South East European Virtual Climate Change Center

Belgrade, Serbia

South East European Virtual Climate Change Center

Belgrade, Serbia
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Vukovic A.,University of Belgrade | Vukovic A.,South East European Virtual Climate Change Center | Vujadinovic M.,University of Belgrade | Vujadinovic M.,South East European Virtual Climate Change Center | And 14 more authors.
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics | Year: 2014

A dust storm of fearful proportions hit Phoenix in the early evening hours of 5 July 2011. This storm, an American haboob, was predicted hours in advance because numerical, land-atmosphere modeling, computing power and remote sensing of dust events have improved greatly over the past decade. High-resolution numerical models are required for accurate simulation of the small scales of the haboob process, with high velocity surface winds produced by strong convection and severe downbursts. Dust productive areas in this region consist mainly of agricultural fields, with soil surfaces disturbed by plowing and tracks of land in the high Sonoran Desert laid barren by ongoing draught. Model simulation of the 5 July 2011 dust storm uses the coupled atmospheric-dust model NMME-DREAM (Non-hydrostatic Mesoscale Model on E grid, Janjic et al., 2001; Dust REgional Atmospheric Model, Nickovic et al., 2001; Pérez et al., 2006) with 4 km horizontal resolution. A mask of the potentially dust productive regions is obtained from the land cover and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The scope of this paper is validation of the dust model performance, and not use of the model as a tool to investigate mechanisms related to the storm. Results demonstrate the potential technical capacity and availability of the relevant data to build an operational system for dust storm forecasting as a part of a warning system. Model results are compared with radar and other satellite-based images and surface meteorological and PM10 observations. The atmospheric model successfully hindcasted the position of the front in space and time, with about 1 h late arrival in Phoenix. The dust model predicted the rapid uptake of dust and high values of dust concentration in the ensuing storm. South of Phoenix, over the closest source regions (~25 km), the model PM10 surface dust concentration reached ~2500 μg mg-3, but underestimated the values measured by the PM10 stations within the city. Model results are also validated by the MODIS aerosol optical depth (AOD), employing deep blue (DB) algorithms for aerosol loadings. Model validation included Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO), equipped with the lidar instrument, to disclose the vertical structure of dust aerosols as well as aerosol subtypes. Promising results encourage further research and application of high-resolution modeling and satellite-based remote sensing to warn of approaching severe dust events and reduce risks for safety and health.

Nickovic S.,World Meteorological Organization | Nickovic S.,Institute of Physics | Vukovic A.,University of Belgrade | Vukovic A.,South East European Virtual Climate Change Center | And 2 more authors.
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics | Year: 2013

Nutrification of the open ocean originates mainly from deposited aerosol in which the bio-avaliable iron is likely to be an important factor. The relatively insoluble iron in dust from arid soils becomes more soluble after atmospheric processing and, through its deposition in the ocean, could contribute to marine primary production. To numerically simulate the atmospheric route of iron from desert sources to sinks in the ocean, we developed a regional atmospheric dust-iron model that included parameterization of the transformation of iron to a soluble form caused by dust mineralogy, cloud processes and solar radiation. When compared with field data on the aerosol iron, which were collected during several Atlantic cruises, the results from the higher-resolution simulation experiments showed that the model was capable of reproducing the major observed patterns. © Author(s) 2013.

Bellafiore D.,Tesa | Bucchignani E.,Italian Aerospace Research Center | Bucchignani E.,Centro Euro Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici CMCC | Gualdi S.,Centro Euro Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici CMCC | And 5 more authors.
Ocean Dynamics | Year: 2012

Modeling studies of future changes in coastal hydrodynamics, in terms of storm surges and wave climate, need appropriate wind and atmospheric forcings, a necessary requirement for the realistic reproduction of the statistics and the resolution of small scale features. This work compares meteorological results from different climate models in the Mediterranean area, with a focus on the Adriatic Sea, in order to assess their capability to reproduce coastal meteorological features and their possibility to be used as forcings for hydro-dynamic simulations. Five meteorological datasets are considered. They are obtained from two regional climate models, implemented with different spatial resolutions and setups and are downscaled from two different global climate models. Wind and atmospheric pressure fields are compared with measurements at four stations along the Italian Adriatic coast. The analysis is carried out both on simulations of the control period 1960-1990 and on the A1B Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change scenario projections (2070- 2100), highlighting the ability of each model in reproducing the statistical coastal meteorological behavior and possible changes. The importance of simulated global- and regional-scale meteorological processes, in terms of correct spatial resolution of the phenomena, is also discussed. Within the Adriatic Sea, the meteorological climate is influenced by the local orography that controls the strengthening of north-eastern katabatic winds like Bora. Results show indeed that the increase in spatial resolution provides a more realistic wind forcing for the hydrodynamic simulations. Moreover, the chosen setup and the global climate models that drive the regional downscalings appear to play an important role in reproducing correct atmospheric pressure fields. The comparison between scenario and control simulations shows a small increase in the mean atmospheric pressure values, while a decrease in mean wind speed and in extreme wind events is observed, particularly for the datasets with higher spatial resolution. Finally, results suggest that an ensemble of downscaled climate models is likely to provide the most suitable climatic forcings (wind and atmospheric pressure fields) for coastal hydrodynamic modeling. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Vujadinovic M.,University of Belgrade | Vujadinovic M.,South East European Virtual Climate Change Center | Vukovic A.,University of Belgrade | Vukovic A.,South East European Virtual Climate Change Center | And 7 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2012

The focus of this paper is to explain a proper way of using climate model simulations in climate change impact studies. Special attention is addressed to reducing model bias, a systematic model error present in all climate integrations. Studies are done using climate projection results obtained by the Coupled Regional Climate Model EBU-POM, for three periods: 1961-1990 (experiment 20c3m), 2001- 2030 (A1B scenario) and 2071-2100 (A2 scenario) for the Balkan area with special analysis of vineyard regions in Serbia. A Statistical Bias Correction method, based on daily values, is applied to the model results in order to minimize bias. Corrected values for 2 m air temperature and precipitation are used to calculate several climate indicators important for grape growing. Obtained results show that projected increase in temperature may lead to an extended growing season duration, as well as an increase in Growing Degree-Days by 1000 units, by the end of the 21st century. The grapevine dormant period is likely to be shortened and affected by warmer winters with less frost days. Changes in water supply and overheating could lead to changes in vineyard locations or changes in the selection of grapevine cultivars. Presented results show that the present climate conditions in vineyard regions could be shifted to higher altitudes (1000 m) by the end of the century.

Ruml M.,University of Belgrade | Vukovic A.,University of Belgrade | Vukovic A.,South East European Virtual Climate Change Center | Vujadinovic M.,University of Belgrade | And 9 more authors.
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology | Year: 2012

Climate projections obtained from the coupled regional climate model EBU-POM (Eta Belgrade University - Princeton Ocean Model) driven by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES), showed that the vineyard regions of Serbia tend to become warmer and dryer toward the end of 21st century. To evaluate how Serbian viticulture could be affected by a projected climate regime, several climatic variables and agro-climatic indices describing the suitability of a particular area for grapevine production were calculated, after a statistical bias correction was applied to the daily temperature and precipitation data from EBU-POM outputs. Comparison between climatic variables and agro-climatic indices for the reference period 1961-1990 and predicted values for the 2001-2030 period (under the SRES A1B scenario) and the 2071-2100 period (under the SRES A2 scenario) was made for 18 climatological stations placed mostly within, but also outside traditional viticultural regions. According to the obtained change trends it is likely that no significant disturbances in Serbian viticulture will occur over the next few decades, but considerable changes are expected by the end of the 21st century. Warmer and prolonged growing season with greater heat accumulation and longer frost-free period with decline in frost frequency would likely affect the yield and ripening potential of grapes and induce shifts in varietal suitability and wine styles. Projected changes may bring on the need for additional vineyard irrigation, but also open up the possibility that marginal and elevated areas, previously too cool for cultivation of grapevines, become climatically suited for viticulture. © 2012 Elsevier B.V..

Nickovic S.,World Meteorological Organization | Vukovic A.,University of Belgrade | Vukovic A.,South East European Virtual Climate Change Center | Vujadinovic M.,University of Belgrade | And 4 more authors.
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics | Year: 2012

Dust storms and associated mineral aerosol transport are driven primarily by meso- and synoptic-scale atmospheric processes. It is therefore essential that the dust aerosol process and background atmospheric conditions that drive dust emissions and atmospheric transport are represented with sufficiently well-resolved spatial and temporal features. The effects of airborne dust interactions with the environment determine the mineral composition of dust particles. The fractions of various minerals in aerosol are determined by the mineral composition of arid soils; therefore, a high-resolution specification of the mineral and physical properties of dust sources is needed. Several current dust atmospheric models simulate and predict the evolution of dust concentrations; however, in most cases, these models do not consider the fractions of minerals in the dust. The accumulated knowledge about the impacts of the mineral composition in dust on weather and climate processes emphasizes the importance of including minerals in modeling systems. Accordingly, in this study, we developed a global dataset consisting of the mineral composition of the current potentially dust-producing soils. In our study, we (a) mapped mineral data to a high-resolution 30 s grid, (b) included several mineral-carrying soil types in dust-productive regions that were not considered in previous studies, and (c) included phosphorus. © Author(s) 2012. CC Attribution 3.0 License.

Nickovic S.,World Meteorological Organization | Djurdjevic V.,University of Belgrade | Djurdjevic V.,South East European Virtual Climate Change Center | Vujadinovic M.,University of Belgrade | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Computational Physics | Year: 2011

Generation of short gravity wave noise often occurs on semi-staggered rectangular grids as a result of sub-grid decoupling when there is a strong forcing in the mass field. In this study a numerical scheme has been proposed to prevent the generation of the gravity wave decoupling. The proposed numerical method provides efficient communication between decoupled gravity wave finite-difference solutions by a simple averaging of a term in the height tendency in the continuity equation. The proposed method is tested using a shallow water sink model developed for the purpose of this study. It has been demonstrated that this method outperforms other existing approaches. The new scheme is time efficient, based on explicit time integration and can be easily implemented. The proposed method is applicable in hydrodynamic models specified on semi-staggered B or E grids. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

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