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Gorbach V.V.,Petrozavodsk State University | Saarinen K.,South Karelia Allergy and Environment Institute | Reznichenko E.S.,Petrozavodsk State University
Zoologicheskii Zhurnal | Year: 2010

Ecology of the poplar admiral was studied in periphery of its range over 19 years (1990-2008), including seasonal phenomena, spatial distribution, and dynamics of abundance and settling of the species. The spatial organization of territorial grouping of the species was studied in one of the local areas. The flying period of butterflies in Eastern Fennoscandia is divided into three phases: observed flight of males, latent activity, and observed flight of females. Males emerge more than 10 days before females. The difference is likely to be one of the reasons for strong reduction in the butterfly abundance. The asynchrony observed in the abundance of the butterflies in different areas was explained by the influence of local factors. In the years of high abundance, the proportion of occupied areas increased. The analysis of the curves of the settling and abundance showed a trend of colonization of vacant areas. Within the occupied area, the butterflies are irregularly distributed. The presence of areas with constantly moistened soils and aspen trees in the forest stands are the main factors responsible for butterfly aggregations. Observations of the marked individuals showed that the maximum distance covered by a butterfly was 4.8 km. The butterfly moved freely across all the study area, and no single accumulation of butterflies isolated from the others was registered. All the movements are shown to be local. The distance of these movements, according to the exponential model, reached 6-7 km; the grouping itself is classified as subpopulation - a structural unit of large spatially differentiated population. The high mobility of poplar admiral ensures migration of individuals between the populations and colonization of vacant habitats as well. Source


Gorbach V.V.,Petrozavodsk State University | Saarinen K.,South Karelia Allergy and Environment Institute | Reznichenko E.S.,Petrozavodsk State University
Entomological Review | Year: 2010

The ecology of the poplar admiral was studied in the periphery of its range for over 19 years (1990-2008), including seasonal phenomena, spatial distribution, and dynamics of abundance and dispersal of the species. The spatial organization of population of the species was studied in one of the local areas. The flying period of butterflies in Eastern Fennoscandia is divided into three phases: the observed flight of males, latent activity, and observed flight of females. The males emerge more than 10 days earlier than the females. The difference is likely to be one of the reasons for strong reduction in the butterfly abundance. The asynchrony of dynamics in different areas was explained by the influence of local factors. In the years of high abundance, the proportion of occupied areas increased. Analysis of the dispersal and abundance curves showed a trend for colonization of vacant areas. Within the occupied area, the butterflies are irregularly distributed. The presence of areas with constantly moist soils and aspen trees in the forest stands are the main factors responsible for butterfly aggregations. Observations of the marked individuals showed that the maximum distance covered by a butterfly was 4.8 km. The butterfly moved freely across all the study area, and no single accumulation of butterflies isolated from the others was recorded. All the movements are shown to be local. The distance of these movements, according to the exponential model, reached 6-7 km; the grouping itself is classified as a subpopulation, i. e., a structural unit of a large spatially differentiated population. The high mobility of the poplar admiral ensures migration of individuals between the populations and colonization of vacant habitats. © 2010 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. Source


Gonneau C.,CNRS Center of Evolutionary and Functional Ecology | Gonneau C.,University of Lorraine | Gonneau C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Jersakova J.,University of South Bohemia | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Ecology | Year: 2014

Summary: Some forest understorey plants recover carbon (C) not only from their own photosynthesis, but also from mycorrhizal fungi colonizing their roots. How these mixotrophic plants use the resources obtained from mycorrhizal and photosynthetic sources remains unknown. We investigated C sources and allocation in mixotrophic perennial orchids from the genus Epipactis. Based on the assumption that fungal biomass has high δ13C and N content, while photosynthetic biomass has lower δ13C and N content, we indirectly estimated the respective contributions of these two resources to various organs, at various times over the growth season. Fully heterotrophic and fully autotrophic plants from the same sites were used as references for δ13C and N content of biomass purely issuing from fungi and photosynthesis, respectively. In four investigated populations, the biomass shifted from fully heterotrophic in young spring shoots to 80-100% autotrophic in leaves and fruits at fruiting time, suggesting that photosynthesis supported mostly fruiting costs. In addition, fungal colonization decreased in roots over this period. Based on δ13C and N content, below-ground organs and young spring shoots from green (mixotrophic) individuals and spontaneous achlorophyllous variants (fully heterotrophic) displayed similar fungal C contributions. Similar fungal contributions were also found in shoots of individuals that were either sprouting (and thus partially photosynthetic) or dormant (and thus fully heterotrophic) in the previous years. Therefore, fungal C supported mostly young spring shoots and below-ground organs. Although experimentally shaded plants had decreased contributions of photosynthetic C in shoots, experimentally defoliated plants showed no increase in fungal C contribution as compared with non-defoliated controls. Strikingly, these defoliated plants maintained the same seed production: they likely compensated defoliation by increasing stem and fruit photosynthesis. Synthesis. We propose a falsifiable model of C resource allocation in mixotrophic orchids, where mycorrhizal fungi mostly support below-ground organs and survival, while photosynthesis mostly supports above-ground sexual reproduction, but not below-ground reserves. We discuss how this allocation pattern, where seed production depends on photosynthesis, complicates the evolutionary route to full heterotrophy in mixotrophic orchids. © 2014 British Ecological Society. Source


Jantunen J.,South Karelia Allergy and Environment Institute | Saarinen K.,South Karelia Allergy and Environment Institute | Rantio-Lehtimaki A.,University of Turku
Aerobiologia | Year: 2012

In order to study allergic people responding to daily changes in pollen concentrations, we compared personal diary data on allergic symptoms and the use of allergy medicines to daily pollen counts during the two unequal alder and birch pollen seasons of 2009 and 2010. Almost 90% of the 61 subjects with physician-diagnosed birch pollinosis developed con-junctival, nasal or other symptoms during the peak birch pollination. Most subjects (95%) also reported symptoms during the alder pollination. Despite a delay between the most severe symptoms and the pollen peaks and the increased risk of allergy symptoms between the alder and birch pollen peaks at much lower pollen concentrations, the number of subjects with allergy symptoms correlated with the daily pollen concentrations in both years (r 09 = 0.35, r 10 = 0.36, p < 0.01). The positive correlation was even stronger (r 09 = 0.69, r 10 = 0.74, p < 0.001) in relation to the cumulative sum of daily concentrations. The use of allergy medicines precisely followed the abundance of allergy symptoms in both years (r 09 = 0.96, r 10 = 0.70, p < 0.001). We conclude that there is a fair correlation between the daily allergy symptoms and the particular pollen concentrations, but the risk of developing symptoms at low, moderate and high concentrations is affected by the progression of the pollen season. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011. Source


Jantunen J.,South Karelia Allergy and Environment Institute | Saarinen K.,South Karelia Allergy and Environment Institute
Aerobiologia | Year: 2011

Pollen transport into houses via clothing was studied on different types of fabrics after clothing was aired or worn outdoors. After walking through grassland, 68 pollen grains/cm 2 were found on clothes (tape samples). The amount of grass pollen, and especially pollen from insect-pollinated plants, increased from the shirt towards the shoes. The amount of pollen on clothes aired outdoors in a yard depended on the concentration in the ambient air and the texture of the fabrics. On vacuumed samples, 1.2 grains/cm 2/h adhered to the furry fabric of fleece and wool, whereas only 0.3 grains/cm 2/h adhered to a tight weave polyamide coat and a denim jacket. A moist cotton shirt gave slightly higher pollen counts in both the tape (8.6 grains/cm 2/h) and the vacuumed samples (1.0 grains/cm 2/h) compared to a dry shirt (5.6 and 0.6 grains/cm 2/h), but the difference was not significant. Tape samples gave tenfold higher pollen numbers compared to vacuumed samples, probably due to the more optimal location of the tape sampling area on top of the shoulders. We conclude that clothing constitutes an important route for carrying allergenic pollen into houses. Pollen transport can be decreased by shaking outdoor clothing before entering a residence. In our case, shaking removed 68% pollen grains from trousers. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

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