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Islam M.R.,Chonbuk National University | Roh Y.S.,Chonbuk National University | Kim J.,South Korea National institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation | Lim C.W.,Chonbuk National University | Kim B.,Chonbuk National University
Toxicology Letters | Year: 2013

Mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON), a secondary metabolite produced by Fusarium fungi, is a contaminant in wheat, barley, and corn worldwide. It has been suggested that DON exhibits toxicity in various organs. Due to the lack of immunotoxicity data for DON, we investigated the differential immunomodulatory effects of DON in mice. DON was orally administered to female BALB/c mice at a dose of 0, 0.5, or 2mg/kg body weight for 14 days and various immunotoxicity tests were performed with standard protocols. The population of CD19+ and CD11c+ cells in the spleen and mesenteric lymph node (MLN) and of F4/80+ cells in the spleen was significantly decreased in DON-treated mice, whereas the level of CD8+ and CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ cells in the spleen and CD4+ T cells in MLN was significantly increased. In intra-epithelial lymphocytes (IELs) of the small intestine, the population of CD4 + and CD19+ cells was increased but that of CD8+ cells was decreased. Levels of CD4 + and CD8+ cells were decreased in lamina propria lymphocytes (LPLs) of small intestine; however, the level of CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes was increased but that of CD19+ cells was decreased in Peyer's patches lymphocytes (PPLs). Normalized expression of TLR4 in spleen, TLR9 in PPs, and TLR2, TLR3 and TLR4 in MLNs was significantly decreased, whereas expression of TLR5 and TLR9 was increased in spleen. The concentration of IgA and IgE was decreased and increased, respectively, in serum; however, the mucosal IgA level was significantly increased in the duodenum. Levels of IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, and IL-6 were significantly increased in serum. Furthermore, DON induced apoptosis in spleen, MLNs, and PPs, and DON-induced apoptosis was promoted by increased expression of Bax and decreased expression of Bcl-2. The autophagy genes Atg5 and Beclin-1 were up-regulated in spleen but down-regulated in MLN. After priming of the RAW 264.7 macrophage cell line with different TLR ligands, DON exposure differentially modulated IL-1β, IL-10, and TNF-α production. These results indicate that DON can cause various immunomodulatory effects in mice, creating a milieu that might allow invasion by other microorganisms. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Kim D.,South Korea National institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation
Journal of cosmetic science | Year: 2012

Sixteen UV filters were simultaneously analyzed using the high-performance liquid chromatographic method. They were drometrizole (USAN Drometrizole), 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (USAN Enzacamene), menthyl anthranilate (USAN Menthyl anthranilate), benzophenone-3 (USAN Oxybenzone), benzophenone-8 (USAN Dioxybenzone), butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane (USAN Avobenzone), ethylhexyl triazone (USAN Octyl triazone), octocrylene (USAN Octocrylene), ethylhexyl dimethyl p-aminobenzoic acid (USAN Padimate O), ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (USAN Octinoxate), p-aminobenzoic acid (USAN Aminobenzoic acid), 2-phenylbenzimidazole-5-sulfonic acid (USAN Ensulizole), isoamyl p-methoxycinnamate (USAN Amiloxate), and recent UV filters such as diethylhexyl butamidotriazone (USAN Iscotrizinol), methylene bis-benzotriazolyl tetramethylbutylphenol (USAN Bisoctrizole), and terephthalylidene dicamphor sulfonic acid (USAN Ecamsule). Separation of the UV filters was carried out in a C(18) column with a gradient of methanol-phosphate buffer, and the UV detection was at 300, 320, or 360 nm without any interference. The limits of detection were between 0.08 and 1.94 μg/ml, and the limits of quantitation were between 0.24 and 5.89 μg/ml. The extracting solvent for the UV filters was methanol, except for ethylhexyl triazone and methylene bis-benzotriazolyl tetramethylbutylphenol, which were prepared with tetrahydrofuran. The recoveries from spiked samples were between 94.90% and 116.54%, depending on the matrixes used. The developed method was applied to 23 sunscreens obtained from local markets, and the results were acceptable to their own criteria and to maximum authorized concentrations. Consequently, these results would provide a simple extracting method and a simultaneous determination for various UV filters, which can improve the quality control process as well as the environmental monitoring of sunscreens.

Ok H.E.,Chung - Ang University | Choi S.-W.,Korea Food Research Institute | Kim M.,South Korea National institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation | Chun H.S.,Chung - Ang University
Food Chemistry | Year: 2014

High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) were compared to validate a method for determination of zearalenone (ZON) in noodles, cereal snacks, and infant formulas. The limits of detection and quantification in HPLC and UPLC were found to be 4.0 and 13.0 μg kg-1 and 2.5 and 8.3 μg kg-1, respectively. The average recoveries of ZON by HPLC and UPLC ranged from 79.1% to 105.3% and from 85.1% to 114.5%, respectively. The measurement uncertainties of the two methods for ZON determination were within the maximum standard uncertainty. The two methods showed that the levels of ZON in 163 naturally contaminated samples ranged from 4.3 to 8.3 μg kg-1 by HPLC and 3.1 to 17.6 μg kg-1 by UPLC. These findings indicate that either method is suitable for the determination of ZON in noodles, cereal snacks, and infant formulas, but UPLC gives faster results with better sensitivity. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Park S.H.,HanSung Co. Food Research Center | Lim H.S.,South Korea National institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation | Hwang S.Y.,Hankyong National University
Food Science and Technology International | Year: 2012

The effects of addition of turmeric powder (0%, 2%, 4%, 6% and 8%) were examined in order to obtain an antioxidant-enriched cake with good physico-chemical and sensorial properties. The rheological properties of doughs were evaluated using dynamic rheological measurements. Physical properties, curcumin content, radical scavenging activity (RSA-DPPH assay) and sensory analysis (hedonic test) of the supplemented cake were determined. Addition of turmeric powder up to 8% caused significant changes on dough characteristics and on cake rheological properties. The highest curcumin (203 mg/kg) and RSA-DPPH activity (45%) were achieved in the cake having the highest percentage of turmeric powder (8%); however, this sample showed the worst results regarding the rheological properties. Moreover, by sensory evaluation this cake sample was not acceptable. A 6% substitution of wheat flour with turmeric powder showed acceptable sensory scores which were comparable to those of 0-4% turmeric cakes. This indicated that up to 6% level of turmeric powder might be included in cake formulation. © 2012 The Author(s).

Yun J.,South Korea National institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation
Phytomedicine | Year: 2014

Methamphetamine (METH) is a psychomotor stimulant that produces hyperlocomotion in rodents. l-tetrahydropalmatine (l-THP) is an active ingredient found in Corydalis ternata which has been used as a traditional herbal preparation in Asian countries for centuries, however, the effect of l-THP on METH-induced phenotypes largely unknown. In this study, to evaluate the effect of l-THP on METH-induced psychotropic effects, rats were pretreated with l-THP (10 and 15 mg/kg) before acute METH injection, following which the total distance the rats moved in an hour was measured. To clarify a possible mechanism underlying the effect of l-THP on METH-induced behavioral changes, dopamine receptor mRNA expression levels in the striatum of the rats was measured following the locomotor activity study. In addition, the effect of l-THP (10 and 15 mg/kg) on serotonergic (5-HTergic) neuronal pathway activation was studied by measurement of 5-HT (80 μg/10 μl/mouse)-induced head twitch response (HTR) in mice. l-THP administration significantly inhibited both hyperlocomotion in rats and HTR in mice. l-THP inhibited climbing behavior-induced by dopaminergic (DAergic) neuronal activation in mice. Furthermore, l-THP attenuated the decrease in dopamine D3 receptor mRNA expression levels in the striatum of the rats induced by METH. These results suggest that l-THP can ameliorate behavioral phenotype induced by METH through regulation of 5-HT neuronal activity and dopamine D3 receptor expression. © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

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