South Product Co.

Okinawa, Japan

South Product Co.

Okinawa, Japan

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Kosumi D.,Osaka City University | Kusumoto T.,Osaka City University | Fujii R.,Osaka City University | Sugisaki M.,Osaka City University | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Luminescence | Year: 2011

Ultrafast relaxation kinetics of fucoxanthin in polar and non-polar solvents have been studied by femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy. Transient absorption associated with S1 or intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) excited state has been observed following either one-photon excitation to the optically allowed S2 state or two-photon excitation to the symmetry-forbidden S1 state. The results suggest that the ICT state formed after excitation of fucoxanthin in a polar solvent is a distinct excited state from S1. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Kosumi D.,Osaka City University | Kosumi D.,Japan Science and Technology Agency | Kusumoto T.,Osaka City University | Kusumoto T.,Japan Science and Technology Agency | And 12 more authors.
Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics | Year: 2011

Carotenoids containing a carbonyl group in conjugation with their polyene backbone are naturally-occurring pigments in marine organisms and are essential to the photosynthetic light-harvesting function in aquatic algae. These carotenoids exhibit spectral characteristics attributed to an intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) state that arise in polar solvents due to the presence of the carbonyl group. Here, we report the spectroscopic properties of the carbonyl carotenoid fucoxanthin in polar (methanol) and nonpolar (cyclohexane) solvents studied by steady-state absorption and femtosecond pump-probe measurements. Transient absorption associated with the optically forbidden S1 (21A-g) state and/or the ICT state were observed following one-photon excitation to the optically allowed S2 (11B+u) state in methanol. The transient absorption measurements carried out in methanol showed that the ratio of the ICT-to-S1 state formation increased with decreasing excitation energy. We also showed that the ICT character was clearly visible in the steady-state absorption in methanol based on a Franck-Condon analysis. The results suggest that two spectroscopic forms of fucoxanthin, blue and red, exist in the polar environment. © the Owner Societies 2011.


Fujii R.,Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Fujii R.,Japan Science and Technology Agency | Kita M.,Japan Science and Technology Agency | Kita M.,Osaka City University | And 11 more authors.
Photosynthesis Research | Year: 2012

The trimeric fucoxanthin-chlorophyll a/c protein (FCP) was purified from a Japanese brown alga, Cladosiphon okamuranus TOKIDA. Its pigment stoichiometry was determined to be chlorophyll (Chl) a:Chl c 1:Chl c 2:fucoxanthin = 4.6:1.1:1.0:5.5 by a combination of binary HPLC and 1H NMR spectroscopy. No violaxanthin found bound to the FCP. The ratio of Chl c/Chl a in this FCP is amongst the highest so far reported. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Fujii R.,Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Fujii R.,Japan Science and Technology Agency | Kita M.,Japan Science and Technology Agency | Kita M.,Osaka City University | And 9 more authors.
Photosynthesis Research | Year: 2012

A chlorophyll c binding membrane intrinsic light-harvesting complex, the fucoxanthin-chlorophyll a/c protein (FCP), was isolated from cultured discoid germilings of an edible Japanese brown alga, Cladosiphon (C.) okamuranus TOKIDA (Okinawa Mozuku in Japanese). The discoid germiling is an ideal source of brown algal photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes in terms of its size and easiness of cultivation on a large scale. Ion-exchange chromatography was crucial for the purification of FCP from solubilized thylakoid proteins. The molecular weight of the purified FCP assembly was estimated to be ~56 kDa using blue native-PAGE. Further subunit analyses using 2D-PAGE revealed that the FCP assembled as a trimer consisting of two distinguishable subunits having molecular weights of 18.2 (H) and 17.5 (L) kDa. Fluorescence and fluorescence-excitation spectra confirmed that the purified FCP assembly was functionally intact. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Kosumi D.,Osaka City University | Kosumi D.,Japan Science and Technology Agency | Kita M.,Japan Science and Technology Agency | Kita M.,Osaka City University | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters | Year: 2012

Fucoxanthin-chlorophyll-a/c protein (FCP) complexes from brown algae Cladosiphon okamuranus TOKIDA (Okinawa Mozuku in Japanese) contain the only species of carbonyl carotenoid, fucoxanthin, which exhibits spectral characteristics attributed to an intramolecular charge-transfer (ICT) property that arises in polar environments due to the presence of the carbonyl group in its polyene backbone. Here, we investigated the role of the ICT property of fucoxanthin in ultrafast energy transfer to chlorophyll-a/c in brown algal photosynthesis using femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopic measurements. The observed excited-state dynamics show that the ICT character of fucoxanthin in FCP extends its absorption band to longer wavelengths and enhances its electronic interaction with chlorophyll-a molecules, leading to efficient energy transfer from fucoxanthin to chlorophyll-a. © 2012 American Chemical Society.


Kosumi D.,Osaka City University | Fujii R.,Osaka City University | Sugisaki M.,Osaka City University | Oka N.,South Product Co. | And 2 more authors.
Photosynthesis Research | Year: 2014

Fucoxanthin, containing a carbonyl group in conjugation with its polyene backbone, is a naturally occurring pigment in marine organisms and is essential to the photosynthetic light-harvesting function in brown alga and diatom. Fucoxanthin exhibits optical characteristics attributed to an intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) state that arises in polar environments due to the presence of the carbonyl group. In this study, we report the spectroscopic properties of fucoxanthin in methanol (polar and protic solvent) observed by femtosecond pump-probe measurements in the near-infrared region, where transient absorption associated with the optically allowed S2 (11B u +) state and stimulated emission from the strongly coupled S1/ICT state were observed following one-photon excitation to the S2 state. The results showed that the amplitude of the stimulated emission of the S1/ICT state increased with decreasing excitation energy, demonstrating that the fucoxanthin form associated with the lower energy of the steady-state absorption exhibits stronger ICT character. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Tokita Y.,Gunma University | Nakajima K.,Gunma University | Mochida H.,ProteinPurify Ltd | Iha M.,South Product Co. | Nagamine T.,Gunma University
Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry | Year: 2010

Fucoidan exhibits various biological properties. We raised a novel antibody against fucoidan extracted from Cladosiphon okamuranus and developed a sandwich ELISA method to measure fucoidan. The fucoidan antibody was specific and did not cross-react with other polysulfated polysaccharides. Fucoidan recovery from serum and urine by ELISA was 86-113%. Intra- and inter-assay CVs were 1.5-13.4%. Assay linearity was maintained after 3-fold dilution of each sample with phosphate-buffer saline (PBS). In the serum and urine of healthy volunteers (n = 10), fucoidan was not detected before administration, and the levels markedly increased 6 and 9h after oral administration. The molecular weight of the serum fucoidan determined by HPLC gel filtration remained unchanged, whereas that of urine fucoidan was significantly reduced. This is the first ELISA method of measuring serum and urine fucoidan levels after oral administration. The method is simple, reliable, and practical for the analysis of samples, especially urine samples.


Nagamine T.,Gunma University | Nakazato K.,Gunma University | Tomioka S.,Gunma University | Iha M.,South Product Co. | Nakajima K.,Gunma University
Marine Drugs | Year: 2015

The aim of this study was to examine the absorption of fucoidan through the intestinal tract. Fucoidan (0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mg/mL) was added to Transwell inserts containing Caco-2 cells. The transport of fucoidan across Caco-2 cells increased in a dose-dependent manner up to 1.0 mg/mL. It reached a maximum after 1 h and then rapidly decreased. In another experiment, rats were fed standard chow containing 2% fucoidan for one or two weeks. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that fucoidan accumulated in jejunal epithelial cells, mononuclear cells in the jejunal lamina propria and sinusoidal non-parenchymal cells in the liver. Since we previously speculated that nitrosamine may enhance the intestinal absorption of fucoidan, its absorption was estimated in rats administered N-butyl -N-(4 -hydroxybuty1) nitrosamine (BBN) in their drinking water. Rats were fed 0.2% fucoidan chow (BBN + 0.2% fucoidan rats), 2% fucoidan chow (BBN + 2% fucoidan rats) and standard chow for eight weeks. The uptake of fucoidan through the intestinal tract seemed to be low, but was measurable by our ELISA method. Fucoidan-positive cells were abundant in the small intestinal mucosa of BBN + 2% fucoidan rats. Most fucoidan-positive cells also stained positive for ED1, suggesting that fucoidan was incorporated into intestinal macrophages. The uptake of fucoidan by Kupffer cells was observed in the livers of BBN + 2% fucoidan rats. In conclusion, the absorption of fucoidan through the small intestine was demonstrated both in vivo and in vitro. © 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Nagamine T.,Gunma University | Hayakawa K.,Gunma University | Nakazato K.,Gunma University | Iha M.,South Product Co.
Journal of Chromatography B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences | Year: 2015

Introduction: In order to clarify the mechanism of fucoidan transport, we developed the chromatographic determination method. Method: A size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) method for the determination of Okinawa-fucoidan using Develosil 300 Diol-5 (60. ×. 8.0. mm I.D., 30. nm pore-diameter) with the eluent containing 1% non-ionic detergent is developed. Determination range (UV at 210. nm) is from 0 to 100. ng of fucoidan with the linear calibration line inserting to zero. Results: A transport activity of fucoidan is demonstrated by using Caco-2 cells (model of gut transport system); i.e., the initial transport velocity 12. nmol/h/mg of protein (25-fold slower rate as compared to a bacterial l-alanine active-transport activity 300. nmol/h/mg of protein) is found to occur. Since this fucoidan transport is inhibited by 10. mM sodium azide (respiration inhibitor) and 0.05. mM FCCP (uncoupler), this transport by Caco-2 cells is found to be an active one requiring energy-source. On the other hand, colchicine (inhibitor of phagocytosis/pinocytosis) and mannitol (putative competitive-inhibitor of tight-junction transport) cannot inhibit the fucoidan transport at all. Conclusion: We firstly report that the active transport occurs for such a high molecular-weight sulphated-polyfucose of fucoidan in vitro using Caco-2 cells. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Nakazato K.,Gunma University | Takada H.,Gunma University | Iha M.,South Product Co. | Nagamine T.,Gunma University
Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology (Australia) | Year: 2010

Background and Aim: Liver fibrosis is closely associated with the progression of various chronic liver diseases. Fucoidan exhibits different biological properties such as anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-fibrotic activities. The aim of this study was to determine whether oral fucoidan administration inhibits N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN)-induced liver fibrosis. Methods: Liver fibrosis was induced in rats by injecting DEN (50 mg/kg). Rats were given 2% of crude fucoidan solution or 2% of high-molecular-weight (HMW) fucoidan solution. They were divided into a crude fucoidan group, an HMW fucoidan group, a DEN alone group, a DEN + crude fucoidan group, a DEN + HMW fucoidan group and a control group. Results: Liver fibrosis and hepatic hydroxyproline levels were significantly more decreased in the DEN + HMW fucoidan group than in the DEN-alone group. Anti-fibrogenesis was unremarkable in the DEN + crude fucoidan group. Hepatic messenger RNA levels and immunohistochemistry of transforming growth factor beta 1 were markedly increased by DEN. This increase was attenuated by HMW fucoidan. Hepatic chemokine ligand 12 expression was increased by DEN. This increase was suppressed by HMW fucoidan. HMW fucoidan significantly decreased the DEN-induced malondialdehyde levels. Also, fucoidan markedly increased metallothionein expression in the liver. Fucoidan was clearly observed in the liver by immunohistochemical staining in HMW fucoidan-treated rats, while it was faintly stained in the livers of crude fucoidan-treated rats. Conclusion: These findings suggest that the HMW fucoidan treatment causes anti-fibrogenesis in DEN-induced liver cirrhosis through the downregulation of transforming growth factor beta 1 and chemokine ligand 12 expressions, and that scavenging lipid peroxidation is well-incorporated in the liver. © 2010 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

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