South African Agricultural Research Council

Nelspruit, South Africa

South African Agricultural Research Council

Nelspruit, South Africa
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Cimen H.,Adnan Menderes University | Lee M.-M.,University of Arizona | Hatting J.,South African Agricultural Research Council | Hazir S.,Adnan Menderes University | Stock S.P.,University of Arizona
Journal of Helminthology | Year: 2014

Morphological and molecular sequence data were combined with cross-hybridization studies and used to identify a new Steinernema sp. from Free State, South Africa. Molecular and morphological data indicate that the new species belongs to the 'glaseri-group' of Steinernema spp. Key morphological diagnostic characters for S. innovationi n. sp. include the morphometric features of the third-stage infective juveniles: total body length = 1054 (1000-1103) μm, tail length = 108 (97-117) μm, location of the excretory pore = 88 (82-91) μm, and D% = 58 (54-63), E% = 115 (104-137) and H% = 43 (37-46). Additionally, the morphology of the spicules and gubernaculum of the first-generation males are considered key diagnostic traits. Steinernema innovationi n. sp. was also characterized by analysis of both rDNA and mitochondrial gene sequence data, which further indicate the uniqueness of this Steinernema species. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2014.


Cimen H.,Adnan Menderes University | Puza V.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Nermut J.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Hatting J.,South African Agricultural Research Council | And 3 more authors.
Nematology | Year: 2016

Steinernema beitlechemi n. sp. is a new species of entomopathogenic nematode isolated from soil samples collected in Bethlehem, Free State province, South Africa. The infective juveniles of S. beitlechemi n. sp. are characterised by a body length of 696 (606-768) μm, position of nerve ring of 96 (86-105) μm from the head and lateral fields with six ridges (i.e., seven lines) in mid-body. First-generation males of S. beitlechemi n. sp. can be distinguished by a spicule length of 93 (88-100) μm and 12 pairs of genital papillae. First-generation females have a moderately protruding vulva and a rounded tail tip bearing one spine-like projection. The new species is further characterised by sequences of the ITS and partial 28S regions of the ribosomal DNA. Phylogenetic analyses show S. beitlechemi n. sp. as a member of a strongly supported monophyletic clade with three other African species: S. sacchari, S. cameroonense and S. nyetense. © Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, 2016.


Henderson L.,South African Agricultural Research Council
African Entomology | Year: 2011

The Southern African Plant Invaders Atlas (SAPIA) is a mapping project, launched in 1994, to collate data on the distribution, abundance and habitat types of invasive alien plants in southern Africa. The SAPIA database is a computerized catalogue of some 70 000 locality records of more than 600 naturalized alien plant species. The database incorporates records gathered by about 560 participants, since 1994, and from roadside surveys by the author since 1979. Among its many uses, SAPIA can assist biological control programmes, in several ways. Information on the geographical distributions and ecological requirements of invasive plants in their introduced range can ensure that biological control agents are brought from comparable habitats in their country of origin so as to optimize their chances of establishment and efficacy. Early detection of new invaders and new foci of spread allows implementation of biological control at an early stage of invasion with the potential to pre-empt severe problems. In the longer term, SAPIA can provide an historical record of the distribution of invasive plants and could be used to monitor their rate of expansion or contraction before and after biological control. This review is a report on the development of and recent progress with the SAPIA project.


Cimen H.,Adnan Menderes University | Puza V.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Nermut J.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Hatting J.,South African Agricultural Research Council | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Nematology | Year: 2016

A new species of entomopathogenic nematode (EPN), Steinernema biddulphi n. sp., was isolated from a maize field in Senekal, Free State Province of South Africa. Morphological and molecular studies indicated the distinctness of S. biddulphi n. sp. from other Steinernema species. Steinernema biddulphi n. sp. is characterized IJs with average body length of 663 mm (606-778 mm), lateral fields with six ridges in mid-body region forming the formula 2,6,2. Excretory pore located anterior to mid-pharynx (D% = 46). Hyaline layer occupies approximately half of tail length. Male spicules slightly to moderately curved, with a sharp tip and golden brown in color. The first generation of males lacking a mucron on the tail tip while the second generation males with a short filamentous mucron. Genital papillae with 11 pairs and one unpaired preanal papilla. The new species is further characterized by sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and partial 28S regions (D2-D3) of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Phylogenetic data show that S. biddulphi n. sp. belongs to the ''bicornutum'' clade within the Steinernematidae family. © The Society of Nematologists 2016.


Manfrino R.G.,Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria | Manfrino R.G.,CONICET | Hatting J.L.,South African Agricultural Research Council | Humber R.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | And 2 more authors.
Annals of Applied Biology | Year: 2014

The spectrum of entomophthoroid fungal species parasitising aphids on cereal crops and a study of the phenology and prevalence of these pathogens were investigated in Argentina. The studies were conducted at six different sites cultivated with crops of Triticum aestivum (wheat), Avena sativa (oats) and Sorghum bicolor (sorghum) during two consecutive years. Entomopathogenic fungi from the new phylum Entomophthoromycota were recorded from six aphid species on cereals in Argentina: Rhopalosiphum maidis, Rhopalosiphum padi, Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominalis, Schizaphis graminum, Sitobion avenae and Sipha maydis. Three species of entomophthoroid fungi were found infecting these aphid species: Pandora neoaphidis, Zoophthora radicans (Entomophthorales: Entomophthoraceae) and Neozygites fresenii (Neozygitales: Neozygitaceae). Entomophthoroid fungal infections occurred mostly in autumn-winter seasons (March-August), and coincided with periods of high relative humidity and comparatively low temperatures. This study represents the first base-line characterisation of entomophthoroid fungi infecting aphids on cereal crops in Argentina. © 2013 Association of Applied Biologists.


Lepse L.,Pure Research | Drudze I.,Pure Research | Booyse M.,South African Agricultural Research Council | Labuschagne I.,Colors Fruit SA Pty Ltd.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2011

After application of jasmonic acid (JA) and gibberellic acid (GA3) and subjection to three variants of stratification, seeds of Latvian and South African origin from three apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) cultivars ('Golden Delicious', 'Panorama Golden' and 'Antonovka') and three pear (Pyrus communis L.) cultivars ('Pacham's Triumph', 'Flamingo' and 'Kazrausu bumbiere'), were germinated in vitro. Three medium composition variants were applied to investigate the effect of JA and GA3 on dormancy release and germination. Results indicate differences in percentage of seed germination and growth potential, where the highest percentage of germinated seedlings occurred in Latvian cultivars after three months of stratification at 4°C, treated with GA3 and in non-stratified seeds with JA and GA3 treatment. Best results for South African cultivars were shown after 3 month of stratification in fruit and non-stratified seeds without any hormone treatment. Measurements between seedling shoot and root lengths do not differ significantly between the extracted seed stratification treatment and seed stratification in fruit. In general, seedling growth was negatively influenced by JA treatment.


Bjornstad A.,Hoyasstien 12 | Grobbelaar E.,South African Agricultural Research Council | Perissinotto R.,Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University
ZooKeys | Year: 2016

The original description of Afraustraloderes rassei Bouyer, 2012 included a female that is now recognized as a separate species belonging to the genus Pixodarus and here described as P. spiniscapus sp. n. The true female of A. rassei has also been obtained recently and is, therefore, here described. The synonymy of P. exasperates with P. nyassae, proposed earlier by Santos Ferreira (1980), is here supported. Conversely, the earlier inclusion of A. rassei in the tribe Hopliderini is rejected, on the basis of a key set of characters established by Quentin and Villiers (1972, 1975). Afraustraloderes rassei appears to be restricted to the Cape Floral Region, exhibiting larval development in trunks and roots of dead Proteaceae plants. Conversely, P. spiniscapus has so far only been recorded in the eastern part of South Africa and appears to be associated with bushveld vegetation. © Anders Bjørnstad et al.


Cimen H.,University of Science and Arts of Iran | Lee M.-M.,University of Arizona | Hatting J.,South African Agricultural Research Council | Hazir S.,University of Science and Arts of Iran | Stock S.P.,University of Arizona
Zootaxa | Year: 2014

A new entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema tophus n. sp. is described from South Africa. Morphological, molecular (ribosomal gene sequence data) together with cross-hybridization studies were used for diagnostics and identification purposes. Both molecular and morphological data indicate the new species belongs to the 'g/aseri-group' of Steinernema spp. Key morphological diagnostic traits for S. tophus n. sp. include the morphology of the spicules and gubernaculum. Mor- phometric traits of third-stage infective juveniles, including total body length (average 1,046um), tail length (average 70um), location of the excretory pore (average 92 urn), D% (average 63), E% (average 132) and H% (average 32) values are definitive. In addition to these morphological characters, analysis of rDNA (28S and ITS) gene sequences depict this Steinernema species as a distinct and unique entity. Copyright © 2014 Magnolia Press.


PubMed | Adnan Menderes University, South African Agricultural Research Council and University of Arizona
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Zootaxa | Year: 2014

A new entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema tophus n. sp. is described from South Africa. Morphological, molecular (ribosomal gene sequence data) together with cross-hybridization studies were used for diagnostics and identification purposes. Both molecular and morphological data indicate the new species belongs to the glaseri-group of Steinernema spp. Key morphological diagnostic traits for S. tophus n. sp. include the morphology of the spicules and gubernaculum. Morphometric traits of third-stage infective juveniles, including total body length (average 1,046 m), tail length (average 70 m), location of the excretory pore (average 92 m), D% (average 63), E% (average 132) and H% (average 32) values are definitive. In addition to these morphological characters, analysis of rDNA (28S and ITS) gene sequences depict this Steinernema species as a distinct and unique entity.

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