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White Hall, IL, United States

Defnet E.,05 South Goodwin Avenue | Schmidt S.J.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign
Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization | Year: 2016

Reduction of sodium in foods is a top priority in today’s food industry. However, sodium reduction, due to its vital importance as a tastant, as well as its contribution to many other food properties, is no simple task. This study investigated the mobility of sodium ions, the ionic binding of sodium ions to xanthan gum, a popular functional hydrocolloid used in many processed foods, and the effect of sodium ions on the apparent viscosity of full-fat and reduced-fat model emulsion systems with increasing concentrations of added sodium, ranging from 0 to 480 mg added sodium per 30 g serving. 23Na NMR spectroscopy was utilized to measure sodium ion mobility, determined by both longitudinal (T1) and transverse (T2) relaxation times, and sodium binding, expressed by the ratio of bound to total sodium peak areas as the sodium concentration in the system increased. It was found that apparent viscosity increased, then decreased with increasing sodium concentration, and the concentration at which apparent viscosity began to decrease was higher for the reduced-fat compared to the full-fat emulsion system. The sodium mobility and sodium binding did not seem to be directly affected by pH. The characterization of sodium mobility, binding, and apparent viscosity in full-fat and reduced-fat model emulsion systems provides a foundation upon which further effects of sodium binding and functionality, including saltiness perception, in food matrices can be investigated. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York

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