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Park M.-Y.,South Korean National Institute of Animal Science | Mun S.T.,Soonchunhyang University
Nutrition Research and Practice | Year: 2013

In this study, we examined the hepatic anti-steatosis activity of carnosic acid (CA), a phenolic compound of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) leaves, as well as its possible mechanism of action, in a high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice model. Mice were fed a HFD, or a HFD supplemented with 0.01% (w/w) CA or 0.02% (w/w) CA, for a period of 12 weeks, after which changes in body weight, blood lipid profiles, and fatty acid mechanism markers were evaluated. The 0.02% (w/w) CA diet resulted in a marked decline in steatosis grade, as well as in homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index values, intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IGTT) results, body weight gain, liver weight, and blood lipid levels (P < 0.05). The expression level of hepatic lipogenic genes, such as sterol regulating element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), liver-fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP), stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1), and fatty acid synthase (FAS), was significantly lower in mice fed 0.01% (w/w) CA and 0.02% (w/w) CA diets than that in the HFD group; on the other hand, the expression level of β-oxidation-related genes, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPAR-α), carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT-1), and acyl-CoA oxidase (ACO), was higher in mice fed a 0.02% (w/w) CA diet, than that in the HFD group (P < 0.05). In addition, the hepatic content of palmitic acid (C16:0), palmitoleic acid (C16:1), and oleic acid (C18:1) was significantly lower in mice fed the 0.02% (w/w) CA diet than that in the HFD group (P < 0.05). These results suggest that orally administered CA suppressed HFD-induced hepatic steatosis and fatty liver-related metabolic disorders through decrease of de novo lipogenesis and fatty acid elongation and increase of fatty acid β-oxidation in mice. © 2013 The Korean Nutrition Society and the Korean Society of Community Nutrition.

Lee M.H.,Korea University | Han J.H.,Kyung Hee University | Lee J.-H.,Korea University | Choi H.G.,South Korean National Institute of Animal Science | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2012

We synthesized a new probe, Mito-Naph, to visualize mitochondrial thioredoxin (Trx) activity in cells. A fluorescence off-on change is induced by disulfide cleavage of the probe, resulting from a reaction with Trx and subsequent intramolecular cyclization by the released thiolate to give a fluorescent product. By measuring the fluorescence at 540 nm, Trx activity can be detected at nanomolar concentrations (down to 50 nM) well below its physiological levels. The in vitro and in vivo Trx preference of Mito-Naph was demonstrated by fluorometric and confocal microscopic experiments. In vitro kinetic analysis of the disulfide bond cleavage revealed that the second-order rate constant for Trx is (4.04 ± 0.26) × 103 (M s) -1, approximately 5000 times faster than that for GSH. The inhibition experiments involving PX-12, a selective inhibitor of Trx, also revealed that the emission from Mito-Naph significantly decreased in PX-12 dose-dependent manners, both in living cells and in cellular protein extracts. The Trx preference was further supported by an observation that the fluorescence intensity of rat liver extract was decreased according to the Trx depletion by immunoprecipitation. On the basis of these results, it is concluded that Mito-Naph preferentially reacts with Trx, compared with other biological thiols containing amino acids in vitro and in vivo. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Park S.,South Korean National Institute of Animal Science | Scheffler T.L.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | Rossie S.S.,Purdue University | Gerrard D.E.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
Cell Calcium | Year: 2013

AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is activated by upstream kinases and negatively regulated by protein phosphatases. Intracellular calcium mediates protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), which is in a heterotrimeric complex with the PR72 subunit. The PR72 subunit contains two calcium-binding sites formed by EF hands. Our previous study has shown that chronic calcium exposure decreases AMPK activity. To define the specific molecular mechanism whereby calcium can deactivate AMPK, activities of AMPK and PP2A were analyzed in C2C12 muscle cell cultures and skeletal muscle tissues from mutant pigs possessing the AMPKγ3-mutation or the ryanodine receptor (RyR1) calcium gating mutation, or both. C2C12 myotubes treated with calcium releasing agent (caffeine) for 10. h decreased (P<0.05) AICAR-induced AMPK activity to control levels and this negative effect was eliminated by ryanodine receptor stabilizer, dantrolene. Interestingly, muscle from pigs with the RyR1 mutation and C2C12 cells administered with 10. h caffeine showed higher (P<0.05) PP2A activity compared to controls. More importantly, the inhibitory effect of caffeine on AMPK activity was attenuated by the PP2A inhibitor, calyculin A or siRNA induced knockdown of PP2A. These data show the inhibitory effect of chronic calcium on AMPK activity is exerted through the activation of PP2A. © 2012.

Kwon H.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Kwon H.,South Korean National Institute of Animal Science | Lehotay S.J.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Geis-Asteggiante L.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Geis-Asteggiante L.,University of Maryland University College
Journal of Chromatography A | Year: 2012

Gas and liquid chromatography (GC and LC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) serve as the most powerful analytical tools commonly used to monitor pesticide residues in food, among other applications. However, both GC-MS and LC-MS are susceptible to matrix effects which can adversely affect quantification depending on the analyte, matrix, sample preparation, instrumentation, and operating conditions. Among the approaches that reduce matrix effects, the most common in pesticide residue applications is matrix-matched calibration because it is relatively inexpensive and simple. Also, it has been shown to work well during method validation when fortified samples are exactly matched with samples used for calibration. However, the quality of matrix-matched results in real-world analyses depends on the consistency of matrix effects among diverse samples. In this study, the variability of matrix effects was measured for 38 representative pesticides in 20 samples each (including different varieties) of rice, orange, apple, and spinach extracted using the "quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe" (QuEChERS) method for analysis by LC-MS/MS and low-pressure GC-MS. Using LC-MS/MS, only oranges gave >20% matrix effects for a few pesticides. GC-MS exhibited larger matrix effects, but as in LC-MS/MS, the differences were reasonably consistent among the 20 samples tested. Main conclusions of this study are that for the conditions utilized: (1) matrix-matching was not needed for most pesticides in the simpler food matrices; and (2) for the more complex orange matrix, acceptably accurate quantitative results were achieved by using matrix-matching even with a different sample of the same type. However, full confidence cannot be extended to matrix-matched results, and for consequential applications such as regulatory enforcement, confirmatory analyses using alternate quantitative determinations should also be conducted. © 2012.

Park D.-B.,South Korean National Institute of Animal Science | Yoon Y.-S.,Kyung Hee University
International Journal of Tourism Research | Year: 2011

This study is to develop indicators that measure sustainable rural tourism development within a sustainable framework. It was conducted via a Delphi technique and the analytical hierarchy process method. After three rounds of discussions, the panel members reached consensus on a set of 33 indicators with four dimensions. This set of community-based rural tourism development indicators can serve as a starting point for devising a set of indicators at the local and regional level in order to be useful rural tourism sector manager and administrators. The selected indicators are measureable, demand driven and practical to show the real performance in rural destination. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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