Korea Ocean Research & Development Institute (KORDI) and the Korean Society of Oceanography (KSO) and Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Seo J.-Y.,South Sea Research Institute | Lim H.-S.,Mokpo National University | Choi J.-W.,South Sea Research Institute
Ocean Science Journal | Year: 2014

For the determination of benthic community health criteria of a biotic index, Benthic Pollution Index (BPI), the faunal data on macrobenthic community of Deukryang Bay collected in 2012 were used. Each macrobenthic fauna was classified into 4 functional groups according to their feeding and life history strategies and BPI was calculated using the abundance of fauna for these functional groups. Amphipods were the dominant faunal group belonging to Functional Group (FG) II in Deukryang Bay during all seasons. The BPI value fluctuated seasonally from 55 to 61, and the overall mean value of BPI in the reference area was 60, which was estimated as the threshold value for healthy communities. We tried to use BPI as an assessment tool for macrofaunal community health status by categorizing the BPI values into 5 grades. If the BPI value of the community is more than 60, the health status of a macrobenthic community will be assessed as 'Excellent' (Grade 1) and as 'Good' (Grade 2), if between 40 and 60, as 'Fair' (Grade 3), if between 30 and 40, as 'Poor' (Grade 4), if between 20 and 30, and finally the health status of a community will be assessed as 'Very Poor' (Grade 5), if the BPI value is less than 20. This assessment tool using BPI was applied to macrobenthic communities in Jinhae Bay including the Special Management Area of South Korea. In Jinhae Bay, the FG IV containing a spionid species, Paraprionospio patiens was the most dominant group. The values of BPI in Jinhae Bay were very low and ranged from 11 to 23. The ecological health status of macrobenthic communities in Jinhae Bay was 'Very Poor' at more than 50% of sites, especially in summer. © KSO, KIOST and Springer 2014.


Seo J.-Y.,South Sea Research Institute | Lim H.-S.,Mokpo National University | Choi J.-W.,South Sea Research Institute
Ocean Science Journal | Year: 2014

Macrobenthic fauna were collected seasonally at 44 sites in Deukryang Bay from February to November, 2012. The species number of macrobenthic fauna was in the range of 140 to 181, and polychaetes comprised 41.4% of them. The average density of the whole study area changed seasonally from 755 to 1,507 ind. m-2, and the most abundant fauna group was crustaceans which accounted for 55.1% of total abundance. An amphipod species Nippopisella nagatai was the most dominant species and a decapod species Xenophthalmus pinnotheroides, an amphipod species Photis longicaudata, and a polychaete species Paralacydonia paradoxa were also dominant in all seasons. The mean seasonal values of Shannon's diversity index (H′) were in the range of 2.2-2.4, and those values for the evenness index and richness index were 0.7-0.7 and 4.6-5.7, respectively. From the cluster analysis, Deukryang Bay could be divided into 3 or 4 station groups with its specific fauna composition. The cluster analysis and an nMDS ordination revealed that local environmental factors such as water depth were related to the spatial delineation of macrobenthic fauna communities in Deukryang Bay. © 2014 Korea Ocean Research & Development Institute (KORDI) and the Korean Society of Oceanography (KSO) and Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Loh A.,South Sea Research Institute | Loh A.,Korean University of Science and Technology | Shim W.J.,South Sea Research Institute | Shim W.J.,Korean University of Science and Technology | And 3 more authors.
Ocean Science Journal | Year: 2014

Oil suspended particulate matter (SPM) aggregates (OSA) are naturally occurring phenomena where oil droplets and particles interact to form aggregates. This aggregation could aid cleanup processes of oil contaminated waters. When OSA is formed, it makes oil less sticky and would facilitate the dispersion of oil into the water column. Increased oil-water surface contact by OSA formation enhances biodegradation of oil. Its applicability as a natural oil clean-up mechanism has been effectively demonstrated over past decades. There are many factors affecting the formation of OSA and its stability in the natural environment that need to be understood. This review provides a current understanding of (1) types of OSA that could be formed in the natural environment; (2) controlling factors and environmental parameters for the formation of OSA; (3) environmental parameters; and (4) fate of OSA and its applicability for oil spill remediation processes. © 2014, Korea Ocean Research & Development Institute (KORDI) and the Korean Society of Oceanography (KSO) and Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Heo N.W.,South Sea Research Institute | Hong S.H.,South Sea Research Institute | Hong S.H.,Korean University of Science and Technology | Han G.M.,South Sea Research Institute | And 6 more authors.
Ocean Science Journal | Year: 2013

The spatial distribution of small plastic debris on Heungnam beach in February 2011 was investigated. The abundances of small plastic debris over 2 mm in size along the high strandline and cross-sectional line of the beach were determined. The mean abundances of small plastics were 976 ± 405 particles/m2 at the high strandline in the upper tidal zone along the shoreline and 473 ± 866 particles/m2 at the cross-section perpendicular to the shoreline. Specifically, styrofoam (expanded polystyrene) spherules accounted for 90.7% of the total plastic abundance in the high strandline and 96.3% in the cross-section. The spatial distribution patterns of small plastic debris differed between the high strandline and cross-sectional line. The cross-sectional distribution of small plastic abundance differed among plastic types, indicating that representative sampling of small plastic debris on a beach is necessary. © 2013 Korea Ocean Research & Development Institute (KORDI) and the Korean Society of Oceanography (KSO) and Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Jung J.-H.,South Sea Research Institute | Chae Y.S.,South Sea Research Institute | Kim H.N.,South Sea Research Institute | Kim M.,South Sea Research Institute | And 6 more authors.
Ocean Science Journal | Year: 2012

This study describes the spatial variation and the duration of the impacts from the Hebei Spirit oil spill using specific biochemical indices in resident benthic fish. Enzymatic activities and biliary PAHs metabolites were higher at the site closer to the spill area in four months after spill incident. Regarding our results of detoxification response, markers of Phase I followed a similar trend in accordance with levels of biliary metabolites, while markers of phase II and GST appeared relatively unchanged. © 2012 Korea Ocean Research & Development Institute (KORDI) and the Korean Society of Oceanography (KSO) and Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

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