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Park S.H.,HanSung Co. Food Research Center | Lim H.S.,South Korea National institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation | Hwang S.Y.,Hankyong National University
Food Science and Technology International | Year: 2012

The effects of addition of turmeric powder (0%, 2%, 4%, 6% and 8%) were examined in order to obtain an antioxidant-enriched cake with good physico-chemical and sensorial properties. The rheological properties of doughs were evaluated using dynamic rheological measurements. Physical properties, curcumin content, radical scavenging activity (RSA-DPPH assay) and sensory analysis (hedonic test) of the supplemented cake were determined. Addition of turmeric powder up to 8% caused significant changes on dough characteristics and on cake rheological properties. The highest curcumin (203 mg/kg) and RSA-DPPH activity (45%) were achieved in the cake having the highest percentage of turmeric powder (8%); however, this sample showed the worst results regarding the rheological properties. Moreover, by sensory evaluation this cake sample was not acceptable. A 6% substitution of wheat flour with turmeric powder showed acceptable sensory scores which were comparable to those of 0-4% turmeric cakes. This indicated that up to 6% level of turmeric powder might be included in cake formulation. © 2012 The Author(s).


Choi S.-J.,Seoul Womens University | Lee J.K.,South Korea National institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation | Jeong J.,South Korea National institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation | Choy J.-H.,Ewha Womans University
Molecular and Cellular Toxicology | Year: 2013

Toxicity evaluation of inorganic nanoparticles in cell lines and in whole animals has been extensively explored in recent years. However, conflicting results have been reported regarding size-dependent toxicity and biokinetics in vitro and in vivo, and thus, basic questions regarding whether nanoparticles, ranged from 1 to 100 nm in size, are comparatively more toxic than larger-sized particles remain unanswered. This may be closely associated with changes in physicochemical properties of nanoparticles in biological fluids. Understanding in vivo physiological barriers, biological fates, and absorption mechanism of nanoparticles upon exposure routes will be useful to predict their toxicity potential. This review will highlight the critical points to be considered in order to evaluate the toxicity of inorganic nanoparticles, and discuss the issues and challenges emerging in the field of nanotoxicology. © 2013 The Korean Society of Toxicogenomics and Toxicoproteomics and Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Cho W.-S.,Dong - A University | Kang B.-C.,Seoul National University | Lee J.K.,South Korea National institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation | Jeong J.,South Korea National institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation | And 2 more authors.
Particle and Fibre Toxicology | Year: 2013

Background: The in vivo kinetics of nanoparticles is an essential to understand the hazard of nanoparticles. Here, the absorption, distribution, and excretion patterns of titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles following oral administration were evaluated. Methods: Nanoparticles were orally administered to rats for 13 weeks (7 days/week). Samples of blood, tissues (liver, kidneys, spleen, and brain), urine, and feces were obtained at necropsy. The level of Ti or Zn in each sample was measured using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Results: TiO2 nanoparticles had extremely low absorption, while ZnO nanoparticles had higher absorption and a clear dose-response curve. Tissue distribution data showed that TiO2 nanoparticles were not significantly increased in sampled organs, even in the group receiving the highest dose (1041.5 mg/kg body weight). In contrast, Zn concentrations in the liver and kidney were significantly increased compared with the vehicle control. ZnO nanoparticles in the spleen and brain were minimally increased. Ti concentrations were not significantly increased in the urine, while Zn levels were significantly increased in the urine, again with a clear dose-response curve. Very high concentrations of Ti were detected in the feces, while much less Zn was detected in the feces. Conclusions: Compared with TiO2 nanoparticles, ZnO nanoparticles demonstrated higher absorption and more extensive organ distribution when administered orally. The higher absorption of ZnO than TiO2 nanoparticles might be due to the higher dissolution rate in acidic gastric fluid, although more thorough studies are needed. © 2013 Cho et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Kim S.A.,Division 5 Technology | Yun S.J.,Division 5 Technology | Lee S.H.,South Korea National institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation | Hwang I.G.,South Korea National institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation | Rhee M.S.,Division 5 Technology
Food Control | Year: 2013

This study assessed the potential microbial hazard posed by temperature increases on refrigerated and frozen food stored in car trunk exposed to sunlight. The internal temperatures in the trunk and of food items (egg, milk, tofu, fresh meat, and frozen meat) stored in it during summer were measured at 10 min intervals for up to 3 h (12:00 PM to 15:00 PM). Trunk temperature steadily increased from 32.3 °C up to 41.5 °C, with longer exposure times. Food temperature also increased substantially during this period, reaching 33.5 °C (frozen meat), 35.3 °C (milk), 35.6 °C (tofu), 37.0 °C (egg), and 38.4 °C (fresh meat). Cloud cover and solar radiation affected car and food temperature, with lower cover and higher radiation associated with higher food temperatures (7.1 °C higher in the car trunk when compared to a situation of extensive cloud cover and low radiation, and 6.9 °C higher for eggs, 5.9 °C for milk, 5.0 °C for tofu, and 7.4 °C and 5.5 °C for fresh and frozen meat, respectively). The temperature of refrigerated foods (egg, milk, and fresh meat) reached 20 °C within 40 min (tofu: 60 min) and 30 °C within 90-110 min (tofu: 130 min). The temperature of frozen meat reached to danger zone (5-60 °C), which is associated with bacterial growth, after 90 min. Consumers should therefore realize the importance of time-temperature control, particularly in warm and sunny weather. Purchased foods should be transferred to a refrigerated environment as fast as possible, and the car trunk should be avoided. The present results can be used for consumer education, contributing to the recognition of the importance of food safety. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Cho W.-S.,University of Edinburgh | Cho W.-S.,Dong - A University | Duffin R.,University of Edinburgh | Bradley M.,University of Edinburgh | And 5 more authors.
Particle and Fibre Toxicology | Year: 2013

Background: Hazard identification for risk assessment of nanoparticles (NPs) is mainly composed of in vitro cell-based assays and in vivo animal experimentation. The rapidly increasing number and functionalizations of NPs makes in vivo toxicity tests undesirable on both ethical and financial grounds, creating an urgent need for development of in vitro cell-based assays that accurately predict in vivo toxicity and facilitate safe nanotechnology.Methods: In this study, we used 9 different NPs (CeO2, TiO2, carbon black, SiO2, NiO, Co3O4, Cr2O3, CuO, and ZnO). As an in vivo toxicity endpoint, the acute lung inflammogenicity in a rat instillation model was compared with the in vitro toxicity endpoints comprising cytotoxicity, pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, or haemolytic potential. For in vitro assays, 8 different cell-based assays were used including epithelial cells, monocytic/macrophage cells, human erythrocytes, and combined culture.Results: ZnO and CuO NPs acting via soluble toxic ions showed positive results in most of assays and were consistent with the lung inflammation data. When compared in in vitro assays at the same surface area dose (30 cm2/mL), NPs that were low solubility and therefore acting via surface reactivity had no convincing activity, except for CeO2 NP. Cytotoxicity in differentiated peripheral blood mononuclear cells was the most accurate showing 89% accuracy and 11% false negativity in predicting acute lung inflammogenicity. However, the haemolysis assay showed 100% consistency with the lung inflammation if any dose, having statistical significance was considered positivity. Other cell-based in vitro assays showed a poorer correlation with in vivo inflammogenicity.Conclusions: Based on the toxicity mechanisms of NPs, two different approaches can be applied for prediction of in vivo lung inflammogenicity. Most in vitro assays were good at detecting NPs that act via soluble ions (i.e., ZnO and CuO NP). However, in vitro assays were limited in detecting NPs acting via surface reactivity as their mechanism of toxicity, except for the haemolysis assay. © 2013 Cho et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Yun J.,South Korea National institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation
Phytomedicine | Year: 2014

Methamphetamine (METH) is a psychomotor stimulant that produces hyperlocomotion in rodents. l-tetrahydropalmatine (l-THP) is an active ingredient found in Corydalis ternata which has been used as a traditional herbal preparation in Asian countries for centuries, however, the effect of l-THP on METH-induced phenotypes largely unknown. In this study, to evaluate the effect of l-THP on METH-induced psychotropic effects, rats were pretreated with l-THP (10 and 15 mg/kg) before acute METH injection, following which the total distance the rats moved in an hour was measured. To clarify a possible mechanism underlying the effect of l-THP on METH-induced behavioral changes, dopamine receptor mRNA expression levels in the striatum of the rats was measured following the locomotor activity study. In addition, the effect of l-THP (10 and 15 mg/kg) on serotonergic (5-HTergic) neuronal pathway activation was studied by measurement of 5-HT (80 μg/10 μl/mouse)-induced head twitch response (HTR) in mice. l-THP administration significantly inhibited both hyperlocomotion in rats and HTR in mice. l-THP inhibited climbing behavior-induced by dopaminergic (DAergic) neuronal activation in mice. Furthermore, l-THP attenuated the decrease in dopamine D3 receptor mRNA expression levels in the striatum of the rats induced by METH. These results suggest that l-THP can ameliorate behavioral phenotype induced by METH through regulation of 5-HT neuronal activity and dopamine D3 receptor expression. © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.


Islam M.R.,Chonbuk National University | Roh Y.S.,Chonbuk National University | Kim J.,South Korea National institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation | Lim C.W.,Chonbuk National University | Kim B.,Chonbuk National University
Toxicology Letters | Year: 2013

Mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON), a secondary metabolite produced by Fusarium fungi, is a contaminant in wheat, barley, and corn worldwide. It has been suggested that DON exhibits toxicity in various organs. Due to the lack of immunotoxicity data for DON, we investigated the differential immunomodulatory effects of DON in mice. DON was orally administered to female BALB/c mice at a dose of 0, 0.5, or 2mg/kg body weight for 14 days and various immunotoxicity tests were performed with standard protocols. The population of CD19+ and CD11c+ cells in the spleen and mesenteric lymph node (MLN) and of F4/80+ cells in the spleen was significantly decreased in DON-treated mice, whereas the level of CD8+ and CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ cells in the spleen and CD4+ T cells in MLN was significantly increased. In intra-epithelial lymphocytes (IELs) of the small intestine, the population of CD4 + and CD19+ cells was increased but that of CD8+ cells was decreased. Levels of CD4 + and CD8+ cells were decreased in lamina propria lymphocytes (LPLs) of small intestine; however, the level of CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes was increased but that of CD19+ cells was decreased in Peyer's patches lymphocytes (PPLs). Normalized expression of TLR4 in spleen, TLR9 in PPs, and TLR2, TLR3 and TLR4 in MLNs was significantly decreased, whereas expression of TLR5 and TLR9 was increased in spleen. The concentration of IgA and IgE was decreased and increased, respectively, in serum; however, the mucosal IgA level was significantly increased in the duodenum. Levels of IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, and IL-6 were significantly increased in serum. Furthermore, DON induced apoptosis in spleen, MLNs, and PPs, and DON-induced apoptosis was promoted by increased expression of Bax and decreased expression of Bcl-2. The autophagy genes Atg5 and Beclin-1 were up-regulated in spleen but down-regulated in MLN. After priming of the RAW 264.7 macrophage cell line with different TLR ligands, DON exposure differentially modulated IL-1β, IL-10, and TNF-α production. These results indicate that DON can cause various immunomodulatory effects in mice, creating a milieu that might allow invasion by other microorganisms. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Kim D.,South Korea National institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation
Journal of cosmetic science | Year: 2012

Sixteen UV filters were simultaneously analyzed using the high-performance liquid chromatographic method. They were drometrizole (USAN Drometrizole), 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (USAN Enzacamene), menthyl anthranilate (USAN Menthyl anthranilate), benzophenone-3 (USAN Oxybenzone), benzophenone-8 (USAN Dioxybenzone), butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane (USAN Avobenzone), ethylhexyl triazone (USAN Octyl triazone), octocrylene (USAN Octocrylene), ethylhexyl dimethyl p-aminobenzoic acid (USAN Padimate O), ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (USAN Octinoxate), p-aminobenzoic acid (USAN Aminobenzoic acid), 2-phenylbenzimidazole-5-sulfonic acid (USAN Ensulizole), isoamyl p-methoxycinnamate (USAN Amiloxate), and recent UV filters such as diethylhexyl butamidotriazone (USAN Iscotrizinol), methylene bis-benzotriazolyl tetramethylbutylphenol (USAN Bisoctrizole), and terephthalylidene dicamphor sulfonic acid (USAN Ecamsule). Separation of the UV filters was carried out in a C(18) column with a gradient of methanol-phosphate buffer, and the UV detection was at 300, 320, or 360 nm without any interference. The limits of detection were between 0.08 and 1.94 μg/ml, and the limits of quantitation were between 0.24 and 5.89 μg/ml. The extracting solvent for the UV filters was methanol, except for ethylhexyl triazone and methylene bis-benzotriazolyl tetramethylbutylphenol, which were prepared with tetrahydrofuran. The recoveries from spiked samples were between 94.90% and 116.54%, depending on the matrixes used. The developed method was applied to 23 sunscreens obtained from local markets, and the results were acceptable to their own criteria and to maximum authorized concentrations. Consequently, these results would provide a simple extracting method and a simultaneous determination for various UV filters, which can improve the quality control process as well as the environmental monitoring of sunscreens.


Ok H.E.,Chung - Ang University | Choi S.-W.,Korea Food Research Institute | Kim M.,South Korea National institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation | Chun H.S.,Chung - Ang University
Food Chemistry | Year: 2014

High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) were compared to validate a method for determination of zearalenone (ZON) in noodles, cereal snacks, and infant formulas. The limits of detection and quantification in HPLC and UPLC were found to be 4.0 and 13.0 μg kg-1 and 2.5 and 8.3 μg kg-1, respectively. The average recoveries of ZON by HPLC and UPLC ranged from 79.1% to 105.3% and from 85.1% to 114.5%, respectively. The measurement uncertainties of the two methods for ZON determination were within the maximum standard uncertainty. The two methods showed that the levels of ZON in 163 naturally contaminated samples ranged from 4.3 to 8.3 μg kg-1 by HPLC and 3.1 to 17.6 μg kg-1 by UPLC. These findings indicate that either method is suitable for the determination of ZON in noodles, cereal snacks, and infant formulas, but UPLC gives faster results with better sensitivity. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Yun J.,South Korea National institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation
Phytomedicine | Year: 2014

Methamphetamine is a psychomotor stimulant that produces hyperlocomotion in rodents. Limonene (a cyclic terpene from citrus essential oils) has been reported to induce sedative effects. In this study, we demonstrated that limonene administration significantly inhibited serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT)-induced head twitch response in mice. In rats, pretreatment with limonene decreased hyperlocomotion induced by methamphetamine injection. In addition, limonene reversed the increase in dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens of rats given methamphetamine. These results suggest that limonene may inhibit stimulant-induced behavioral changes via regulating dopamine levels and 5-HT receptor function. © 2013 Elsevier GmbH.

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