Park S.J.,Chonnam National University |
Ha K.-Y.,South Korean National Institute of Crop Science |
Shin M.,Chonnam National University
Food Science and Biotechnology | Year: 2012
Korean rice varieties, 'Druryechanbyeo' and 'Boramchanbyeo', were developed to get higher yields and to be used in rice products. The rice grains were dried and milled into rice flours after first going through the soaking process. The properties and qualities of cupcakes made with dry-milled rice flours were compared with cupcakes made with commercial dry-milled rice flours (CDRF). The newly developed rice flours (NDRF) had higher apparent amylose content, water binding capacity, swelling power, and peak viscosities, but had lower damaged-starch content, gelatinization temperature, and final and setback viscosities than CDRF. The specific gravity of batter, and hardness and springiness of cupcakes were lower in NDRF than in CDRF. The cake textures from 'Boramchan' NDRF were more preferable than those from 'Druyechan' NDRF. The specific volume and overall quality of cupcake were correlated positively with amylose content and water binding capacity, but negatively with damaged starch of rice flours. © 2012 The Korean Society of Food Science and Technology and Springer Netherlands.
Kim J.K.,South Korean National Institute of Crop Science |
Um B.-H.,Hankyong National University |
Kim T.H.,Iowa State University
Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering | Year: 2012
Hydrothermal fractionation for micro-algae, Schizocytrium sp., was investigated to separate sugars, lipids, and proteins. This fractionation process produced protein-rich solid cake and liquid hydrolysates, which contained oligomeric sugars and lipids. Oligomeric sugars and lipids were easily separated by liquid-liquid separation. Sugars in the separated hydrolyzate were determined to be mainly D-glucose and L-galactose. Fractionation conditions were optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). Optimal conditions were found to be 115. 5 °C of reaction temperature, 46. 7 min of reaction time, and 25% (w/w) of solid loading. The model predicted that maximum oligomeric sugar yield (based on untreated micro-algae weight), which can be recovered by hydrothermal fractionation at the optimum conditions, was 19. 4 wt% (based on the total biomass weight). Experimental results were in agreement with the model prediction of 16. 6 wt%. Production of bioethanol using micro-algae-induced glucan and E. coli KO11 was tested with SSF (simultaneous saccharification and fermentation), which resulted in 11. 8 g-ethanol/l was produced from 25. 7 g/l of glucose; i. e. the theoretical maximum ethanol yield based on glucan in hydrolyzate was 89. 8%. © 2011 Korean Institute of Chemical Engineers, Seoul, Korea.
Radhakrishnan R.,South Korean National Institute of Crop Science |
Ranjitha Kumari B.D.,Bharathidasan University
Indian Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics | Year: 2013
The effects of pulsed magnetic field (PMF) treatment of soybean (Glycine max L. cv CO3) seeds were investigated on rate of seed germination, seedling growth, physico-chemical properties of seed leachates and soil microbial population under laboratory conditions. Seeds were exposed to PMF of 1500 nT at 0.1, 1.0 10.0 and 100.0 Hz for 5 h per day for 20 days, induced by enclosure coil systems. Non-treated seeds were considered as controls. All PMF treatments significantly increased the rate of seed germination, while 10 and 100 Hz PMFs showed the most effective response. The 1.0 and 10 Hz PMFs remarkably improved the fresh weight of shoots and roots, leaf area and plant height from seedlings from magnetically-exposed seeds compared to the control, while 10 Hz PMF increased the total soluble sugar, total protein and phenol contents. The leaf chlorophyll a, b and total chlorophyll were higher in PMF (10 and 100 Hz) pretreated plants, as compared to other treatments. In addition, activities of α-amylase, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, nitrate reductase, peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase were increased, while β-amylase and protease activities were declined in PMF (10 Hz)-exposed soybean plants. Similarly, the capacity of absorbance of water by seeds and electrical conductivity of seed leachates were significantly enhanced by 10 Hz PMF exposure, whereas PMF (10 Hz) pretreated plants did not affect the microbial population in rhizosphere soil. The results suggested the potential of 10 Hz PMF treatment to enhance the germination and seedling growth of soybean.
Kim E.-H.,Konkuk University |
Ro H.-M.,Seoul National University |
Kim S.-L.,South Korean National Institute of Crop Science |
Kim H.-S.,Chungbuk National University |
Chung I.-M.,Konkuk University
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2012
This study investigated the functional compounds, including isoflavones, phenolics, soyasapogenols, and tocopherols, that were detected in 204 soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] germplasms. The soybean samples were divided into three groups according to origin: America, China, and Korea. The soybean samples were also classified into three groups on the basis of 100-seed weight: small (<13 g), medium (13-24 g), and large (>24 g). Among the soybean germplasms, CSRV121 (Bosukkong) had the highest level of isoflavone content (4778.1 μg g-1), whereas CS01316 had the lowest isoflavone content (682.4 μg g-1). Of the soybeans from the three different countries of origin, those from Korea showed the highest average concentration of total isoflavones (2252.6 μg g-1). The small seeds had the highest average total isoflavone concentration (2520.0 μg g-1) of the three different seed sizes. Among the 204 soybean germplasms, CS01405 had the highest content of total phenolics (5219.6 μg g-1), and CSRV017 (Hwangkeumkong) had the lowest phenolic content (654.6 μg g -1). The mean concentrations of total phenolic compounds were 2729.1 μg g-1 in American soybean seeds, 1680.4 μg g-1 in Chinese soybean seeds, and 1977.6 μg g-1 in Korean soybean seeds. Of the soybean seeds from the three different countries of origin, American soybean seeds had the highest average concentration of total phenolic compounds, and Korean varieties showed the second highest value. Small soybean seeds had the highest average content of total phenolic compounds (2241.7 μg g -1), whereas medium-sized (1926.8 μg g-1) and large (1949.9 μg g-1) soybeans had lower concentrations of phenolic compounds. In whole soybean germplasms, the level of total soyasapogenols was higher in CS01173 (1802.3 μg g-1) and CS01346 (1736.8 μg g -1) than in the other types of soybeans. The mean concentrations of total soyasapogenol were 1234.0 μg g-1 in American, 1294.5 μg g-1 in Chinese, and 1241.5 μg g-1 in Korean soybean varieties. Chinese soybean varieties showed the highest mean concentration of total soyasapogenol, and Korean soybean seeds showed the second highest level. The medium-seed group had the highest soyasapogenol content (1269.3 μg g -1) of the seeds that were grouped by size. A larger amount of soyasapogenol B than soyasapogenol A was detected. In whole soybeans, CS01202 showed the highest level of total tocopherols (330.5 μg g-1), whereas CSRV056 (Pungsannamulkong) had the lowest content (153.3 μg g -1). Chinese soybeans had the highest average concentration of total tocopherols (255.1 μg g-1). By comparison, the medium-sized Chinese soybean group had the highest (256.1 μg g-1) average total tocopherol content. © 2012 American Chemical Society.
Zhang L.,Washington State University |
Tan Q.,Washington State University |
Lee R.,Washington State University |
Trethewy A.,Washington State University |
And 3 more authors.
Plant Cell | Year: 2010
Seed development and nitrogen (N) storage depend on delivery of amino acids to seed sinks. For efficient translocation to seeds, amino acids are loaded into the phloem in source leaves and along the long distance transport pathway through xylem-phloem transfer. We demonstrate that Arabidopsis thaliana AMINO ACID PERMEASE2 (AAP2) localizes to the phloem throughout the plant. AAP2 T-DNA insertion lines showed changes in source-sink translocation of amino acids and a decrease in the amount of seed total N and storage proteins, supporting AAP2 function in phloem loading and amino acid distribution to the embryo. Interestingly, in aap2 seeds, total carbon (C) levels were unchanged, while fatty acid levels were elevated. Moreover, branch and silique numbers per plant and seed yield were strongly increased. This suggests changes in N and C delivery to sinks and subsequent modulations of sink development and seed metabolism. This is supported by tracer experiments, expression studies of genes of N/C transport andmetabolism in source and sink, and by phenotypic andmetabolite analyses of aap2 plants. Thus, AAP2 is key for xylem to phloem transfer and sink N and C supply; moreover, modifications of N allocation can positively affect C assimilation and source-sink transport and benefit sink development and oil yield. © 2010 American Society of Plant Biologists.
Jeong N.,Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology |
Suh S.J.,Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology |
Kim M.-H.,Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology |
Lee S.,South Korean National Institute of Crop Science |
And 3 more authors.
Plant Cell | Year: 2013
Narrow leaflet soybean (Glycine max) varieties tend to have more seeds per pod than broad leaflet varieties. Narrow leaflet in soybean is conferred by a single recessive gene, ln. Here, we show that the transition from broad (Ln) to narrow leaflet (ln) is associated with an amino acid substitution in the EAR motif encoded by a gene (designated Gm-JAGGED1) homologous to Arabidopsis JAGGED (JAG) that regulates lateral organ development and the variant exerts a pleiotropic effect on fruit patterning. The genomic region that regulates both the traits was mapped to a 12.6-kb region containing only one gene, Gm- JAG1. Introducing the Gm-JAG1 allele into a loss-of-function Arabidopsis jagged mutant partially restored the wild-type JAG phenotypes, including leaf shape, flower opening, and fruit shape, but the Gm-jag1 (ln) and EAR-deleted Gm-JAG1 alleles in the jagged mutant did not result in an apparent phenotypic change. These observations indicate that despite some degree of functional change of Gm-JAG1 due to the divergence from Arabidopsis JAG, Gm-JAG1 complemented the functions of JAG in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, theGm-JAG1 homoeolog, Gm-JAG2, appears to be sub- or neofunctionalized, as revealed by the differential expression of the two genes in multiple plant tissues, a complementation test, and an allelic analysis at both loci. © 2012 American Society of Plant Biologists.
Jena K.K.,South Korean National Institute of Crop Science |
Kim S.-M.,South Korean National Institute of Crop Science
Rice | Year: 2010
Among the planthoppers of rice, the brown planthopper (BPH) is a major threat to rice production and causes significant yield loss annually. Host-plant resistance is an important strategy to reduce the damage caused by BPH and increase rice productivity. Twenty-one major genes for BPH resistance have been identified by using standard evaluation methods developed at the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) to distinguish resistance or susceptibility of rice genotypes to BPH biotypes/populations. These genes are from diverse genetic resources such as land race cultivars and wild species of Oryza. Of the 21 resistance genes, 18 genes have been localized on specific region of six rice chromosomes using molecular genetic analysis and genomics tools. Some of these resistance genes are clustered together such as Bph1, bph2, Bph9, Bph10, Bph18, and Bph21 on the long arm of chromosome 12; Bph12, Bph15, Bph17 and Bph20 on the short arm of chromosome 4; bph11 and Bph14 on the long arm of chromosome 3 and Bph13(t) and bph19 on the short arm of chromosome 3. Six genes (Bph11, bph11, Bph12, bph12, Bph13 and Bph13) originated from wild Oryza species have either duplicate chromosome locations or wrong nomenclature. The discrepancy should be confirmed by allelism tests. Besides identification of major resistance genes, some quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with BPH resistance have also been identified on eight chromosomes. Most of the rice cultivars developed at IRRI possess one or two of the major resistance genes and the variety IR64 has many QTLs and confers strong resistance to BPH. More BPH resistance genes need to be identified from the wealth of gene pool available in the wild species of Oryza. Two BPH resistance genes (Bph14 and Bph18) have been cloned, and a snow drop lectin gene (GNA) has been identified and used in the development of BPH-resistant transgenic plants. Efficient introgression of resistance genes (Bph1, bph2, Bph3, Bph14, Bph15, Bph18, Bph20, and Bph21) into elite rice cultivars by marker-assisted selection together with strategic deployment of these genes can be an important approach to develop stable resistance to BPH and sustain rice production in the tropical and temperate rice growing regions. © Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2010.
Park S.,South Korean National Institute of Crop Science |
Yu H.-J.,South Korean National Institute of Crop Science |
Mun J.-H.,National Academy of Agricultural Science |
Lee S.-C.,South Korean National Institute of Crop Science
Molecular Genetics and Genomics | Year: 2010
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and/or insertion/deletions (InDels) are frequent sequence variations in the plant genome, which can be developed as molecular markers for genetic studies on crop improvement. The ongoing Brassica rapa genome sequencing project has generated vast amounts of sequence data useful in genetic research. Here, we report a genome-wide survey of DNA polymorphisms in the B. rapa genome based on the 557 bacterial artificial clone sequences of B. rapa ssp. pekinensis cv. Chiifu. We identified and characterized 21,311 SNPs and 6,753 InDels in the gene space of the B. rapa genome by re-sequencing 1,398 sequence-tagged sites (STSs) in eight genotypes. Comparison of our findings with a B. rapa genetic linkage map confirmed that STS loci were distributed randomly over the B. rapa whole genome. In the 1.4 Mb of aligned sequences, mean nucleotide polymorphism and diversity were θ = 0.00890 and π = 0.00917, respectively. Additionally, the nucleotide diversity in introns was almost three times greater than that in exons, and the frequency of observed InDel was almost 17 times higher in introns than in exons. Information regarding SNPs/InDels obtained here will provide an important resource for genetic studies and breeding programs of B. rapa. © 2009 Springer-Verlag.
Bae S.D.,South Korean National Institute of Crop Science |
Kim H.J.,South Korean National Institute of Crop Science |
Mainali B.P.,South Korean National Institute of Crop Science
Journal of Economic Entomology | Year: 2014
Changes in protein, lipid, and carbohydrate content, and the weight loss of soybean seeds caused by the feeding of 6- to 7-d-old unmated male adults of the pentatomids Peizodorous hybneri (Gmelin) and Halymorpha halys (Stål), and an alydid, Riptortus pedestris (F.), were examined in the laboratory. Our goals were to determine which species had the greatest capacity to damage soybean seed and to measure the effect of that damage on the nutritional composition of soybean seed. Individuals of the three species were provided with a preweighed dry soybean seed and allowed to feed for 0, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24 d, after which the remaining seed was analyzed for any change in weight, protein, lipid, and carbohydrate concentration. Lipids, carbohydrates, and seed weights were reduced by bug feeding, and the reduction was directly proportional to feeding duration. H. halys was found to be the most voracious feeder, reducing soybean seed weight by 42% after 24 d of feeding. There was a significant interaction between species and feeding duration for changes in nutritional components. Seeds fed on by H. halys had the highest incremental increase in protein content (13%) after 24 d of feeding, followed by those fed on by R. pedestris and P. hybneri. However, carbohydrates and lipid content of the soybean seeds fed by the tested insect species were found to decrease significantly. Soybean pods at mature stages remain in the field for a long period, and findings of our study suggest that longer exposure of the mature soybean pods to these pest species in the field may lead to low-quality seeds and lower yields, and may even affect the germination potential of the seeds. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.
Jena K.K.,South Korean National Institute of Crop Science
Breeding Science | Year: 2010
The genus Oryza has 24 species out of which two are cultivated (O. sativa and O. glaberrima) and 22 are wild species. Of the 22 wild species, six are in the primary gene pool of O. sativa complex and these wild species are easily crossable with the major cultivated species. These have the same AA genome as O. sativa. However, there are 10 wild species under O. officinalis complex having BB, CC, BBCC, CCDD, EE and FF genomes. The wild species of this complex are in the secondary gene pool and are cross incompatible with O. sativa. There are six most distantly related wild species with either diploids or tetraploids of GG, HHJJ and HHKK genomes and are highly cross incompatible with O. sativa. All the 22 wild species of Oryza are a vast reservoir of genes for biotic and abiotic stresses resistance. Some of the yield enhancing traits/genes from AA genome wild species have been identified and mapped with molecular markers for their integration into O. sativa genome. A broad-spectrum resistance gene for bacterial blight resistance (Xa21) has been identified in O. longistaminata and introduced into many rice cultivars. Advances in biotechnology have facilitated the development of interspecific hybrids between O. sativa and wild species of secondary and tertiary gene pools. Some important genes Pi40 and Bph18 for resistance to blast and brown planthopper, respectively, have been successfully transferred into elite cultivars from O. australiensis and the function of one blast resistance gene (Pi9) derived from O. minuta is elucidated. Many important genes from the most distantly related wild species such as O. alta, O. granulata, O. longiglumis and O. coarctata are expected to be transferred into cultivated rice in the future using the latest tools of molecular genetics and biotechnology.