South Carolina Governors School for Science and Mathematics
South Carolina Governors School for Science and Mathematics
Ducey T.F.,Water and Plant Research Center |
Collins J.C.,South Carolina Governor's School for Science and Mathematics |
Ro K.S.,Water and Plant Research Center |
Woodbury B.L.,U.S. Department of Agriculture |
Griffin D.D.,University of Nebraska - Lincoln
Frontiers of Environmental Science and Engineering | Year: 2017
Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC), utilizing high temperature and pressure, has the potential to treat agricultural waste via inactivating pathogens, antibiotic resistance genes (ARG), and contaminants of emerging concern (CEC) in a environmental and economical manner. Livestock mortality is one facet of agricultural waste that can pose a threat to the surrounding environment. While several methods are utilized to treat livestock mortality, there remains a paucity of data on the elimination of microbially-derived DNA in these treatment practices. This DNA, most notably ARGs, if it survives treatment can be reintroduced in agricultural environments where it could potentially be passed to pathogens, posing a risk to animal and human populations. HTC treatments have been successfully utilized for the treatment of CECs, however very little is understood on how ARGs survive HTC treatment. This study aims to fill this knowledge gap by examining the survivability of microbially-derived DNA in the HTC treatment of livestock mortality. We examined three treatment temperatures (100°C, 150°C, and 200° C) at autogenic pressures at three treatment times (30, 60, and 240 min). We examined the amplification of a plasmid-borne reporter gene carried by Escherichia coli DH10B introduced to both beef bone and tissue. Results indicate that while all three temperatures, at all treatment times, were suitable for complete pathogen kill, only temperatures of 150°C and 200°C were sufficient for eliminating microbial DNA. These results serve as the basis for future potential HTC treatment recommendations for livestock mortality when considering the elimination of pathogens and ARGs.[Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2017, Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Tong J.,China University of Mining and Technology |
Tong J.,University of South Carolina |
Bills Z.,South Carolina Governors School for Science and Mathematics |
Zhang L.,University of South Carolina |
And 3 more authors.
Ceramic Transactions | Year: 2015
A new kind of duel-phase electrochemical membrane comprised of a Gd-doped CeO2 (GDC) modified by Al2O3 and a carbonate has been investigated in this study for stable CO2 separation. A porous GDC was used as the membrane matrix and oxide-ion conductor, and a (LiNa)2CO3 eutectic molten carbonate (MC) was used as the carbonate-ion conductor. 5 mol% Al2O3 was added into GDC as a modifier to improve me wettability of GDC with MC so that the retention of MC and subsequently the flux stability can be further enhanced. A CO2 flux density as high as 0.23 ml·min-1· cm-2 at 650°C was achieved with a feeding gas of 50% N2-50%CO2. The CO2 flux measured under a simulated flue gas containing 10% CO2 at 650°C was 0.12-0.15 ml·min-1cm-2 and stable for 100 hours. O2 was also observed to permeate with CO2 through the membrane, but in a smaller fraction. A parallel mechanism for the concurrent O2-transport was proposed. Copyright © 2015 by The American Ceramic Society. All rights reserved.
Xu N.,University of South Carolina |
Xu N.,University of Science and Technology Beijing |
Li X.,University of South Carolina |
Franks M.A.,South Carolina Governors School for Science and Mathematics |
And 2 more authors.
Journal of Membrane Science | Year: 2012
One of the major concerns of consuming fossil fuels to produce useful form of energy is the emission of CO 2, a greenhouse gas that can cause climate change and ultimately threaten the survival of humanity. Controlling CO 2-emission is an urgent but only practical solution to stabilize CO 2 concentration in the atmosphere. In this paper, we report our effort to capture CO 2 from a simulated flue gas by utilizing a dual-phase mixed carbonate-ion and electron conducting membrane, namely molten carbonate and silver. The obtained CO 2 and O 2 flux densities are the highest among the published metal-molten carbonate systems and relatively stable over 80-h period. The measured CO 2 and O 2 flux densities not only exhibit similar activation energy but also have the ratio of 2:1, favorably confirming the surface electrochemical reaction of CO 2+1/2O 2+2e'=CO 3 2-. These results demonstrate the Ag-MC dual-phase composite as a promising high-flux membrane for high-temperature electrochemical CO 2 separation from flue gas with high selectivity. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.
Maghsoud H.,South Carolina Governors School for Science and Mathematics |
Weiss A.,Winthrop University |
Smith J.P.S.,Winthrop University |
Litvaitis M.K.,University of New Hampshire |
Fegley S.R.,University of North Carolina
Invertebrate Biology | Year: 2014
Analysis of the meiofaunal food web is hampered because few prey have features that persist long enough in a predator's digestive tract to allow identification to species. Hence, at least for platyhelminth predators, direct observations of prey preference are almost nonexistent, and where they occur, prey identification is often limited to the phylum level. Studies using an in vitro approach are rare because they are extremely time-consuming and are subject to the criticism that predators removed from their natural environment may exhibit altered behaviors. Although PCR-based approaches have achieved wide application in food-web analysis, their application to meiofaunal flatworms suffers from a number of limitations. Most importantly, the microscopic size of both the predator and prey does not allow for removal of prey material from the digestive tract of the predator, and thus the challenge is to amplify prey sequences in the presence of large quantities of predator sequence. Here, we report on the successful use of prey-taxon-specific primers in diagnostic PCR to identify, to species level, specific prey items of 13 species of meiofaunal flatworms. Extension of this method will allow, for the first time, the development of a species-level understanding of trophic interactions among the meiofauna. © 2014, The American Microscopical Society, Inc.
Bateman H.R.,University of South Carolina |
Liang Q.,University of South Carolina |
Liang Q.,Nanjing University |
Fan D.,University of South Carolina |
And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013
Sparstolonin B (SsnB) is a novel bioactive compound isolated from Sparganium stoloniferum, an herb historically used in Traditional Chinese Medicine as an anti-tumor agent. Angiogenesis, the process of new capillary formation from existing blood vessels, is dysregulated in many pathological disorders, including diabetic retinopathy, tumor growth, and atherosclerosis. In functional assays, SsnB inhibited endothelial cell tube formation (Matrigel method) and cell migration (Transwell method) in a dose-dependent manner. Microarray experiments with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs) demonstrated differential expression of several hundred genes in response to SsnB exposure (916 and 356 genes, respectively, with fold change ≥2, p<0.05, unpaired t-test). Microarray data from both cell types showed significant overlap, including genes associated with cell proliferation and cell cycle. Flow cytometric cell cycle analysis of HUVECs treated with SsnB showed an increase of cells in the G1 phase and a decrease of cells in the S phase. Cyclin E2 (CCNE2) and Cell division cycle 6 (CDC6) are regulatory proteins that control cell cycle progression through the G1/S checkpoint. Both CCNE2 and CDC6 were downregulated in the microarray data. Real Time quantitative PCR confirmed that gene expression of CCNE2 and CDC6 in HUVECs was downregulated after SsnB exposure, to 64% and 35% of controls, respectively. The data suggest that SsnB may exert its anti-angiogenic properties in part by downregulating CCNE2 and CDC6, halting progression through the G1/S checkpoint. In the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay, SsnB caused significant reduction in capillary length and branching number relative to the vehicle control group. Overall, SsnB caused a significant reduction in angiogenesis (ANOVA, p<0.05), demonstrating its ex vivo efficacy. © 2013 Bateman et al.
Whitson A.,South Carolina Governors School for Science and Mathematics |
Smith III J.P.S.,Winthrop University |
Litvaitis M.K.,University of New Hampshire
Southeastern Naturalist | Year: 2011
As with other high-energy beaches, those of North Carolina harbor a diverse fauna of kalyptorhynch turbellarians, most of which appear to be new to science. Here, we describe Lehardyia alleithoros, a new kalyptorhynch turbellarian of the Karkinorhynchidae, from 3 high-energy beach sites in North Carolina. We also report an apparent range extension for Carcharodorhynchus flavidus Brunet, 1967. These observations bring the total number of kalyptorhynch turbellarians reported from the marine interstitial environment of North Carolina to five.
Piza-Palma C.,Furman University |
Barfield E.T.,Emory University |
Brown J.A.,Claflin University |
Hubka J.C.,Furman University |
And 4 more authors.
Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research | Year: 2014
Background: The effects of stress, including neuroendocrine and behavioral sequelae aimed at maintaining homeostasis, are associated with increased alcohol consumption. Because both stress and drinking are multifactorial, the mechanisms underlying the relationship are difficult to elucidate. We therefore employed an animal model investigating the influence of blocked access to a running wheel on drinking in C57BL/6J (B6) mice. Methods: In the first experiment, naïve, adult male and female subjects were individually housed for 2 weeks with 24-hour access to a running wheel and 12% ethanol (EtOH) in a 2-bottle, free choice paradigm. After determining baseline consumption and preference, experimental subjects had the running wheel placed in a locked position for 6 hours, and the EtOH bottle was removed during the first half of this period. Two subsequent experiments, again in adult, naïve B6 mice, examined the influence of locked running wheels on self-administration of 20% EtOH in a limited access paradigm, and blood EtOH concentrations (BECs) were determined on the final day of this protocol. Results: In all 3 studies, using both between- and within-subject analyses, females showed transient yet reliable increases in alcohol drinking during blocked access to a rotating activity, while drinking in male mice was largely insensitive to this manipulation, although both sexes showed appreciable BECs (>130 mg/dl in females and 80 mg/dl in males) following a 2-hour EtOH access period. Conclusions: These data add to a burgeoning literature suggesting that the factors contributing to excessive alcohol use differ between males and females and that females may be especially sensitive to the influence of wheel manipulation. Elucidating the sex-dependent mechanisms mediating differences in alcohol sensitivity and response is critical to understanding the causes of alcoholism and in developing effective treatments and interventions. 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Barfield E.T.,Furman University |
Barry S.M.,Furman University |
Hodgin H.B.,South Carolina Governors School for Science and Mathematics |
Thompson B.M.,University of Colorado at Boulder |
And 2 more authors.
Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research | Year: 2010
Background: The opioid peptide β-endorphin (β-E) is synthesized and released in response to stressful stimuli as well as acute alcohol administration. The release of β-E following exposure to an inescapable aversive situation may mediate behaviors that contribute to allostasis of the stress response. The present study examines the effects of β-E on immobility in assays involving inescapable stress, both under basal conditions and after acute administration of EtOH. Methods: Female and male transgenic mice with varying capacities to translate β-E were subjected to either the forced swim (FST, Experiment 1) or the tail suspension test (TST, Experiment 2). In Experiment 3, mice were divided into three groups based on hormonal status (male, female-estrous, and female-nonestrous) and injected with either 1 g/kg EtOH or equivolume saline 14 minutes prior to behavioral assessment on the TST. Results: Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated a direct relationship between β-E levels and immobility. There were also sex differences in behavior in these tests, with males displaying more immobility than females. A main effect of genotype in Experiment 3 replicated findings in Experiments 1 and 2. There was also an effect of EtOH (increasing immobility) and a significant interaction reflecting a particularly robust effect of the drug in mice with low β-E. In addition, there were interactions between β-E, EtOH effects, and hormonal status. Conclusions: These findings support the contention that β-E moderates behavioral responses to stressful stimuli and suggest a role for this peptide in coping behavior. Furthermore, the effects of EtOH on the response to stress may be mediated by β-E. Sex differences in this influence may contribute to sex differences in disease susceptibility and expression. © 2010 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Maximov V.D.,Clemson University |
Reukov V.V.,Clemson University |
Barry J.N.,Clemson University |
Cochrane C.,South Carolina Governors School for Science and Mathematics |
Vertegel A.A.,Clemson University
Nanotechnology | Year: 2010
Hyperlipidemia, a condition associated with atherosclerosis, can develop because of the lack of low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors in hepatocytes. Since injected polymeric nanoparticles are quickly taken up by the liver Kupffer cells, we hypothesize that it is possible to enhance LDL delivery to the liver through the use of LDL-absorbing nanoparticles. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach in vitro. We used biodegradable and biocompatible polylactide nanoparticles (∼100nm in diameter) with covalently attached apolipoprotein B100 antibody to adsorb LDLs at physiologically relevant concentrations. We showed that up to sixfold decreases of LDL levels can be achieved in vitro upon treatment of LDL suspensions (500mgdl -1) with anti-apoB100-nanoparticle conjugates. The study of the uptake of the antibody-nanoparticle-LDL complexes by cells was performed using a mouse macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7) as a model for liver Kupffer cells. We found that macrophages can quickly take up antibody-nanoparticle-LDL complexes and digest them within 24h. No evidence of cytotoxicity was observed for the experimental conditions used in this study. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd.
Wascher C.A.F.,University of Valladolid |
Heiss R.S.,South Carolina Governors School for Science and Mathematics |
Baglione V.,University of Valladolid |
Canestrari D.,University of Oviedo
Behavioural Processes | Year: 2015
Until recently, the use of olfactory signals in birds has been largely ignored, despite the fact that birds do possess a fully functioning olfactory system and have been shown to use odours in social and foraging tasks, predator detection and orientation. The present study investigates whether carrion crows (Corvus corone corone), a bird species living in complex social societies, respond behaviourally to olfactory cues of conspecifics. During our experiment, carrion crows were observed less often close to the conspecific scent compared to a control side. Because conspecific scent was extracted during handling, a stressful procedure for birds, we interpreted the general avoidance of the 'scent' side as disfavour against a stressed conspecific. However, males, unlike females, showed less avoidance towards the scent of a familiar individual compared to an unfamiliar one, which might reflect a stronger interest in the information conveyed and/or willingness to provide social support. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.