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Gursoy S.,South East Anatolia Agricultural Research Institute | Guzel E.,Cukurova University
Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology | Year: 2010

In this study, for the purpose of determining physical and aerodynamic properties, some varieties of wheat, barley, chickpea and lentil were used. The length, width, thickness, geometric mean diameter, equivalent sphere diameter, sphericity, seed mass, bulk density, true density, projected area, terminal velocity, drag coefficient of each grain variety were determined. The theoretical terminal velocities of those grains were calculated by using equations corrected with the shape factor. For all the grains, theoretical terminal velocities were lower than the experimental values. The average experimental terminal velocity was found to be in the range of 7.52 to 8.14 m/s for wheat varieties, 7.04 to 7.07 m/s for barley varieties, 7.72 to 7.78 m/s for lentil varieties and 11.15 to 12.01 m/s for chickpea varieties. The drag coefficients of seeds according to projected areas in different positions and equivalent spheres were calculated. The drag coefficient in the position of the lowest projected area for all the grain varieties was higher than that in the other position. © Maxwell Scientific Organization, 2010.


Gursoy S.,South East Anatolia Agricultural Research Institute | Sessiz A.,Dicle University | Karademir E.,South East Anatolia Agricultural Research Institute | Karademir C.,South East Anatolia Agricultural Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Plant Production | Year: 2011

Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) seeds are susceptible to low temperature and excess moisture in soil during seed emergence in years with high rainfall and low temperature in spring. Therefore, a two-year field experiment was carried out to evaluate effects of ridge tillage formed in autumn (RT-I), ridge tillage formed about a month before planting (RT-II) and flat conventional tillage (CT) cultivation systems on physical properties of soil and cotton growth. The RT-I and RT-II resulted in higher soil temperature and lower soil penetration resistance than CT at all depths. The RT-II gave highest emergence, earliest maturity and greatest seed cotton yield. In conclusion, ridge tillage formed a month before planting may be considered a good agronomic practice because it can provide favorable physical conditions in soil, while also improving growth and yield of cotton under weather conditions in spring in South East Anatolia Region of Turkey.


Gursoy S.,South East Anatolia Agricultural Research Institute | Sessiz A.,Dicle University | Kilic H.,South East Anatolia Agricultural Research Institute | Bayram N.,South East Anatolia Agricultural Research Institute
Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science | Year: 2011

Soil properties are very important for plant growth and soil conservation. Although soil properties can be influenced by agricultural production systems, this influence has seldom been studied in the semi-arid South East Anatolia region of Turkey. Thus, a three-year experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of tillage and residue management systems in wheat (Triticum durum L.) agriculture following cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) on soil properties. A strip plot design with three replications was used, in which two residue management treatments were collecting cotton stalk (SA) and chopping cotton stalk (SB), and six tillage treatments were conventional tillage-I (CT-I), conventional tillage-II (CT-II), vertical tillage (VT), reduced tillage-I (RT-I), reduced tillage-II (RT-II), no-till ridge planting (RP). While there was no difference at 10-20 and 20-30 cm, the penetration resistance was the lowest for CT-I (1.62 MPa) at 0-10 cm. Although tillage treatments had no significant effect on the soil bulk density at 0-10 and 20-30 cm, the lowest bulk density were obtained in RT-II (1.19 g cm-3) at 10-20 cm. Tillage and residue management treatments did not influence the soil organic matter content and pH. © 2011 Taylor & Francis.


Gursoy S.,South East Anatolia Agricultural Research Institute | Sessiz A.,Dicle University | Malhi S.S.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada
Field Crops Research | Year: 2010

Grain yield and quality of winter wheat (Triticum durum L.) are affected by several factors, and crop management has a very important role among them. A 3-year (from 2003-04 to 2005-06) field experiment under irrigation was carried out at Diyabakir in the South East Anatolia Region of Turkey to evaluate immediate effects of tillage and residue management systems after cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) on grain yield and quality [thousand grain weight (TGW), test weight (TW), protein content (PC) and mini sedimentation (mini SDS)] of durum wheat, and correlations among these parameters. A split plot design with three replications was used, in which two residue management treatments [collecting and removing cotton stalks from plots (SRem), and chopping and leaving of cotton stalks in plots (SLev)] were main plots, and six tillage and/or wheat planting method combination treatments [moldboard plough+cultivator+broadcast seeding+cultivator as conventional tillage-I (CT-I), moldboard plough+cultivator+drill as conventional tillage-II (CT-II), chisel plough+cultivator+drill as vertical tillage (VT), two passes of disk harrow+drill as reduced tillage-I (RT-I), rotary tiller+drill as reduced tillage-II (RT-II), and no-till ridge planting (RP)] were sub-plots. The effect of cotton residue management on grain yield, TW, PC, mini SDS was not significant, but SRem (51.21g) gave significantly higher TGW than SLev (50.63g). Tillage and/or wheat planting method combination treatments had a significant effect on grain yield, TGW and TW, but did not significantly influence PC and mini SDS. Conventional tillage with broadcast seeding (CT-I) treatment produced the lowest wheat grain yield (5.395Mgha-1), while there were no significant differences in grain yield among the other five tillage treatments (yields ranged from 5.671 to 5.819Mgha-1). In spite of supplemental irrigations, the variability of weather conditions, particularly the amount and distribution of rainfall during the growing season, had a significant influence on wheat grain yield and quality parameters (TGW, TW, PC, mini SDS). Grain yield had a significant positive correlation with TGW, but it did not show any relationship with other grain quality parameters. In conclusion, the findings suggest that conventional tillage with broadcast seeding would be less effective in producing grain yield of wheat compared to other five tillage treatments with row planting, while management of the previous cotton stalks may not have any effect on yield and quality of wheat except TGW. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Gursoy S.,Dicle University | Mutlu C.,Diyarbakir Plant Protection Research Institute | Urgun M.,Agricultural Directory of Diyarbakir Province | Kolay B.,South East Anatolia Agricultural Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Crop Protection | Year: 2012

Sunn pests (Eurygaster spp.) are among the most important insect pests of wheat (Triticum sativum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Cultural practices can prevent or minimize common sunn pest (Eurygaster integriceps Puton) population densities and crop damage. A three-year field experiment (Jun 05 to Aug 07) was conducted in Diyarbakir in the southeast Antolia region of Turkey, to evaluate the effects of planting method (no-till ridge planting and conventional planting) and earliness of durum wheat (Triticum durum L.) varieties (early, mid-season and late varieties) on E. integriceps density, grain damage and overall grain yield. The effect of the planting method on the sunn pest density and percent of grains damaged by sunn pest was not significant; however, there was a significant difference among the different varieties used in this study. While çeşit-1252 (late wheat variety) had the highest nymph density (11.2 nymphs m-2) and percent of sunn pest damaged grains (2.8%), Sariçanak-98 (early wheat variety) had the lowest nymph density (4.3 nymphs m-2) and percent of sunn pest damaged grains (0.8%). Grain yield was the highest (5.99 t ha-1) for Sariçanak-98 while there was no significant difference between Aydin-93 (5.06 t ha-1) and çeşit-1252 (4.99 t ha-1). In conclusion, this study suggests that planting methods may not have a significant effect on sunn pest density, percent of sunn pest damaged grains or grain yield; however, the use of early durum wheat varieties, such asSariçanak-98, may reduce sunn pest population densities, percent of damaged grains, allowing increases in grain yield in southeast Anatolia region, Turkey. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

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