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Kim E.-H.,Konkuk University | Ro H.-M.,Seoul National University | Kim S.-L.,South Korean National Institute of Crop Science | Kim H.-S.,Chungbuk National University | Chung I.-M.,Konkuk University
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

This study investigated the functional compounds, including isoflavones, phenolics, soyasapogenols, and tocopherols, that were detected in 204 soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] germplasms. The soybean samples were divided into three groups according to origin: America, China, and Korea. The soybean samples were also classified into three groups on the basis of 100-seed weight: small (<13 g), medium (13-24 g), and large (>24 g). Among the soybean germplasms, CSRV121 (Bosukkong) had the highest level of isoflavone content (4778.1 μg g-1), whereas CS01316 had the lowest isoflavone content (682.4 μg g-1). Of the soybeans from the three different countries of origin, those from Korea showed the highest average concentration of total isoflavones (2252.6 μg g-1). The small seeds had the highest average total isoflavone concentration (2520.0 μg g-1) of the three different seed sizes. Among the 204 soybean germplasms, CS01405 had the highest content of total phenolics (5219.6 μg g-1), and CSRV017 (Hwangkeumkong) had the lowest phenolic content (654.6 μg g -1). The mean concentrations of total phenolic compounds were 2729.1 μg g-1 in American soybean seeds, 1680.4 μg g-1 in Chinese soybean seeds, and 1977.6 μg g-1 in Korean soybean seeds. Of the soybean seeds from the three different countries of origin, American soybean seeds had the highest average concentration of total phenolic compounds, and Korean varieties showed the second highest value. Small soybean seeds had the highest average content of total phenolic compounds (2241.7 μg g -1), whereas medium-sized (1926.8 μg g-1) and large (1949.9 μg g-1) soybeans had lower concentrations of phenolic compounds. In whole soybean germplasms, the level of total soyasapogenols was higher in CS01173 (1802.3 μg g-1) and CS01346 (1736.8 μg g -1) than in the other types of soybeans. The mean concentrations of total soyasapogenol were 1234.0 μg g-1 in American, 1294.5 μg g-1 in Chinese, and 1241.5 μg g-1 in Korean soybean varieties. Chinese soybean varieties showed the highest mean concentration of total soyasapogenol, and Korean soybean seeds showed the second highest level. The medium-seed group had the highest soyasapogenol content (1269.3 μg g -1) of the seeds that were grouped by size. A larger amount of soyasapogenol B than soyasapogenol A was detected. In whole soybeans, CS01202 showed the highest level of total tocopherols (330.5 μg g-1), whereas CSRV056 (Pungsannamulkong) had the lowest content (153.3 μg g -1). Chinese soybeans had the highest average concentration of total tocopherols (255.1 μg g-1). By comparison, the medium-sized Chinese soybean group had the highest (256.1 μg g-1) average total tocopherol content. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Park S.J.,Chonnam National University | Ha K.-Y.,South Korean National Institute of Crop Science | Shin M.,Chonnam National University
Food Science and Biotechnology | Year: 2012

Korean rice varieties, 'Druryechanbyeo' and 'Boramchanbyeo', were developed to get higher yields and to be used in rice products. The rice grains were dried and milled into rice flours after first going through the soaking process. The properties and qualities of cupcakes made with dry-milled rice flours were compared with cupcakes made with commercial dry-milled rice flours (CDRF). The newly developed rice flours (NDRF) had higher apparent amylose content, water binding capacity, swelling power, and peak viscosities, but had lower damaged-starch content, gelatinization temperature, and final and setback viscosities than CDRF. The specific gravity of batter, and hardness and springiness of cupcakes were lower in NDRF than in CDRF. The cake textures from 'Boramchan' NDRF were more preferable than those from 'Druyechan' NDRF. The specific volume and overall quality of cupcake were correlated positively with amylose content and water binding capacity, but negatively with damaged starch of rice flours. © 2012 The Korean Society of Food Science and Technology and Springer Netherlands.

Radhakrishnan R.,South Korean National Institute of Crop Science | Ranjitha Kumari B.D.,Bharathidasan University
Indian Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics | Year: 2013

The effects of pulsed magnetic field (PMF) treatment of soybean (Glycine max L. cv CO3) seeds were investigated on rate of seed germination, seedling growth, physico-chemical properties of seed leachates and soil microbial population under laboratory conditions. Seeds were exposed to PMF of 1500 nT at 0.1, 1.0 10.0 and 100.0 Hz for 5 h per day for 20 days, induced by enclosure coil systems. Non-treated seeds were considered as controls. All PMF treatments significantly increased the rate of seed germination, while 10 and 100 Hz PMFs showed the most effective response. The 1.0 and 10 Hz PMFs remarkably improved the fresh weight of shoots and roots, leaf area and plant height from seedlings from magnetically-exposed seeds compared to the control, while 10 Hz PMF increased the total soluble sugar, total protein and phenol contents. The leaf chlorophyll a, b and total chlorophyll were higher in PMF (10 and 100 Hz) pretreated plants, as compared to other treatments. In addition, activities of α-amylase, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, nitrate reductase, peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase were increased, while β-amylase and protease activities were declined in PMF (10 Hz)-exposed soybean plants. Similarly, the capacity of absorbance of water by seeds and electrical conductivity of seed leachates were significantly enhanced by 10 Hz PMF exposure, whereas PMF (10 Hz) pretreated plants did not affect the microbial population in rhizosphere soil. The results suggested the potential of 10 Hz PMF treatment to enhance the germination and seedling growth of soybean.

Jena K.K.,South Korean National Institute of Crop Science
Breeding Science | Year: 2010

The genus Oryza has 24 species out of which two are cultivated (O. sativa and O. glaberrima) and 22 are wild species. Of the 22 wild species, six are in the primary gene pool of O. sativa complex and these wild species are easily crossable with the major cultivated species. These have the same AA genome as O. sativa. However, there are 10 wild species under O. officinalis complex having BB, CC, BBCC, CCDD, EE and FF genomes. The wild species of this complex are in the secondary gene pool and are cross incompatible with O. sativa. There are six most distantly related wild species with either diploids or tetraploids of GG, HHJJ and HHKK genomes and are highly cross incompatible with O. sativa. All the 22 wild species of Oryza are a vast reservoir of genes for biotic and abiotic stresses resistance. Some of the yield enhancing traits/genes from AA genome wild species have been identified and mapped with molecular markers for their integration into O. sativa genome. A broad-spectrum resistance gene for bacterial blight resistance (Xa21) has been identified in O. longistaminata and introduced into many rice cultivars. Advances in biotechnology have facilitated the development of interspecific hybrids between O. sativa and wild species of secondary and tertiary gene pools. Some important genes Pi40 and Bph18 for resistance to blast and brown planthopper, respectively, have been successfully transferred into elite cultivars from O. australiensis and the function of one blast resistance gene (Pi9) derived from O. minuta is elucidated. Many important genes from the most distantly related wild species such as O. alta, O. granulata, O. longiglumis and O. coarctata are expected to be transferred into cultivated rice in the future using the latest tools of molecular genetics and biotechnology.

Park S.,South Korean National Institute of Crop Science | Yu H.-J.,South Korean National Institute of Crop Science | Mun J.-H.,National Academy of Agricultural Science | Lee S.-C.,South Korean National Institute of Crop Science
Molecular Genetics and Genomics | Year: 2010

Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and/or insertion/deletions (InDels) are frequent sequence variations in the plant genome, which can be developed as molecular markers for genetic studies on crop improvement. The ongoing Brassica rapa genome sequencing project has generated vast amounts of sequence data useful in genetic research. Here, we report a genome-wide survey of DNA polymorphisms in the B. rapa genome based on the 557 bacterial artificial clone sequences of B. rapa ssp. pekinensis cv. Chiifu. We identified and characterized 21,311 SNPs and 6,753 InDels in the gene space of the B. rapa genome by re-sequencing 1,398 sequence-tagged sites (STSs) in eight genotypes. Comparison of our findings with a B. rapa genetic linkage map confirmed that STS loci were distributed randomly over the B. rapa whole genome. In the 1.4 Mb of aligned sequences, mean nucleotide polymorphism and diversity were θ = 0.00890 and π = 0.00917, respectively. Additionally, the nucleotide diversity in introns was almost three times greater than that in exons, and the frequency of observed InDel was almost 17 times higher in introns than in exons. Information regarding SNPs/InDels obtained here will provide an important resource for genetic studies and breeding programs of B. rapa. © 2009 Springer-Verlag.

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