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Wallace K.,Medical University of South Carolina | Hill E.G.,Medical University of South Carolina | Lewin D.N.,Medical University of South Carolina | Williamson G.,Medical University of South Carolina | And 7 more authors.
Cancer Causes and Control | Year: 2013

Purpose: African-Americans (AA) have a higher incidence of and lower survival from colorectal cancer (CRC) compared with European Americans (EA). In the present study, statewide, population-based data from South Carolina Central Cancer Registry are used to investigate the relationship between race and age on advanced-stage CRC survival. Methods: The study population was comprised of 3,865 advanced pathologically documented colon and rectal adenocarcinoma cases diagnosed between 01 January 1996 and 31 December 2006: 2,673 (69 %) EA and 1,192 (31 %) AA. Kaplan-Meier methods were used to generate median survival time and corresponding 95 % confidence intervals (CI) by race, age, and gender. Factors associated with survival were evaluated by fitting Cox proportional hazards regression models to generate hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI. Results: We observed a significant interaction between race and age on CRC survival (p = 0.04). Among younger patients (<50 years), AA race was associated with a 1.34 times (95 % CI 1.06-1.71) higher risk of death compared with EA. Among older patients, we observed a modest increase in risk of death among AA men compared with EA [HR 1.16 (95 % CI 1.01-1.32)] but no difference by race between women [HR 0.94 (95 % CI 0.82-1.08)]. Moreover, we observed that the disparity in survival has worsened over the past 15 years. Conclusions: Future studies that integrate clinical, molecular, and treatment-related data are needed for advancing understanding of the racial disparity in CRC survival, especially for those <50 years old. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source

Allemani C.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Allemani C.,Analytical Epidemiology Unit | Sant M.,Analytical Epidemiology Unit | Weir H.K.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | And 36 more authors.
International Journal of Cancer | Year: 2013

Breast cancer survival is reportedly higher in the US than in Europe. The first worldwide study (CONCORD) found wide international differences in age-standardized survival. The aim of this study is to explain these survival differences. Population-based data on stage at diagnosis, diagnostic procedures, treatment and follow-up were collected for about 20,000 women diagnosed with breast cancer aged 15-99 years during 1996-98 in 7 US states and 12 European countries. Age-standardized net survival and the excess hazard of death up to 5 years after diagnosis were estimated by jurisdiction (registry, country, European region), age and stage with flexible parametric models. Breast cancers were generally less advanced in the US than in Europe. Stage also varied less between US states than between European jurisdictions. Early, node-negative tumors were more frequent in the US (39%) than in Europe (32%), while locally advanced tumors were twice as frequent in Europe (8%), and metastatic tumors of similar frequency (5-6%). Net survival in Northern, Western and Southern Europe (81-84%) was similar to that in the US (84%), but lower in Eastern Europe (69%). For the first 3 years after diagnosis the mean excess hazard was higher in Eastern Europe than elsewhere: the difference was most marked for women aged 70-99 years, and mainly confined to women with locally advanced or metastatic tumors. Differences in breast cancer survival between Europe and the US in the late 1990s were mainly explained by lower survival in Eastern Europe, where low healthcare expenditure may have constrained the quality of treatment. Copyright © 2012 UICC. Source

Allemani C.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Rachet B.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Weir H.K.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Richardson L.C.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | And 31 more authors.
BMJ Open | Year: 2013

Objectives: To assess the extent to which stage at diagnosis and adherence to treatment guidelines may explain the persistent differences in colorectal cancer survival between the USA and Europe. Design: A high-resolution study using detailed clinical data on Dukes' stage, diagnostic procedures, treatment and follow-up, collected directly from medical records by trained abstractors under a single protocol, with standardised quality control and central statistical analysis. Setting and participants: 21 population-based registries in seven US states and nine European countries provided data for random samples comprising 12 523 adults (15-99 years) diagnosed with colorectal cancer during 1996-1998. Outcome measures: Logistic regression models were used to compare adherence to 'standard care' in the USA and Europe. Net survival and excess risk of death were estimated with flexible parametric models. Results: The proportion of Dukes' A and B tumours was similar in the USA and Europe, while that of Dukes' C was more frequent in the USA (38% vs 21%) and of Dukes' D more frequent in Europe (22% vs 10%). Resection with curative intent was more frequent in the USA (85% vs 75%). Elderly patients (75-99 years) were 70-90% less likely to receive radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Age-standardised 5-year net survival was similar in the USA (58%) and Northern and Western Europe (54-56%) and lowest in Eastern Europe (42%). The mean excess hazard up to 5 years after diagnosis was highest in Eastern Europe, especially among elderly patients and those with Dukes' D tumours. Conclusions: The wide differences in colorectal cancer survival between Europe and the USA in the late 1990s are probably attributable to earlier stage and more extensive use of surgery and adjuvant treatment in the USA. Elderly patients with colorectal cancer received surgery, chemotherapy or radiotherapy less often than younger patients, despite evidence that they could also have benefited. Source

Schymura M.J.,New York State Department of Health | Kahn A.R.,New York State Department of Health | German R.R.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Hsieh M.-C.,Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center | And 5 more authors.
BMC Cancer | Year: 2010

Background: Despite the large number of men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer, there is as yet no consensus concerning appropriate treatment. The purpose of this study was to describe the initial treatment patterns for localized prostate cancer in a population-based sample and to determine the clinical and patient characteristics associated with initial treatment and overall survival.Methods: The analysis included 3,300 patients from seven states, diagnosed with clinically localized prostate cancer in 1997. We examined the association of sociodemographic and clinical characteristics with four treatment options: radical prostatectomy, radiation therapy, hormone therapy, and watchful waiting. Diagnostic and treatment information was abstracted from medical records. Socioeconomic measures were derived from the 2000 Census based on the patient's residence at time of diagnosis. Vital status through December 31, 2002, was obtained from medical records and linkages to state vital statistics files and the National Death Index. Multiple logistic regression analysis and Cox proportional hazards models identified factors associated with initial treatment and overall survival, respectively.Results: Patients with clinically localized prostate cancer received the following treatments: radical prostatectomy (39.7%), radiation therapy (31.4%), hormone therapy (10.3%), or watchful waiting (18.6%). After multivariable adjustment, the following variables were associated with conservative treatment (hormone therapy or watchful waiting): older age, black race, being unmarried, having public insurance, having non-screen detected cancer, having normal digital rectal exam results, PSA values above 20, low Gleason score (2-4), comorbidity, and state of residence. Among patients receiving definitive treatment (radical prostatectomy or radiation therapy), older age, being unmarried, PSA values above 10, unknown Gleason score, state of residence, as well as black race in patients under 60 years of age, were associated with receipt of radiation therapy. Overall survival was related to younger age, being married, Gleason score under 8, radical prostatectomy, and state of residence. Comorbidity was only associated with risk of death within the first three years of diagnosis.Conclusions: In the absence of clear-cut evidence favoring one treatment modality over another, it is important to understand the factors that inform treatment selection. Since state of residence was a significant predictor of both treatment as well as overall survival, true regional differences probably exist in how physicians and patients select treatment options. Factors affecting treatment choice and treatment effectiveness need to be further explored in future population-based studies. © 2010 Schymura et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Xirasagar S.,University of South Carolina | Li Y.-J.,University of South Carolina | Hurley T.G.,University of South Carolina | Tsai M.-H.,University of South Carolina | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Cancer | Year: 2015

We conducted a retrospective cohort study to investigate the colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality prevention achievable in clinical practice with an optimized colonoscopy protocol targeting near-complete polyp clearance. The protocol consisted of: (i) telephonic reinforcement of bowel preparation instructions; (ii) active inspection for polyps throughout insertion and circumferential withdrawal; and (iii) timely updating of the protocol and documentation to incorporate the latest guidelines. Of 17,312 patients provided screening colonoscopies by 59 endoscopists in South Carolina, USA from September 2001 through December 2008, 997 were excluded using accepted exclusion criteria. Data on 16,315 patients were merged with the South Carolina Central Cancer Registry and Vital Records Registry data from January 1996 to December 2009 to identify incident CRC cases and deaths, incident lung cancers and brain cancer deaths (comparison control cancers). The standardized incidence ratios (SIR) and standardized mortality ratios (SMR) relative to South Carolina and US SEER-18 population rates were calculated. Over 78,375 person-years of observation, 18 patients developed CRC versus 104.11 expected for an SIR of 0.17, or 83% CRC protection, the rates being 68% and 91%, respectively among the adenoma- and adenoma-free subgroups (all p < 0.001). Restricting the cohort to ensure minimum 5-year follow-up (mean follow-up 6.64 years) did not change the results. The CRC mortality reduction was 89% (p < 0.001; four CRC deaths vs. 35.95 expected). The lung cancer SIR was 0.96 (p = 0.67), and brain cancer SMR was 0.92 (p = 0.35). Over 80% reduction in CRC incidence and mortality is achievable in routine practice by implementing key colonoscopy principles targeting near-complete polyp clearance. © 2014 UICC. Source

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