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Fort Lauderdale, FL, United States

Mendy A.,University of Iowa | Vieira E.R.,Florida International University | Albatineh A.N.,Florida International University | Nnadi A.K.,Saint Joseph Hospital | And 2 more authors.
Annals of Epidemiology

Purpose: Bone demineralization affects the skeletal system, including the temporal bone, which contains the cochlea and the vestibular labyrinth. However, research on the association of bone mineral density (BMD) with balance and hearing sensitivity is limited with conflicting results. Therefore, we examined the relationship in a population representative sample. Methods: We analyzed 8863 participants to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2004) aged 40years and older. Total and head BMD were measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Balance was evaluated using the Romberg Test of Standing Balance on Firm and Compliant Support Surfaces condition 4, also indicative of vestibular dysfunction. Hearing condition was self-reported. The associations of total and head BMD with balance and hearing were assessed using multiple and multinomial logistic regressions adjusting for covariates. Results: On multiple logistic regression, low total BMD was associated with balance impairment (odds ratio [OR], 2.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.43-4.75), especially in older adults (≥65years old; OR, 3.72; 95% CI, 1.07-12.85). In multinomial regression, low total BMD was associated with report of significant hearing impairment in older adults (OR, 5.30; 95% CI, 1.20-23.26). Conclusions: Low BMD is associated with balance and hearing impairments, especially in older adults. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source

Elazab N.,University of Miami | Mendy A.,University of Iowa | Gasana J.,South Florida Asthma Consortium | Vieira E.R.,Florida International University | And 2 more authors.

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Probiotics may reduce the risk of atopy and asthma in children. However, results from clinical trials have been conflicting, and several of them may have been underpowered. We performed a meta-analysis of randomized, placebo-controlled trials to assess the effects of probiotic supplementation on atopic sensitization and asthma/wheeze prevention in children. METHODS: Random-effects models were used to calculate pooled risk estimates. Meta-regression was conducted to examine the effect of potential factors on probiotics efficacy. RESULTS: Probiotics were effective in reducing total immunoglobulin E (IgE) (mean reduction: -7.59 U/mL [95% confidence interval (CI): -14.96 to -0.22]; P =.044). Meta-regression showed that the reduction in IgE was more pronounced with longer follow-up. Probiotics significantly reduced the risk of atopic sensitization when administered prenatally (relative risk: 0.88 [95% CI: 0.78 to 0.99]; P =.035 for positive result on the skin prick test and/or elevated specific IgE to common allergens) and postnatally (relative risk: 0.86 [95% CI: 0.75 to 0.98]; P =.027 for positive result on skin prick test). Administration of Lactobacillus acidophilus, compared with other strains, was associated with an increased risk of atopic sensitization (P =.002). Probiotics did not significantly reduce asthma/wheeze (relative risk: 0.96 [95% CI: 0.85 to 1.07]). CONCLUSIONS: Prenatal and/or early-life probiotic administration reduces the risk of atopic sensitization and decreases the total IgE level in children but may not reduce the risk of asthma/wheeze. Follow-up duration and strain significantly modified these effects. Future trials for asthma prevention should carefully select probiotic strain and consider longer follow-up. Copyright © 2013 by the American Academy of Pediatrics. Source

Reiter J.,University of Miami | Demirel N.,University of Miami | Mendy A.,University of Iowa | Gasana J.,South Florida Asthma Consortium | And 4 more authors.
Allergy: European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology

Background Macrolide antibiotics, which have anti-inflammatory and immune modulatory effects, have been studied as adjuncts for the management of asthma. However, results have been contradictory and trials underpowered. We therefore sought to conduct a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCT). Methods All RCT of prolonged macrolides (3+ weeks) for asthma treatment, published up to January 2013 in MEDLINE, Scopus, CINAHL, Highwire, and The Cochrane Collaboration Library, were included. Fixed- or random-effects models were used to calculate pooled weighted or standard mean differences (WMD or SMD, respectively). Results A total of 12 studies were included for analysis. The pooled effect of macrolides on FEV1 (eight trials, 381 subjects) was not significant (SMD 0.05, 95% CI -0.14-0.25), but there was a significant increase in peak expiratory flow (four trials, 419 subjects; WMD 6.7, 95% CI 1.35-12.06). Pooled analysis also showed significant improvements in symptom scores (eight studies, 478 subjects; WMD -0.46, 95% CI -0.60 to -0.32), quality of life (five trials, 346 subjects; WMD 0.18, 95% CI 0.001-0.37), and airway hyper-reactivity (two trials, 131 subjects; SMD 1.99, 95% CI 0.46-3.52). Post hoc evaluation showed limited statistical power to detect significant differences in FEV1. Conclusions Macrolide administration for asthma for three or more weeks was not associated with improvement in FEV1, but produced significant improvements in peak expiratory flow, symptoms, quality of life, and airway hyper-reactivity. Macrolides may therefore be beneficial as adjunct asthma therapy. Future trials, focusing on long-term safety and effectiveness, should use standardized outcomes and procedures. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

Villalba K.,Florida International University | Attonito J.,Florida International University | Mendy A.,University of Iowa | Devieux J.G.,Florida International University | And 2 more authors.
Psychiatric Genetics

Serotonin reuptake variation is linked to a functional polymorphism in the promoter region of the SLC6A4 gene on chromosome 17. It is plausible that variations in genetically determined SLC6A4 activity may modify the risk for alcohol dependence. To determine whether this allele is associated with alcohol dependence, the authors conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis. Twenty-five studies including 8885 participants were reviewed and analyzed. The meta-analysis was carried out using a random-effects model. Overall, the results did not support an association between alcohol dependence and the SLC6A4 promoter polymorphism for the dominant, recessive, and additive genetic risk models, respectively [odds ratio (OR)=0.99 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.83, 1.18), OR=0.86 (95% CI: 0.71, 1.03), and OR=0.88 (95% CI: 0.69, 1.13)]. When effect modification was tested for sex, race/ethnicity, presence/absence of a psychiatric disorder, year of publication, and diagnostic criteria, none of the factors were found to be significantly associated with alcohol dependence. The findings in this meta-analysis suggest that the SLC6A4 promoter polymorphism is not associated with alcohol dependence. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Gasana J.,South Florida Asthma Consortium | Dillikar D.,South Florida Asthma Consortium | Mendy A.,South Florida Asthma Consortium | Forno E.,South Florida Asthma Consortium | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Research

Background: Asthma affects more than 17 million people in the United States;1/3 of these are children. Children are particularly vulnerable to airborne pollution because of their narrower airways and because they generally breathe more air per pound of body weight than adults, increasing their exposure to air pollutants. However, the results from previous studies on the association between motor vehicle emissions and the development of childhood wheeze and asthma are conflicting. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to clarify their potential relationship. Methods: MEDLINE, Highwire, and The Cochrane Library databases were searched for relevant studies. Adjusted odds ratio (OR) with corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) for the association between traffic air pollutants and wheeze or asthma were retrieved from individual studies and pooled to generate summary effect estimates (meta-OR) in STATA 11.1. Results: Nineteen studies were included in the meta-analysis. Exposure to nitrogen dioxide (meta-OR: 1.05, 95% CI: 1.00-1.11), nitrous oxide (meta-OR: 1.02, 95% CI: 1.00-1.04), and carbon monoxide (meta-OR: 1.06, 95% CI: 1.01-1.12) were positively associated with a higher prevalence of childhood asthma. Exposure to sulfur dioxide (meta-OR: 1.04, 95% CI: 1.01-1.07) was positively associated with a higher prevalence of wheeze in children. Exposure to nitrogen dioxide was positively associated with a higher incidence of childhood asthma (meta-OR: 1.14, 95% CI: 1.06-1.24), and exposures to particulate matter was positively associated with a higher incidence of wheeze in children (meta-OR: 1.05, 95% CI: 1.04-1.07). Conclusions: Living or attending schools near high traffic density roads exposes children to higher levels of motor vehicle air pollutants, and increases the incidence and prevalence of childhood asthma and wheeze. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. Source

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