Park M.-Y.,South Korean National Institute of Animal Science |
Mun S.T.,Soonchunhyang University
Nutrition Research and Practice | Year: 2013
In this study, we examined the hepatic anti-steatosis activity of carnosic acid (CA), a phenolic compound of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) leaves, as well as its possible mechanism of action, in a high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice model. Mice were fed a HFD, or a HFD supplemented with 0.01% (w/w) CA or 0.02% (w/w) CA, for a period of 12 weeks, after which changes in body weight, blood lipid profiles, and fatty acid mechanism markers were evaluated. The 0.02% (w/w) CA diet resulted in a marked decline in steatosis grade, as well as in homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index values, intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IGTT) results, body weight gain, liver weight, and blood lipid levels (P < 0.05). The expression level of hepatic lipogenic genes, such as sterol regulating element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), liver-fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP), stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1), and fatty acid synthase (FAS), was significantly lower in mice fed 0.01% (w/w) CA and 0.02% (w/w) CA diets than that in the HFD group; on the other hand, the expression level of β-oxidation-related genes, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPAR-α), carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT-1), and acyl-CoA oxidase (ACO), was higher in mice fed a 0.02% (w/w) CA diet, than that in the HFD group (P < 0.05). In addition, the hepatic content of palmitic acid (C16:0), palmitoleic acid (C16:1), and oleic acid (C18:1) was significantly lower in mice fed the 0.02% (w/w) CA diet than that in the HFD group (P < 0.05). These results suggest that orally administered CA suppressed HFD-induced hepatic steatosis and fatty liver-related metabolic disorders through decrease of de novo lipogenesis and fatty acid elongation and increase of fatty acid β-oxidation in mice. © 2013 The Korean Nutrition Society and the Korean Society of Community Nutrition.
Seo M.,Texas A&M University |
Yen H.,Texas AgriLife Research Center |
Kim M.-K.,South Korean National Institute of Animal Science |
Jeong J.,Texas AgriLife Research Center
Journal of Environmental Quality | Year: 2014
In recent years, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) has experienced upgrades with enhanced functionalities and modeling capacities as it gets to the current version, SWAT2012. Changes in the SWAT code on a specific process may result in propagating influences in the output of other related processes. In this study, the characteristic significance of the enhancements in SWAT code was investigated using the two recent versions, SWAT2009 and SWAT2012. Using a global optimization technique, each model was calibrated for flow, sediment, and nutrient and then tested for transferability of parameters between the models. Results indicate that flow and water quality output were well calibrated with both models. However, the calibrated parameters determined by SWAT2009 and SWAT2012 were noticeably different, due mostly to the enhancements made in SWAT2012. Our results indicate that only the stream flow result was reliable when the models were upgraded or downgraded between the two versions after calibration. Sediment prediction was marginally reliable. SWAT parameters were nontransferrable if nutrient was the main output. The differences are due to various reasons, such as disparities in algorithms at the process level and propagation of the resulting uncertainty into higher-order processes. © American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America.
Kwon H.,U.S. Department of Agriculture |
Kwon H.,South Korean National Institute of Animal Science |
Lehotay S.J.,U.S. Department of Agriculture |
Geis-Asteggiante L.,U.S. Department of Agriculture |
Geis-Asteggiante L.,University of Maryland University College
Journal of Chromatography A | Year: 2012
Gas and liquid chromatography (GC and LC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) serve as the most powerful analytical tools commonly used to monitor pesticide residues in food, among other applications. However, both GC-MS and LC-MS are susceptible to matrix effects which can adversely affect quantification depending on the analyte, matrix, sample preparation, instrumentation, and operating conditions. Among the approaches that reduce matrix effects, the most common in pesticide residue applications is matrix-matched calibration because it is relatively inexpensive and simple. Also, it has been shown to work well during method validation when fortified samples are exactly matched with samples used for calibration. However, the quality of matrix-matched results in real-world analyses depends on the consistency of matrix effects among diverse samples. In this study, the variability of matrix effects was measured for 38 representative pesticides in 20 samples each (including different varieties) of rice, orange, apple, and spinach extracted using the "quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe" (QuEChERS) method for analysis by LC-MS/MS and low-pressure GC-MS. Using LC-MS/MS, only oranges gave >20% matrix effects for a few pesticides. GC-MS exhibited larger matrix effects, but as in LC-MS/MS, the differences were reasonably consistent among the 20 samples tested. Main conclusions of this study are that for the conditions utilized: (1) matrix-matching was not needed for most pesticides in the simpler food matrices; and (2) for the more complex orange matrix, acceptably accurate quantitative results were achieved by using matrix-matching even with a different sample of the same type. However, full confidence cannot be extended to matrix-matched results, and for consequential applications such as regulatory enforcement, confirmatory analyses using alternate quantitative determinations should also be conducted. © 2012.
Kim H.U.,South Korean National Institute of Animal Science |
Chen G.Q.,U.S. Department of Agriculture
BMC Genomics | Year: 2015
Background: Castor oil is the only commercial source of hydroxy fatty acid that has industrial value. The production of castor oil is hampered by the presence of the toxin ricin in its seed. Lesquerella seed also accumulates hydroxy fatty acid and is free of ricin, and thus it is being developed as a new crop for hydroxy fatty acid production. A high-throughput, large-scale sequencing of transcripts from developing lesquerella seeds was carried out by 454 pyrosequencing to generate a database for quality improvement of seed oil and other agronomic traits. Deep mining and characterization of acyl-lipid genes were conducted to uncover candidate genes for further studies of mechanisms underlying hydroxy fatty acid and seed oil synthesis. Results: A total of 651 megabases of raw sequences from an mRNA sample of developing seeds was acquired. Bioinformatic analysis of these sequences revealed 59,914 transcripts representing 26,995 unique genes that include nearly all known seed expressed genes. Based on sequence similarity with known plant proteins, about 74% (19,861) genes matched with annotated coding genes. Among them, 95% (18,868) showed highest sequence homology with Arabidopsis genes, which will allow translation of genomics and genetics findings from Arabidopsis to lesquerella. Using Arabidopsis acyl-lipid genes as queries, we searched the transcriptome assembly and identified 615 lesquerella genes involved in all known pathways of acyl-lipid metabolism. Further deep mining the transcriptome assembly led to identification of almost all lesquerella genes involved in fatty acid and triacylglycerol synthesis. Moreover, we characterized the spatial and temporal expression profiles of 15 key genes using the quantitative PCR assay. Conclusions: We have built a lesquerella seed transcriptome that provides a valuable reference in addition to the castor database for discovering genes involved in the synthesis of triacylglycerols enriched with hydroxy fatty acids. The information obtained from data mining and gene expression profiling will provide a resource not only for the study of hydroxy fatty acid metabolism, but also for the biotechnological production of hydroxy fatty acids in existing oilseed crops. © 2015 Kim and Chen; licensee BioMed Central.
Oh M.-H.,South Korean National Institute of Animal Science |
Ham J.-S.,South Korean National Institute of Animal Science |
Cox J.M.,University of New South Wales
International Journal of Food Microbiology | Year: 2012
Members of the Bacillus cereus group were isolated from rice products by centrifugation-plating and conventional spread-plating methods. Random amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) results showed broad diversity among the strains and revealed some associations among isolates from raw and cooked rice samples, at the genotypic level. A comparatively greater diversity among strains was observed in isolates from raw rice than those from cooked rice and, generally, the RAPD profiles of isolates from raw and cooked rice were different, with only a few of them common to both types of rice. The toxigenic potential of the isolates was also determined by molecular and immunoassay analyses. The results revealed that most isolates from the B. cereus group were potentially or actually toxigenic, and some isolates could produce both diarrhoeal and emetic toxins. Generally, isolates belonging to the B. cereus group with the same RAPD pattern were shown to have a similar profile of enterotoxigenicity. © 2011 Elsevier B.V..
Lee M.H.,Korea University |
Han J.H.,Kyung Hee University |
Lee J.-H.,Korea University |
Choi H.G.,South Korean National Institute of Animal Science |
And 2 more authors.
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2012
We synthesized a new probe, Mito-Naph, to visualize mitochondrial thioredoxin (Trx) activity in cells. A fluorescence off-on change is induced by disulfide cleavage of the probe, resulting from a reaction with Trx and subsequent intramolecular cyclization by the released thiolate to give a fluorescent product. By measuring the fluorescence at 540 nm, Trx activity can be detected at nanomolar concentrations (down to 50 nM) well below its physiological levels. The in vitro and in vivo Trx preference of Mito-Naph was demonstrated by fluorometric and confocal microscopic experiments. In vitro kinetic analysis of the disulfide bond cleavage revealed that the second-order rate constant for Trx is (4.04 ± 0.26) × 103 (M s) -1, approximately 5000 times faster than that for GSH. The inhibition experiments involving PX-12, a selective inhibitor of Trx, also revealed that the emission from Mito-Naph significantly decreased in PX-12 dose-dependent manners, both in living cells and in cellular protein extracts. The Trx preference was further supported by an observation that the fluorescence intensity of rat liver extract was decreased according to the Trx depletion by immunoprecipitation. On the basis of these results, it is concluded that Mito-Naph preferentially reacts with Trx, compared with other biological thiols containing amino acids in vitro and in vivo. © 2012 American Chemical Society.
Lu F.-H.,Kongju National University |
Cho M.-C.,South Korean National Institute of Animal Science |
Park Y.-J.,Kongju National University
Molecular Biology Reports | Year: 2012
Transcriptome from high throughput sequencing-by-synthesis is a good resource of molecular markers. In this study, we present utility of massively parallel sequencing by synthesis for profiling the transcriptome of red pepper (Capsicum annuum L. TF68) using 454 GSFLX pyrosequencing. Through the generation of approximately 30.63 megabases (Mb) of expressed sequence tag (EST) data with the average length of 375 base pairs (bp), 9,818 contigs and 23,712 singletons were obtained by raw reads assembly. Using BLAST alignment against NCBI non-redundant and a UniProt protein database, 30% of the tentative consensus sequences were assigned to specific function annotation, while 24% returned alignments of unknown function, leaving up to 46% with no alignment. Functional classification using FunCat revealed that sequences with putative known function were distributed cross 18 categories. All unigenes have an approximately equal distribution on chromosomes by aligning with tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) pseudomolecules. Furthermore, 1,536 high quality single nucleotide discrepancies were discovered using the Bukang mature fruit cDNA collection (dbEST ID: 23667) as a reference. Moreover, 758 simple sequence repeat (SSR) motif loci were mined from 614 contigs, from which 572 primer sets were designed. The SSR motifs corresponded to di-and tri-nucleotide motifs (27.03 and 61.92%, respectively). These molecular markers may be of great value for application in linkage mapping and association mapping research.© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011.
Park S.,South Korean National Institute of Animal Science |
Scheffler T.L.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University |
Rossie S.S.,Purdue University |
Gerrard D.E.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
Cell Calcium | Year: 2013
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is activated by upstream kinases and negatively regulated by protein phosphatases. Intracellular calcium mediates protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), which is in a heterotrimeric complex with the PR72 subunit. The PR72 subunit contains two calcium-binding sites formed by EF hands. Our previous study has shown that chronic calcium exposure decreases AMPK activity. To define the specific molecular mechanism whereby calcium can deactivate AMPK, activities of AMPK and PP2A were analyzed in C2C12 muscle cell cultures and skeletal muscle tissues from mutant pigs possessing the AMPKγ3-mutation or the ryanodine receptor (RyR1) calcium gating mutation, or both. C2C12 myotubes treated with calcium releasing agent (caffeine) for 10. h decreased (P<0.05) AICAR-induced AMPK activity to control levels and this negative effect was eliminated by ryanodine receptor stabilizer, dantrolene. Interestingly, muscle from pigs with the RyR1 mutation and C2C12 cells administered with 10. h caffeine showed higher (P<0.05) PP2A activity compared to controls. More importantly, the inhibitory effect of caffeine on AMPK activity was attenuated by the PP2A inhibitor, calyculin A or siRNA induced knockdown of PP2A. These data show the inhibitory effect of chronic calcium on AMPK activity is exerted through the activation of PP2A. © 2012.
Bhandari S.R.,South Korean National Institute of Animal Science |
Kwak J.-H.,South Korean National Institute of Animal Science
Molecules | Year: 2015
This research was conducted to evaluate glucosinolate profiles, vitamin C, total phenol, total flavonoid, and free sugar (glucose, fructose, and sucrose) content, fatty acid composition, and antioxidant activity in floret and leaf of six cauliflower and broccoli cultivars. The level of chemical constituents as well as antioxidants significantly varied among crop types, cultivars, and their different parts, in that phytochemicals such as glucosinolate were statistically higher in florets compared with leaves in both broccoli and cauliflower cultivars. In contrast, total flavonoid and free sugar were found at higher levels in the leaf parts. The Asia purple cultivar exhibited statistically higher vitamin C (649.7 mg.100 g-1), total phenol (1345.2 mg.GAE 100 g-1), and total flavonoid (632.7 mg.CE 100 g-1) contents and consequently had the highest antioxidant activity (1.12 mg.mL-1) in its florets, while Baeridom and Bridal had the highest total glucosinolate (9.66 μmol.g-1) and free sugar (318.6 mg.g-1) contents, respectively compared with other cultivars. Likewise, the major fatty acids were palmitic (23.52%-38.42%), linoleic (13.09%-18.97%), and linolenic (26.32%-51.80%) acids, which comprised the highest compositional ratio (more than 50%) of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in most cultivars. Among the antioxidants, total phenol exhibited the most significant positive correlation (r = 0.698∗) with antioxidant activity, followed by vitamin C (r = 0.522∗) and total flavonoid (r = 0.494∗), indicating their significant contributions to total antioxidant activity.
Park D.-B.,South Korean National Institute of Animal Science |
Yoon Y.-S.,Kyung Hee University
International Journal of Tourism Research | Year: 2011
This study is to develop indicators that measure sustainable rural tourism development within a sustainable framework. It was conducted via a Delphi technique and the analytical hierarchy process method. After three rounds of discussions, the panel members reached consensus on a set of 33 indicators with four dimensions. This set of community-based rural tourism development indicators can serve as a starting point for devising a set of indicators at the local and regional level in order to be useful rural tourism sector manager and administrators. The selected indicators are measureable, demand driven and practical to show the real performance in rural destination. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.