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Henderson L.,South African Agricultural Research Council
African Entomology | Year: 2011

The Southern African Plant Invaders Atlas (SAPIA) is a mapping project, launched in 1994, to collate data on the distribution, abundance and habitat types of invasive alien plants in southern Africa. The SAPIA database is a computerized catalogue of some 70 000 locality records of more than 600 naturalized alien plant species. The database incorporates records gathered by about 560 participants, since 1994, and from roadside surveys by the author since 1979. Among its many uses, SAPIA can assist biological control programmes, in several ways. Information on the geographical distributions and ecological requirements of invasive plants in their introduced range can ensure that biological control agents are brought from comparable habitats in their country of origin so as to optimize their chances of establishment and efficacy. Early detection of new invaders and new foci of spread allows implementation of biological control at an early stage of invasion with the potential to pre-empt severe problems. In the longer term, SAPIA can provide an historical record of the distribution of invasive plants and could be used to monitor their rate of expansion or contraction before and after biological control. This review is a report on the development of and recent progress with the SAPIA project. Source


Bjornstad A.,Hoyasstien 12 | Grobbelaar E.,South African Agricultural Research Council | Perissinotto R.,Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University
ZooKeys | Year: 2016

The original description of Afraustraloderes rassei Bouyer, 2012 included a female that is now recognized as a separate species belonging to the genus Pixodarus and here described as P. spiniscapus sp. n. The true female of A. rassei has also been obtained recently and is, therefore, here described. The synonymy of P. exasperates with P. nyassae, proposed earlier by Santos Ferreira (1980), is here supported. Conversely, the earlier inclusion of A. rassei in the tribe Hopliderini is rejected, on the basis of a key set of characters established by Quentin and Villiers (1972, 1975). Afraustraloderes rassei appears to be restricted to the Cape Floral Region, exhibiting larval development in trunks and roots of dead Proteaceae plants. Conversely, P. spiniscapus has so far only been recorded in the eastern part of South Africa and appears to be associated with bushveld vegetation. © Anders Bjørnstad et al. Source


Cimen H.,University of Science and Arts of Iran | Lee M.-M.,University of Arizona | Hatting J.,South African Agricultural Research Council | Hazir S.,University of Science and Arts of Iran | Stock S.P.,University of Arizona
Zootaxa | Year: 2014

A new entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema tophus n. sp. is described from South Africa. Morphological, molecular (ribosomal gene sequence data) together with cross-hybridization studies were used for diagnostics and identification purposes. Both molecular and morphological data indicate the new species belongs to the 'g/aseri-group' of Steinernema spp. Key morphological diagnostic traits for S. tophus n. sp. include the morphology of the spicules and gubernaculum. Mor- phometric traits of third-stage infective juveniles, including total body length (average 1,046um), tail length (average 70um), location of the excretory pore (average 92 urn), D% (average 63), E% (average 132) and H% (average 32) values are definitive. In addition to these morphological characters, analysis of rDNA (28S and ITS) gene sequences depict this Steinernema species as a distinct and unique entity. Copyright © 2014 Magnolia Press. Source


Lepse L.,Pure Research | Drudze I.,Pure Research | Booyse M.,South African Agricultural Research Council | Labuschagne I.,Colors Fruit SA Pty Ltd.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2011

After application of jasmonic acid (JA) and gibberellic acid (GA3) and subjection to three variants of stratification, seeds of Latvian and South African origin from three apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) cultivars ('Golden Delicious', 'Panorama Golden' and 'Antonovka') and three pear (Pyrus communis L.) cultivars ('Pacham's Triumph', 'Flamingo' and 'Kazrausu bumbiere'), were germinated in vitro. Three medium composition variants were applied to investigate the effect of JA and GA3 on dormancy release and germination. Results indicate differences in percentage of seed germination and growth potential, where the highest percentage of germinated seedlings occurred in Latvian cultivars after three months of stratification at 4°C, treated with GA3 and in non-stratified seeds with JA and GA3 treatment. Best results for South African cultivars were shown after 3 month of stratification in fruit and non-stratified seeds without any hormone treatment. Measurements between seedling shoot and root lengths do not differ significantly between the extracted seed stratification treatment and seed stratification in fruit. In general, seedling growth was negatively influenced by JA treatment. Source


Cimen H.,Adnan Menderes University | Puza V.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Nermut J.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Hatting J.,South African Agricultural Research Council | And 3 more authors.
Nematology | Year: 2016

Steinernema beitlechemi n. sp. is a new species of entomopathogenic nematode isolated from soil samples collected in Bethlehem, Free State province, South Africa. The infective juveniles of S. beitlechemi n. sp. are characterised by a body length of 696 (606-768) μm, position of nerve ring of 96 (86-105) μm from the head and lateral fields with six ridges (i.e., seven lines) in mid-body. First-generation males of S. beitlechemi n. sp. can be distinguished by a spicule length of 93 (88-100) μm and 12 pairs of genital papillae. First-generation females have a moderately protruding vulva and a rounded tail tip bearing one spine-like projection. The new species is further characterised by sequences of the ITS and partial 28S regions of the ribosomal DNA. Phylogenetic analyses show S. beitlechemi n. sp. as a member of a strongly supported monophyletic clade with three other African species: S. sacchari, S. cameroonense and S. nyetense. © Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, 2016. Source

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