South London Healthcare NHS Trust
South London Healthcare NHS Trust
El-Radhi A.S.,South London Healthcare NHS Trust
British Journal of Nursing | Year: 2014
Body temperature measurement is most commonly taken to confirm the presence or absence of fever. Many decisions concerning the investigation and treatment of children are based on the results of temperature measurement alone. Determining the presence of fever in young children is particularly important. A missed fever is serious, but a false-positive fever reading can result in unnecessary septic workups. The axillary, rectal, oral and tympanic membrane sites are most commonly used to record body temperature, and electronic and infrared thermometers are the devices most commonly used. Each site and device has numerous advantages and disadvantages, which are described in this article. The search for the means of measuring body temperature that best combines accuracy, speed, convenience, safety and cost-effectiveness goes on. The infrared thermometer and the tympanic site appear to offer such a combination. Electronic thermometers are also suitable when used orally or at the axilla in newborn babies. © 2014 MA Healthcare Ltd.
PubMed | Avon Haematology Unit, The Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Royal Marsden Hospital, Myeloma UK and 7 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International journal of laboratory hematology | Year: 2015
Bendamustine is a unique bifunctional alkylating agent with promising activity in myeloma. Despite the increasing number of studies demonstrating its efficacy in both the upfront and relapse settings, including patients with renal insufficiency, the optimal use of bendamustine, in terms of dosage, schedule and combination with other agents, has yet to be defined. It is currently licensed for use as frontline treatment with prednisolone for patients with myeloma who are unsuitable for transplantation and who are contraindicated for thalidomide and bortezomib. Studies in relapsed/refractory patients are currently ongoing with other combinations. Given the increasing data to date, the UK Myeloma Forum believes that bendamustine with steroids alone or in combination with a novel agent could be considered for patients with multiply relapsed myeloma. This document provides guidance for the use of bendamustine for patients with myeloma until the results of definitive studies are available.
Cooper K.,University of Southampton |
Frampton G.,University of Southampton |
Harris P.,University of Southampton |
Jones J.,University of Southampton |
And 6 more authors.
Journal of Hospital Infection | Year: 2014
Background: There is increasing interest in evidence-based educational interventions in central venous catheter care. It is unclear how effective these are at reducing the risk of bloodstream infections from the use of intravascular catheters (catheter-BSIs) and the associated costs and health benefits. Aim: To estimate the additional costs and health benefits from introducing such interventions and the costs associated with catheter-BSIs. Methods: A comprehensive epidemiological and economic review was performed to develop the parameters for an economic model to assess the cost-effectiveness of introducing an educational intervention compared with clinical practice without the intervention. The model follows the clinical pathway of cohorts of patients from their admission to an intensive care unit (ICU), where some may acquire catheter-BSI, and estimates the associated costs, mortality and life expectancy. Findings: The additional cost per catheter-BSI episode was £3940. The results of this model demonstrate that introducing an additional educational intervention to prevent catheter-BSI improved patient life expectancy and reduced overall costs. Conclusion: Introducing evidence-based education is likely to reduce the incidence of catheter-BSI and the model results suggest that the cost of introducing the interventions will be outweighed by savings related to reduced ICU bed occupancy costs. © 2013 .
Frampton G.K.,University of Southampton |
Harris P.,University of Southampton |
Cooper K.,University of Southampton |
Cooper T.,South London Healthcare NHS Trust |
And 7 more authors.
Health Technology Assessment | Year: 2014
Background: Bloodstream infections resulting from intravascular catheters (catheter-BSI) in critical care increase patients' length of stay, morbidity and mortality, and the management of these infections and their complications has been estimated to cost the NHS annually £19.1-36.2M. Catheter-BSI are thought to be largely preventable using educational interventions, but guidance as to which types of intervention might be most clinically effective is lacking. Objective: To assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of educational interventions for preventing catheter-BSI in critical care units in England. Data sources: Sixteen electronic bibliographic databases - including MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), NHS Economic Evaluation Database (NHS EED), EMBASE and The Cochrane Library databases - were searched from database inception to February 2011, with searches updated in March 2012. Bibliographies of systematic reviews and related papers were screened and experts contacted to identify any additional references. Review methods: References were screened independently by two reviewers using a priori selection criteria. A descriptive map was created to summarise the characteristics of relevant studies. Further selection criteria developed in consultation with the project Advisory Group were used to prioritise a subset of studies relevant to NHS practice and policy for systematic review. A decision-analytic economic model was developed to investigate the cost-effectiveness of educational interventions for preventing catheter-BSI. Results: Seventy-four studies were included in the descriptive map, of which 24 were prioritised for systematic review. Studies have predominantly been conducted in the USA, using single-cohort before-and-after study designs. Diverse types of educational intervention appear effective at reducing the incidence density of catheter-BSI (risk ratios statistically significantly < 1.0), but single lectures were not effective. The economic model showed that implementing an educational intervention in critical care units in England would be cost-effective and potentially cost-saving, with incremental cost-effectiveness ratios under worst-case sensitivity analyses of < £5000/quality-adjusted life-year. Limitations: Low-quality primary studies cannot definitively prove that the planned interventions were responsible for observed changes in catheter-BSI incidence. Poor reporting gave unclear estimates of risk of bias. Some model parameters were sourced from other locations owing to a lack of UK data. Conclusions: Our results suggest that it would be cost-effective and may be cost-saving for the NHS to implement educational interventions in critical care units. However, more robust primary studies are needed to exclude the possible influence of secular trends on observed reductions in catheter-BSI. © Queen's Printer and Controller of HMSO 2014.
McGovern P.D.,Northumbria Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust |
McGovern P.D.,South London Healthcare NHS Trust |
Albrecht M.,Northumbria Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust |
Albrecht M.,University of Minnesota |
And 7 more authors.
Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery - Series B | Year: 2011
We investigated the capacity of patient warming devices to disrupt the ultra-clean airflow system. We compared the effects of two patient warming technologies, forced-air and conductive fabric, on operating theatre ventilation during simulated hip replacement and lumbar spinal procedures using a mannequin as a patient. Infection data were reviewed to determine whether joint infection rates were associated with the type of patient warming device that was used. Neutral-buoyancy detergent bubbles were released adjacent to the mannequin's head and at floor level to assess the movement of non-sterile air into the clean airflow over the surgical site. During simulated hip replacement, bubble counts over the surgical site were greater for forced-air than for conductive fabric warming when the anaesthesia/surgery drape was laid down (p = 0.010) and at half-height (p < 0.001). For lumbar surgery, forced-air warming generated convection currents that mobilised floor air into the surgical site area. Conductive fabric warming had no such effect. A significant increase in deep joint infection, as demonstrated by an elevated infection odds ratio (3.8, p = 0.024), was identified during a period when forced-air warming was used compared to a period when conductive fabric warming was used. Air-free warming is, therefore, recommended over forced-air warming for orthopaedic procedures. ©2011 British Editorial Society of Bone and Joint Surgery.
Newman S.D.S.,Imperial College London |
Atkinson H.D.E.,Middlesex University |
Willis-Owen C.A.,South London Healthcare NHS Trust
International Orthopaedics | Year: 2013
Purpose: The Ligament Augmentation and Reconstruction System (LARS) is a third generation of synthetic ligament, designed to overcome the issues of graft failure and synovitis which led previous generations of synthetic ligaments to fall out of favour. The theoretical benefits of LARS are appealing but this has not led to widespread uptake of the system in preference to autograft. The aim of this systematic review is to assess whether the evidence exists to support the use of LARS with respect to outcomes and complications. Methods: A systematic search process was undertaken from January 1990 to June 2012 to identify primary evidence relating to the use of LARS in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) single ligament reconstruction. Results: Nine studies were found meeting the search criteria including a single randomised controlled trial, two comparative series and six further observational case series. Overall the methodological quality of the studies was poor with follow-up to a maximum of five years. Reported outcome scores were good for LARS and comparable to autograft techniques. Complication rates were low and comparable to those published for autograft techniques within the wider literature. Two reported incidences of synovitis were identified in case reports. Conclusions: The current literature supports the use of LARS in the short to medium term. However, high-quality studies with long-term follow-up are required to determine whether the use of LARS is preferable to autograft for ACL reconstruction over the longer term. Synovitis appears to be a rare complication closely related to imperfect graft positioning. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.
Saraf S.,South London Healthcare NHS Trust |
Ray K.K.,Imperial College London
Current Opinion in Cardiology | Year: 2015
Purpose of review Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in most countries. Modification of common risk factors such as dyslipidaemia can result in significant reduction of ASCVD incidence in the population and improve clinical outcomes. The purpose of this review is to discuss and compare the latest worldwide lipid guidelines, and to demonstrate the variation in practice in different parts of the world. Recent findings The lipid guidelines have recently been updated in different countries. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines in the United Kingdom were issued in July 2014, are risk based and are broadly similar to the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association task force guidelines that were published in November 2013. Both these guidelines are in variance with both the Canadian Guidelines and the European Society of Cardiology/European Atherosclerosis Society guidelines 2011, which are target based and have different risk scoring systems, which results in significant variation in practice and increased healthcare costs in certain countries. Summary The difference in guidelines in different countries makes it difficult for the clinician to standardize the treatment provided to individuals. The variance in risk scoring systems makes it difficult to compare risk prediction tools across countries and hence the optimum treatment available for a given population. Standardization of guidelines based on randomized controlled trial data and validation and calibration of various risk scoring systems could help improve clinical outcomes in this high-risk group of individuals at risk of ASCVD within individual countries. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.
Abdulla A.,South London Healthcare NHS Trust
Age and ageing | Year: 2013
This guidance document reviews the epidemiology and management of pain in older people via a literature review of published research. The aim of this document is to inform health professionals in any care setting who work with older adults on best practice for the management of pain and to identify where there are gaps in the evidence that require further research. The assessment of pain in older people has not been covered within this guidance and can be found in a separate document (http://www.britishpainsociety.org/pub_professional.htm#assessmentpop). Substantial differences in the population, methods and definitions used in published research makes it difficult to compare across studies and impossible to determine the definitive prevalence of pain in older people. There are inconsistencies within the literature as to whether or not pain increases or decreases in this age group, and whether this is influenced by gender. There is, however, some evidence that the prevalence of pain is higher within residential care settings. The three most common sites of pain in older people are the back; leg/knee or hip and 'other' joints. In common with the working-age population, the attitudes and beliefs of older people influence all aspects of their pain experience. Stoicism is particularly evident within this cohort of people. Evidence from the literature search suggests that paracetamol should be considered as first-line treatment for the management of both acute and persistent pain, particularly that which is of musculoskeletal origin, due to its demonstrated efficacy and good safety profile. There are few absolute contraindications and relative cautions to prescribing paracetamol. It is, however, important that the maximum daily dose (4 g/24 h) is not exceeded. Non-selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) should be used with caution in older people after other safer treatments have not provided sufficient pain relief. The lowest dose should be provided, for the shortest duration. For older adults, an NSAID or cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) selective inhibitor should be co-prescribed with a proton pump inhibitor (PPI), and the one with the lowest acquisition cost should be chosen. All older people taking NSAIDs should be routinely monitored for gastrointestinal, renal and cardiovascular side effects, and drug-drug and drug-disease interactions. Opioid therapy may be considered for patients with moderate or severe pain, particularly if the pain is causing functional impairment or is reducing their quality of life. However, this must be individualised and carefully monitored. Opioid side effects including nausea and vomiting should be anticipated and suitable prophylaxis considered. Appropriate laxative therapy, such as the combination of a stool softener and a stimulant laxative, should be prescribed throughout treatment for all older people who are prescribed opioid therapy. Tricyclic antidepressants and anti-epileptic drugs have demonstrated efficacy in several types of neuropathic pain. But, tolerability and adverse effects limit their use in an older population. Intra-articular corticosteroid injections in osteoarthritis of the knee are effective in relieving pain in the short term, with little risk of complications and/or joint damage. Intra-articular hyaluronic acid is effective and free of systemic adverse effects. It should be considered in patients who are intolerant to systemic therapy. Intra-articular hyaluronic acid appears to have a slower onset of action than intra-articular steroids, but the effects seem to last longer. The current evidence for the use of epidural steroid injections in the management of sciatica is conflicting and, until further larger studies become available, no firm recommendations can be made. There is, however, a limited body of evidence to support the use of epidural injections in spinal stenosis. The literature review suggests that assistive devices are widely used and that the ownership of devices increases with age. Such devices enable older people with chronic pain to live in the community. However, they do not necessarily reduce pain and can increase pain if used incorrectly. Increasing activity by way of exercise should be considered. This should involve strengthening, flexibility, endurance and balance, along with a programme of education. Patient preference should be given serious consideration. A number of complementary therapies have been found to have some efficacy among the older population, including acupuncture, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and massage. Such approaches can affect pain and anxiety and are worth further investigation. Some psychological approaches have been found to be useful for the older population, including guided imagery, biofeedback training and relaxation. There is also some evidence supporting the use of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) among nursing home populations, but of course these approaches require training and time. There are many areas that require further research, including pharmacological management where approaches are often tested in younger populations and then translated across. Prevalence studies need consistency in terms of age, diagnosis and terminology, and further work needs to be done on evaluating non-pharmacological approaches.
Ganiyu-Dada Z.,South London Healthcare NHS Trust |
Bowcock S.,South London Healthcare NHS Trust
International Journal of Laboratory Hematology | Year: 2011
Repeating normal laboratory tests can waste resources. This study aimed to quantify unnecessary repeat haematinic tests taken from the elderly in a district general hospital. Haematinic tests (ferritin, B12, serum folate) from patients age ≥70years were reviewed for repeat tests during an 8-week period. Questionnaires were given to doctors to establish when the considered repeating a 'borderline low normal' result to be clinically justifiable. 7.7% of all haematinic tests were repeat tests and of these, the majority (83%) was performed following a previously normal result. Thirteen of 24 doctors believed repeating a normal result at the bottom of the normal range ('borderline low normal') was justifiable. After excluding 'borderline low normal' results, 6.0% (at minimum) of repeat tests were done following a previous normal result and were unnecessary. This audit showed that there are a significant number of unnecessary repeat haematinic tests being performed. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Jalgaonkar A.,South London Healthcare NHS Trust
The journal of knee surgery | Year: 2011
We present a consecutive series of five patients with angioleiomyoma, a rare benign soft tissue tumor around the knee. Between 2005 and 2010, five patients with histopathologically confirmed diagnosis of angioleiomyoma of the knee underwent surgical excision. All five patients were Afro-caribbean in origin. The presenting feature was burning medial knee pain localized to a tender hyperesthetic swelling around the knee. The mean age of presentation was 45 years (range, 42 to 51 years), and the mean duration of symptom was 34 months (range, 12 to 96 months). Although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were helpful in locating and delineating the tumors, true diagnosis was established only by histopathology. All patients underwent surgical excision with complete resolution of symptoms. No recurrences were seen at an average follow-up of 16 months (range, 3 to 24 months). The treatment of these tumors, especially around the knee, is frequently delayed due to their late presentation and lack of awareness of this clinical condition. We recommend a high index of suspicion in patients, especially of Afro-caribbean origin, presenting with painful hyperesthetic subcutaneous swelling around the knee. Early investigation by MRI expedites the diagnosis, and surgical excision results in complete resolution of symptoms.