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Nair A.,South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust | Nair A.,King's College London | Palmer E.C.,King's College London | Aleman A.,University of Groningen | David A.S.,King's College London
Schizophrenia Research | Year: 2014

The neurocognitive theory of insight posits that poor insight in psychotic illnesses is related to cognitive deficits in cognitive self-appraisal mechanisms. In this paper we perform a comprehensive meta-analysis examining relationships between clinical insight and neurocognition in psychotic disorders. We have also completed a meta-analysis of studies examining 'cognitive insight', as measured by the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS), and its relationship with neurocognitive function in patients with psychosis. The clinical insight analysis included data from 72 studies and a total population of 5429 patients. We found that insight in psychosis was significantly associated with total cognition (r = 0.16, p < 0.001), IQ (r = 0.16, p < 0.001), memory (r = 0.13, p < 0.001) and executive function (r = 0.14, p < 0.001). All of these correlations were stronger when examined in patients with schizophrenia only. In the BCIS analysis we included 7 studies and 466 patients in total. We found that no significant associations were found between the self-reflectiveness sub-component and neurocognition. By contrast there were significant correlations between the self-certainty subcomponent and memory (r = -0.23, p < 0.001), IQ (r = -0.19, p < 0.001) and total cognition (r = -0.14, p = 0.01). We did not find evidence of significant publication bias in any analyses. Overall, our results indicate that there is a small but significant relationship between clinical insight, some aspects of cognitive insight and neurocognition. These findings reflect the complexity of the insight construct and indicate that while the neurocognitive model is important it is likely to be one of many which contribute to the understanding of this phenomenon. © 2013.


Singh S.P.,University of Warwick | Harley K.,South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust | Suhail K.,The University of Lahore
Schizophrenia Bulletin | Year: 2013

Understanding cross-cultural aspects of emotional overinvolvement (EOI) on psychosis outcomes is important for ensuring cultural appropriateness of family interventions. This systematic review explores whether EOI has similar impact in different cultural groups and whether the same norms can be used to measure EOI across cultures. Thirty-four studies were found that have investigated the impact of EOI on outcomes across cultures or culturally adapted EOI measures. The relationship between high EOI and poor outcome is inconsistent across cultures. Attempts to improve predictive ability by post hoc adjustment of EOI norms have had varied success. Few studies have attempted a priori adaptations or development of culture-specific norms. Methodological differences such as use of different expressed emotions (EE) measures and varying definitions of relapse across studies may explain a lack of EOI outcome relationship across cultures. However, our findings suggest that the construct and measurement of EOI itself are culture-specific. EOI may not necessarily be detrimental in all cultures. The effect of high EOI may be moderated by the unexplored dimension of warmth and high levels of mutual interdependence in kin relationships. Researchers should reevaluate the prevailing concepts of the impact of family relations on the course and outcome of psychotic disorders, specifically focusing on the protective aspects of family involvement. Clinically, family interventions based on EE reduction should take cultural differences into account when treating families from different ethnocultural groups. © 2013 The Author.


Ougrin D.,King's College London | Tranah T.,South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust | Stahl D.,King's College London | Moran P.,King's College London | Asarnow J.R.,University of California at Los Angeles
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry | Year: 2015

Objective Suicidal behavior and self-harm are common in adolescents and are associated with elevated psychopathology, risk of suicide, and demand for clinical services. Despite recent advances in the understanding and treatment of self-harm and links between self-harm and suicide and risk of suicide attempt, progress in reducing suicide death rates has been elusive, with no substantive reduction in suicide death rates over the past 60 years. Extending prior reviews of the literature on treatments for suicidal behavior and repetitive self-harm in youth, this article provides a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reporting efficacy of specific pharmacological, social, or psychological therapeutic interventions (TIs) in reducing both suicidal and nonsuicidal self-harm in adolescents. Method Data sources were identified by searching the Cochrane, Medline, PsychINFO, EMBASE, and PubMed databases as of May 2014. RCTs comparing specific therapeutic interventions versus treatment as usual (TAU) or placebo in adolescents (through age 18 years) with self-harm were included. Results Nineteen RCTs including 2,176 youth were analyzed. TIs included psychological and social interventions and no pharmacological interventions. The proportion of the adolescents who self-harmed over the follow-up period was lower in the intervention groups (28%) than in controls (33%) (test for overall effect z = 2.31; p =.02). TIs with the largest effect sizes were dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), and mentalization-based therapy (MBT). There were no independent replications of efficacy of any TI. The pooled risk difference between TIs and TAU for suicide attempts and nonsuicidal self-harm considered separately was not statistically significant. Conclusion TIs to prevent self-harm appear to be effective. Independent replication of the results achieved by DBT, MBT, and CBT is a research priority. © 2015 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.


Patel M.X.,King's College London | Patel M.X.,South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust
British Journal of Psychiatry | Year: 2012

Clozapine has been endorsed by national clinical guidelines for 10 years and yet underutilisation and delay to initiation remain rife. Although there will be good clinical reasons for clozapine not being initiated for some patients, it is hypothesised here that for others, clinicians' attitudes and preferences are the most likely predictive factors.


Howard L.M.,King's College London | Oram S.,King's College London | Galley H.,South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust | Trevillion K.,King's College London | Feder G.,University of Bristol
PLoS Medicine | Year: 2013

Background:Domestic violence in the perinatal period is associated with adverse obstetric outcomes, but evidence is limited on its association with perinatal mental disorders. We aimed to estimate the prevalence and odds of having experienced domestic violence among women with antenatal and postnatal mental disorders (depression and anxiety disorders including post-traumatic stress disorder [PTSD], eating disorders, and psychoses).Methods and Findings:We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis (PROSPERO reference CRD42012002048). Data sources included searches of electronic databases (to 15 February 2013), hand searches, citation tracking, update of a review on victimisation and mental disorder, and expert recommendations. Included studies were peer-reviewed experimental or observational studies that reported on women aged 16 y or older, that assessed the prevalence and/or odds of having experienced domestic violence, and that assessed symptoms of perinatal mental disorder using a validated instrument. Two reviewers screened 1,125 full-text papers, extracted data, and independently appraised study quality. Odds ratios were pooled using meta-analysis.Sixty-seven papers were included. Pooled estimates from longitudinal studies suggest a 3-fold increase in the odds of high levels of depressive symptoms in the postnatal period after having experienced partner violence during pregnancy (odds ratio 3.1, 95% CI 2.7-3.6). Increased odds of having experienced domestic violence among women with high levels of depressive, anxiety, and PTSD symptoms in the antenatal and postnatal periods were consistently reported in cross-sectional studies. No studies were identified on eating disorders or puerperal psychosis. Analyses were limited because of study heterogeneity and lack of data on baseline symptoms, preventing clear findings on causal directionality.Conclusions:High levels of symptoms of perinatal depression, anxiety, and PTSD are significantly associated with having experienced domestic violence. High-quality evidence is now needed on how maternity and mental health services should address domestic violence and improve health outcomes for women and their infants in the perinatal period.Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary. © 2013 Howard et al.


Lally J.,King's College London | MacCabe J.H.,South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust
British Medical Bulletin | Year: 2015

Introduction: Antipsychotic medications are mainstays in the treatment of schizophrenia and a range of other psychotic disorders. Sources of data: Recent meta-analyses of antipsychotic efficacy and tolerability have been included in this review, along with key papers on antipsychotic use in schizophrenia and other psychotic illnesses. Areas of agreement: The heterogeneity in terms of individuals' response to antipsychotic treatment and the current inability to predict response leads to a trial-and-error strategy with treatment choice. Clozapine is the only effectivemedication for treatment-resistant schizophrenia. Areas of controversy: There are a significant number of side effects associated with antipsychotic use. With a reduction in the frequency of extrapyramidal side effects with the use of second-generation antipsychotics, there has been a significant shift in the side effect burden, with an increase in the risk of cardiometabolic dysfunction. Growing points: There exist small and robust efficacy differences between medications (other than clozapine), and response and tolerability to each antipsychotic drug vary, with there being no first-line antipsychotic drug that is suitable for all patients. Areas timely for developing research: A focus on the different symptom domains of schizophrenia may lead to endophenotypic markers being identified, e.g. for negative symptoms and cognitive deficits (as well as for positive symptoms) that can promote the development of novel therapeutics, which will rationally target cellular and molecular targets, rather than just the dopamine 2 receptor. Future developments will target additional processes, including glutamatergic, cholinergic and cannabinoid receptor targets and will utilize personalized medicine techniques, such as pharmacogenetic variants and biomarkers allowing for a tailored and safer use of antipsychotics. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.


Rimes K.A.,University of Bath | Wingrove J.,South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust
Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy | Year: 2013

Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS; sometimes known as myalgic encephalomyelitis). However, only a minority of patients fully recover after CBT; thus, methods for improving treatment outcomes are required. This pilot study concerned a mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) intervention adapted for people with CFS who were still experiencing excessive fatigue after CBT. The study aimed to investigate the acceptability of this new intervention and the feasibility of conducting a larger-scale randomized trial in the future. Preliminary efficacy analyses were also undertaken. Participants were randomly allocated to MBCT or waiting list. Sixteen MBCT participants and 19 waiting-list participants completed the study, with the intervention being delivered in two separate groups. Acceptability, engagement and participant-rated helpfulness of the intervention were high. Analysis of covariance controlling for pre-treatment scores indicated that, at post-treatment, MBCT participants reported lower levels of fatigue (the primary clinical outcome) than the waiting-list group. Similarly, there were significant group differences in fatigue at 2-month follow-up, and when the MBCT group was followed up to 6months post-treatment, these improvements were maintained. The MBCT group also had superior outcomes on measures of impairment, depressed mood, catastrophic thinking about fatigue, all-or-nothing behavioural responses, unhelpful beliefs about emotions, mindfulness and self-compassion. In conclusion, MBCT is a promising and acceptable additional intervention for people still experiencing excessive fatigue after CBT for CFS, which should be investigated in a larger randomized controlled trial. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Boardman J.,South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust | Rinaldi M.,South West London and St Georges Mental Health NHS Trust
British Journal of Psychiatry | Year: 2013

People with severe mental health problems have low rates of open employment. Despite good evidence for the effectiveness of Individual Placement and Support (IPS), these schemes are not widely implemented. Their implementation is hampered by clinician and societal attitudes and the effect of organisational context on implementing IPS schemes with sufficient fidelity.


Doherty A.M.,King's College | Gaughran F.,South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust
Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology | Year: 2014

Purpose: The interaction between physical and mental health is complex. In this paper we aim to provide an overview of the main components of this relationship and to identify how care could be improved for people with co-morbidities. Methods: We performed a literature search of MedLine, Ovid and Psycinfo and identified studies that examined the association between mental illness and physical illness. We also examined the key policy documents and guidelines in this area. Results: People with mental health conditions are at higher risk of developing physical illness, have those conditions diagnosed later and have much higher mortality rates. Conversely, people with a diagnosis of physical illness, especially cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer have a greater chance of developing a mental health problem. When both mental and physical illnesses conditions are present together, there are higher overall rates of morbidity, healthcare utilisation, and poorer quality of life. Conclusions: Physicians and psychiatrists need to be aware of the co-occurrence of mental and physical health problems and the challenges posed for both general and mental health services. There is a need to screen appropriately in both settings to ensure timely diagnosis and treatment. Liaison psychiatry provides psychological assessment and treatment for people with physical illness, but there is a gap in the provision of physical healthcare for people with severe mental illness. There is a need for public policy to drive this forward to overcome the institutional barriers to equitable access to healthcare and for educators to reverse the tendency to teach mind and body as separate systems. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Holloway F.,South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust
Psychiatrist | Year: 2012

The Health and Social Care Act 2012 brings in profound changes to the organisation of healthcare in England. These changes are briefly described and their implications for mental health services are explored. They occur as the National Health Service (NHS) and social care are experiencing significant financial cuts, the payment by results regime is being introduced for mental health and the NHS is pursuing the personalisation agenda. Psychiatrists have an opportunity to influence the commissioning of mental health services if they understand the organisational changes and work within the new commissioning structures.

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