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Allemani C.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Allemani C.,Fondazione IRCCS Instituto Nazionale Dei Tumori | Sant M.,Fondazione IRCCS Instituto Nazionale Dei Tumori | Weir H.K.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | And 36 more authors.
International Journal of Cancer | Year: 2013

Breast cancer survival is reportedly higher in the US than in Europe. The first worldwide study (CONCORD) found wide international differences in age-standardized survival. The aim of this study is to explain these survival differences. Population-based data on stage at diagnosis, diagnostic procedures, treatment and follow-up were collected for about 20,000 women diagnosed with breast cancer aged 15-99 years during 1996-98 in 7 US states and 12 European countries. Age-standardized net survival and the excess hazard of death up to 5 years after diagnosis were estimated by jurisdiction (registry, country, European region), age and stage with flexible parametric models. Breast cancers were generally less advanced in the US than in Europe. Stage also varied less between US states than between European jurisdictions. Early, node-negative tumors were more frequent in the US (39%) than in Europe (32%), while locally advanced tumors were twice as frequent in Europe (8%), and metastatic tumors of similar frequency (5-6%). Net survival in Northern, Western and Southern Europe (81-84%) was similar to that in the US (84%), but lower in Eastern Europe (69%). For the first 3 years after diagnosis the mean excess hazard was higher in Eastern Europe than elsewhere: the difference was most marked for women aged 70-99 years, and mainly confined to women with locally advanced or metastatic tumors. Differences in breast cancer survival between Europe and the US in the late 1990s were mainly explained by lower survival in Eastern Europe, where low healthcare expenditure may have constrained the quality of treatment. Copyright © 2012 UICC.


Wallace K.,Medical University of South Carolina | Hill E.G.,Medical University of South Carolina | Lewin D.N.,Medical University of South Carolina | Williamson G.,Medical University of South Carolina | And 7 more authors.
Cancer Causes and Control | Year: 2013

Purpose: African-Americans (AA) have a higher incidence of and lower survival from colorectal cancer (CRC) compared with European Americans (EA). In the present study, statewide, population-based data from South Carolina Central Cancer Registry are used to investigate the relationship between race and age on advanced-stage CRC survival. Methods: The study population was comprised of 3,865 advanced pathologically documented colon and rectal adenocarcinoma cases diagnosed between 01 January 1996 and 31 December 2006: 2,673 (69 %) EA and 1,192 (31 %) AA. Kaplan-Meier methods were used to generate median survival time and corresponding 95 % confidence intervals (CI) by race, age, and gender. Factors associated with survival were evaluated by fitting Cox proportional hazards regression models to generate hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI. Results: We observed a significant interaction between race and age on CRC survival (p = 0.04). Among younger patients (<50 years), AA race was associated with a 1.34 times (95 % CI 1.06-1.71) higher risk of death compared with EA. Among older patients, we observed a modest increase in risk of death among AA men compared with EA [HR 1.16 (95 % CI 1.01-1.32)] but no difference by race between women [HR 0.94 (95 % CI 0.82-1.08)]. Moreover, we observed that the disparity in survival has worsened over the past 15 years. Conclusions: Future studies that integrate clinical, molecular, and treatment-related data are needed for advancing understanding of the racial disparity in CRC survival, especially for those <50 years old. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

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