Gatineau F.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development |
Bonnot F.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development |
Hong Yen T.T.,South Fruit Res Institute |
Tuan D.H.,South Fruit Res Institute |
And 2 more authors.
Fruits | Year: 2010
Introduction. The effects of imidacloprid and fenobucarb insecticides on the dynamics of the psyllid Diaphorina citri and on the incidence of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Ca. L. a.), the putative causal agent of Huanglongbing disease (HLB), were studied in a field experiment. Materials and methods. The experimental design consisted of three independent 0.5-ha Citrus orchards planted with disease-free HLB-susceptible orange trees, located in a Citrus producing area seriously affected by HLB. Imidacloprid was applied monthly to the trunks in one orchard at a rate of 0.15 g a.i.•tree-1; fenobucarb was sprayed fortnightly in a second orchard at a rate of 250 g a.i.•ha-1. The 3rd orchard was managed as a control without insecticide applications. The total number of adult D. citri specimens and the percentages of trees harbouring psyllid eggs and 5th instar nymphs were monitored at fortnightly intervals in each orchard. Ca. L. a. incidence was assessed in each orchard by PCR at 5 months, 12 months and 24 months after planting. Results. Compared with the control, both the fenobucarb and imidacloprid treatments reduced adult psyllid populations by over 90% and reduced the frequency of trees harbouring eggs and 5th instar nymphs. Only imidacloprid treatments totally prevented development of a new generation of adults from eggs. Two years after planting, the prevalence of Ca. L. a. was 0.939, 0.745 and 0.239 in the control and in the orchards treated with fenobucarb and imidacloprid, respectively. Discussion and conclusion. The results indicated that, although both the insecticides used effectively reduced D. citri populations by killing adults and nymphs and by affecting or preventing psyllid reproduction in orchards, neither of the two insecticide treatments totally prevented transmission of Ca. L. asiaticus. However, due to its long-lasting effect and systemic activity, the imidacloprid treatment provided the best protection against infections, and delayed and slowed down the spread of the pathogen. Furthermore, it reduced the number of pesticide applications needed and left the way open for biological integrated pest management programmes. © 2010 Cirad/EDP Sciences.