South African National Institute for Communicable Diseases

Sandringham, South Africa

South African National Institute for Communicable Diseases

Sandringham, South Africa
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Wain J.,University of East Anglia | Hendriksen R.S.,Technical University of Denmark | Mikoleit M.L.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Keddy K.H.,South African National Institute for Communicable Diseases | And 2 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2015

Control of typhoid fever relies on clinical information, diagnosis, and an understanding for the epidemiology of the disease. Despite the breadth of work done so far, much is not known about the biology of this human-adapted bacterial pathogen and the complexity of the disease in endemic areas, especially those in Africa. The main barriers to control are vaccines that are not immunogenic in very young children and the development of multidrug resistance, which threatens efficacy of antimicrobial chemotherapy. Clinicians, microbiologists, and epidemiologists worldwide need to be familiar with shifting trends in enteric fever. This knowledge is crucial, both to control the disease and to manage cases. Additionally, salmonella serovars that cause human infection can change over time and location. In areas of Asia, multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S Typhi) has been the main cause of enteric fever, but now S Typhi is being displaced by infections with drug-resistant S enterica serovar Paratyphi A. New conjugate vaccines are imminent and new treatments have been promised, but the engagement of local medical and public health institutions in endemic areas is needed to allow surveillance and to implement control measures. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Coetzee M.,University of Witwatersrand | Coetzee M.,South African National Institute for Communicable Diseases | Koekemoer L.L.,University of Witwatersrand | Koekemoer L.L.,South African National Institute for Communicable Diseases
Annual Review of Entomology | Year: 2013

Anopheles funestus is one of three major African vectors of malaria. Its distribution extends over much of the tropics and subtropics wherever suitable swampy breeding habitats are present. As with members of the Anopheles gambiae complex, An. funestus shows marked genetic heterogeneity across its range. Currently, two unnamed species are recognized in the group, with molecular and cytogenetic data indicating that more may be present. The control of malaria vectors in Africa has received increased attention in the past decade with the scaling up of insecticide-treated bed nets and indoor residual house spraying. Also in the past decade, the frequency of insecticide-resistant mosquitoes has increased exponentially. Whether this increase is in response to vector control initiatives or because of insecticide use in agriculture is debatable. In this article we examine the progress made on the systematics of the An. funestus group and review research on insecticide resistance and its mechanisms. © 2013 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

Lewis D.A.,South African National Institute for Communicable Diseases | Lewis D.A.,University of Witwatersrand | Lewis D.A.,University of Cape Town
Sexually Transmitted Infections | Year: 2010

Since the introduction of antibiotics in the 1930s, Neisseria gonorrhoeae has exhibited a remarkable ability to acquire novel genetic resistance determinants. Initially, sulphonamides were replaced by penicillin, while tetracyclines were prescribed for penicillin-allergic patients. With the advent of penicillinase-producing gonococci, spectinomycin was only briefly useful as alternative treatment and plasmid-mediated tetracycline resistance spread rapidly from the mid-1980s onwards. The fluoroquinolones followed but chromosomally mediated resistance appeared after only a decade of use. Seventy years on, we now face a global public health challenge of immense significance - the emergence of resistance to cephalosporins. With lack of investment in the search for new anti-gonococcal antimicrobial agents or vaccine research, the global spread of multiresistant gonococci can be seen. The impact of untreatable gonorrhoea on HIV transmission could be enormous in high-prevalence countries. This threat comes at a time when many national STI control programmes are weak. To delay the emergence of extensively drug-resistant gonorrhoea, public health systems require strengthening and novel strategies need implementing to enhance the therapeutic lifespan of the few antimicrobial agents that we have left.

Lewis D.A.,South African National Institute for Communicable Diseases | Lewis D.A.,University of Witwatersrand | Lewis D.A.,University of Cape Town
Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases | Year: 2014

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neisseria gonorrhoeae has demonstrated a remarkable genetic capacity to acquire antimicrobial resistance (AMR) determinants. This review focuses on the recent developments in respect of third generation extended spectrum cephalosporin (ESC)-resistant gonorrhoea and the search for future treatment options. RECENT FINDINGS: The estimated incidence of new gonorrhoea cases is increasing, and the antimicrobial resistance profile of N. gonorrhoeae is worsening. The most significant recent finding has been the emergence of extensively drug-resistant (XDR) N. gonorrhoeae characterized by very high ceftriaxone minimum inhibitory concentrations. A national switch from cefixime to high-dose ceftriaxone as first-line antigonococcal therapy in England and Wales, as well as parts of Japan, has been accompanied by a reduction in the prevalence of oral ESC-resistant gonococci. Azithromycin given in combination with either gentamicin or gemifloxacin has been shown to be an effective alternative antigonococcal therapy. Both ertapenem and solithromycin have good in-vitro activity against ESC-resistant N. gonorrhoeae strains. SUMMARY: Current strategies to control gonococcal AMR should focus on the use of higher doses of ceftriaxone given as part of dual therapy and further evaluation of alternative drug combinations. The emergence of XDR gonorrhoea argues for enhanced efforts to develop novel antimicrobial agents and a gonococcal vaccine.

Schoub B.D.,South African National Institute for Communicable Diseases | Schoub B.D.,University of Witwatersrand
Vaccine | Year: 2012

South Africa is currently the only country on the African continent using inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) for routine immunization in a sequential schedule in combination with oral polio vaccine (OPV). IPV is a component of an injectable pentavalent vaccine introduced nationwide in April 2009 and administered according to EPI schedule at 6, 10 and 14 weeks with a booster dose at 18 months. OPV is administered at birth and together with the first IPV dose at 6 weeks, which stimulates gut immune system producing a memory IgA response (OPV), followed by IPV to minimize the risk of vaccine associated paralytic polio (VAPP). OPV is also given to all children under 5 years of age as part of regular mass immunizations campaigns. The decision to incorporate IPV into the routine schedule was not based on cost-effectiveness, which it is not. Other factors were taken into account: Firstly, the sequence benefits from the initial mucosal contact with live(vaccine) virus which promotes the IgA response from subsequent IPV, as well as herd immunity from OPV, together with the safety of IPV. Secondly, given the widespread and increasing use of IPV in the developed world, public acceptance of vaccination in general is enhanced in South Africa which is classified as an upper middle income developing country. Thirdly, to address equity concerns because of the growing use of IPV in the private sector. Fourthly, the advent of combination vaccines facilitated the incorporation of IPV into the EPI schedule. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Zaayman D.,University of Pretoria | Venter M.,University of Pretoria | Venter M.,South African National Institute for Communicable Diseases
Emerging Infectious Diseases | Year: 2012

We investigated West Nile virus (WNV) as a possible disease etiology in persons hospitalized in South Africa. Of 206 specimens tested, 36 had WNV neutralizing antibodies, signifi cantly more than in similar earlier serosurveys. Seven probable acute WNV cases were identifi ed, suggesting WNV may be overlooked as an etiology of severe disease in South Africa.

Overbaugh J.,Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center | Morris L.,South African National Institute for Communicable Diseases
Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine | Year: 2012

Neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) typically play a key role in controlling viral infections and contribute to the protective effect of many successful vaccines. In the case of HIV-1 infection, there is compelling data in experimental animal models that NAbs can prevent HIV-1 acquisition, although there is no similar data in humans and their role in controlling established infection in humans is also limited. It is clear HIV-specific NAbs drive the evolution of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein within an infected individual. The virus's ability to evade immune selection may be the main reason HIV-1 NAbs exert limited control during infection. The extraordinary antigenic diversity of HIV-1 also presents formidable challenges to defining NAbs that could provide broad protection against diverse circulating HIV-1 strains. Several new potent monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) have been identified, and are beginning to yield important clues into the epitopes common to diverse HIV-1 strains. In addition, antibodies can also act in concert with effector cells to kill HIV-infected cells; this could provide another mechanism for antibody-mediated control of HIV-1 replication. Understanding the impact of antibodies on HIV-1 transmission and pathogenesis is critical to helping move forward with rational HIV-1 vaccine design. © 2012 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

Moore P.L.,South African National Institute for Communicable Diseases
Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS | Year: 2016

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A vaccine that elicits antibody responses that can neutralize the diversity of HIV clades has not yet been achieved, and is a major focus of HIV vaccine research. Here, we provide an update on the barriers to eliciting such antibodies, and how advances in immunogen design may circumvent these roadblocks, focusing on data published in the last year. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies of how broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) develop in HIV-infected donors continue to produce key insights, suggesting that for some viral targets there are common pathways to developing breadth. Germline-targeting strategies, that aim to recruit rare precursors of bNAbs, have shown promise in immunogenicity studies, and structural biology has led to advances in immunogen design. Mapping of strain-specific tier 2 vaccine responses has highlighted the challenges that remain in driving antibodies toward breadth. SUMMARY: Elucidation of the HIV envelope structure, together with an understanding of how bNAbs emerge in vivo has guided the design of new immunogens and vaccine strategies that show promise for eliciting protective antibodies. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

Schoub B.D.,South African National Institute for Communicable Diseases
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research | Year: 2012

Over the past few decades a large number of new and emerging infectious diseases have been recognised in humans, partly because of improved diagnostic technologies and increased awareness and also, partly because of dynamic ecological changes between human hosts and their exposure to animals and the environment (Coker et al. 2011). Some 177 new pathogenic organisms have been recognised to be 'emerging', that is, have newly arisen or been newly introduced into human populations; almost three quarters of these, 130 (73%), have come from zoonotic origins (Cascio et al. 2011; Cutler, Fooks & Van Der Poel 2010; Taylor, Latham & Woolhouse 2001; Woolhouse & Gowtage-Sequeria 2005). One of the most prevalent and important human infectious disease is influenza, a disease responsible globally for a quarter million deaths annually. In the USA alone the toll from influenza is estimated at 36 000 deaths and 226 000 hospitalisations, and it ranks as the most important cause of vaccine preventable mortality in that country (CDC 2010). The epidemiological behaviour of human influenza clearly defines it as an emerging infectious disease and the recent understanding of its zoonotic origins has contributed much to the understanding of its behaviour in humans (Fauci 2006). © 2012. The Authors.

Frean J.,South African National Institute for Communicable Diseases
Bulletin of the World Health Organization | Year: 2012

To describe findings from an external quality assessment programme involving laboratories in Africa that routinely investigate epidemic-prone diseases. Beginning in 2002, the Regional Office for Africa of the World Health Organization (WHO) invited national public health laboratories and related facilities in Africa to participate in the programme. Three surveys comprising specimens and questionnaires associated with bacterial enteric diseases, bacterial meningitis, plague, tuberculosis and malaria were sent annually to test participants' diagnostic proficiency. Identical surveys were sent to referee laboratories for quality control. Materials were prepared, packaged and shipped in accordance with standard protocols. Findings and reports were due within 30 days. Key methodological decisions and test results were categorized as acceptable or unacceptable on the basis of consensus feedback from referees, using established grading schemes. Between 2002 and 2009, participation increased from 30 to 48 Member States of the WHO and from 39 to 78 laboratories. Each survey was returned by 64-93% of participants. Mean turnaround time was 25.9 days. For bacterial enteric diseases and meningitis components, bacterial identification was acceptable in 65% and 69% of challenges, respectively, but serotyping and antibiotic susceptibility testing and reporting were frequently unacceptable. Microscopy was acceptable for 73% of plague challenges. Tuberculosis microscopy was satisfactorily performed, with 87% of responses receiving acceptable scores. In the malaria component, 82% of responses received acceptable scores for species identification but only 51% of parasite quantitation scores were acceptable. The external quality assessment programme consistently identified certain functional deficiencies requiring strengthening that were present in African public health microbiology laboratories.

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