Saint Rose, LA, United States
Saint Rose, LA, United States

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Medich D.C.,University of Massachusetts Lowell | Medich D.C.,Source Production and Equipment Co. | Munro III J.J.,Source Production and Equipment Co.
Medical Physics | Year: 2010

Purpose: Absorbed dose energy correction factors, used to convert the absorbed dose deposited in a LiF thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) into the clinically relevant absorbed dose to water, were obtained for both spherical volumetric sources and for the model 4140 HDR Yb-169 source. These correction factors have a strong energy dependence below 200 keV; therefore, spectral changes were quantified as Yb-169 photons traveled through both source material (Yb2 O3) and water with the corresponding absorbed dose energy correction factors, f (r,θ), calculated as a function of location in a phantom. Methods: Using the MCNP5 Monte Carlo radiation transport simulation program, the Yb-169 spectrum emerging from spherical Yb2 O3 sources (density 6.9 g/ cm3) with radii between 0.2 and 0.9 mm were analyzed and their behavior compared against those for a point-source. The absorbed dose deposited to both LiF and H2 O materials was analyzed at phantom depths of 0.1-10 cm for each source radius and the absorbed dose energy correction factor calculated as the ratio of the absorbed dose to water to that of LiF. Absorbed dose energy correction factors for the Model 4140 Yb-169 HDR brachytherapy source similarly were obtained and compared against those calculated for the Model M-19 Ir-192 HDR source. Results: The Yb-169 average spectral energy, emerging from Yb2 O3 spherical sources 0.2-0.9 mm in radius, was observed to harden from 7% to 29%; as these photons traveled through the water phantom, the photon average energy softened by as much as 28% at a depth of 10 cm. Spectral softening was dependent on the measurement depth in the phantom. Energy correction factors were found to vary both as a function of source radius and phantom depth by as much as 10% for spherical Yb2 O3 sources. The Model 4140 Yb-169 energy correction factors depended on both phantom depth and reference angle and were found to vary by more than 10% between depths of 1 and 10 cm and angles of 0° and 180°. This was in contrast to that of the Model M-19 Ir-192 source which exhibited approximately 3.5%-4.4% variation in its energy correction factors from phantom depths of 0.5-10 cm. The absorbed dose energy correction factor for the Ir-192 source, on the other hand, was independent of angle to within 1%. Conclusions: The application of a single energy correction factor for Yb-169 TLD based dosimetry would introduce a high degree of measurement uncertainty that may not be reasonable for the clinical characterization of a brachytherapy source; rather, an absorbed dose energy correction function will need to be developed for these sources. This correction function should be specific to each source model, type of TLD used, and to the experimental setup to obtain accurate and precise dosimetric measurements. © 2010 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.


Currier B.,University of Massachusetts Lowell | Munro III J.J.,Source Production and Equipment Co. | Medich D.C.,Worcester Polytechnic Institute
Medical Physics | Year: 2013

Purpose: A novel 169Yb low dose rate permanent implant brachytherapy source, the GammaClip™, was developed by Source Production Equipment Co. (New Orleans, LA) which is designed similar to a surgical staple while delivering therapeutic radiation. In this report, the brachytherapy source was characterized in terms of "Dose calculation for photon-emitting brachytherapy sources with average energy higher than 50 keV: Report of the AAPM and ESTRO" by Perez-Calatayud [Med. Phys. 39, 2904-2929 (2012)]10.1118/1.3703892 using the updated AAPM Task Group Report No. 43 formalism. Methods: Monte Carlo calculations were performed using Monte Carlo N-Particle 5, version 1.6 in water and air, the in-air photon spectrum filtered to remove photon energies below 10 keV in accordance with TG-43U1 recommendations and previously reviewed 169Yb energy cutoff levels [D. C. Medich, M. A. Tries, and J. M. Munro, "Monte Carlo characterization of an Ytterbium-169 high dose rate brachytherapy source with analysis of statistical uncertainty," Med. Phys. 33, 163-172 (2006)]10.1118/1.2147767. TG-43U1 dosimetric data, including SK, D(r,θ), Λ, g L(r), F(r, θ), φan(r), and φ̄a n were calculated along with their statistical uncertainties. Since the source is not axially symmetric, an additional set of calculations were performed to assess the resulting axial anisotropy. Results: The brachytherapy source's dose rate constant was calculated to be (1.22 ± 0.03) cGy h -1 U-1. The uncertainty in the dose to water calculations, D(r,θ), was determined to be 2.5%, dominated by the uncertainties in the cross sections. The anisotropy constant, φ̄an, was calculated to be 0.960 ± 0.011 and was obtained by integrating the anisotropy factor between 1 and 10 cm using a weighting factor proportional to r-2. The radial dose function was calculated at distances between 0.5 and 12 cm, with a maximum value of 1.20 at 5.15 ± 0.03 cm. Radial dose values were fit to a fifth order polynomial and dual exponential regression. Since the source is not axially symmetric, angular Monte Carlo calculations were performed at 1 cm which determined that the maximum azimuthal anisotropy was less than 8%. Conclusions: With a higher photon energy, shorter half-life and higher initial dose rate 169Yb is an interesting alternative to 125I for the treatment of nonsmall cell lung cancer. © 2013 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.


Cazeca M.J.,University of Massachusetts Lowell | Medich D.C.,University of Massachusetts Lowell | Munro J.J.,Source Production and Equipment Co.
Medical Physics | Year: 2010

Purpose: To study the effects of the breast-air and breast-lung interfaces on the absorbed dose within the planning target volume (PTV) of a MammoSite® balloon dose delivery system as well as the effect of contrast material on the dose rate in the PTV. Methods: The Monte Carlo MCNP5 code was used to simulate dose rate in the PTV of a 2 cm radius MammoSite® balloon dose delivery system. The simulations were carried out using an average female chest phantom (AFCP) and a semi-infinite water phantom for both Yb-169 and Ir-192 high dose rate sources for brachytherapy application. Gastrografin was introduced at varying concentrations to study the effect of contrast material on the dose rate in the PTV. Results: The effect of the density of the materials surrounding the MammoSite® balloon containing 0% contrast material on the calculated dose rate at different radial distances in the PTV was demonstrated. Within the PTV, the ratio of the calculated dose rate for the AFCP and the semi-infinite water phantom for the point closest to the breast-air interface (90°) is less than that for the point closest to the breast-lung interface (270°) by 11.4% and 4% for the HDR sources of Yb-169 and Ir-192, respectively. When contrast material was introduced into the 2 cm radius MammoSite® balloon at varying concentrations, (5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%), the dose rate in the AFCP at 3.0 cm radial distance at 90°was decreased by as much as 14.8% and 6.2% for Yb-169 and Ir-192, respectively, when compared to that of the semi-infinite water phantom with contrast concentrations of 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%, respectively. Conclusions: Commercially available software used to calculate dose rate in the PTV of a MammoSite® balloon needs to account for patient anatomy and density of surrounding materials in the dosimetry analyses in order to avoid patient underdose. © 2010 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.


Currier B.H.,University of Massachusetts Lowell | Munro III J.J.,Source Production and Equipment Co. | Medich D.C.,Worcester Polytechnic Institute
Health Physics | Year: 2013

Monte Carlo simulation techniques using a Monte Carlo N-Particle code (MCNP5) analyzed six Source Production & Equipment Co., Inc., 75Se industrial radiography sources to determine an appropriate air kerma rate constant for 75Se, factoring in source encapsulation and compared to a theoretical approximation. Based on this study, an air kerma rate constant was calculated to be 17.7 Gy cm2 h-1Ci -1 (0.203 R m h Ci), which was found to be five times lower than values published in the 1992 Edition of the Radiological Health Handbook and Oak Ridge National Laboratory RISC-45. Simulations were also employed to determine the effects of self-attenuation with the SPEC sources, the relationship between photon transmission values, and the thickness of various shielding materials in reducing exposure rates from a 75Se source. Copyright © 2013 Health Physics Society.


Cazeca M.J.,University of Massachusetts Lowell | Medich D.C.,University of Massachusetts Lowell | Munro J.J.,Source Production and Equipment Co.
Medical Physics | Year: 2010

Purpose: The objective was to characterize a new Yb-169 high dose rate source for brachytherapy application. Methods: Monte Carlo simulations were performed using the MCNP5 F6 energy deposition tallies placed around the Yb-169 source at different radial distances in both air-vacuum and water environments. The calculations were based on a spherical water phantom with a radius of 50 cm. The output from the simulations was converted into radial dose rate distribution in polar coordinates surrounding the brachytherapy source. Results: The results from Monte Carlo simulations were used to calculate the AAPM Task Group 43 dosimetric parameters: Anisotropy function, radial dose function, air kerma strength, and dose rate constant. The results indicate a dose rate constant of 1.12±0.04 cGy h-1 U-1, anisotropy function ranging from 0.44 to 1.00 for radial distances of 0.5-10 cm and polar angles of 0°-180°. Conclusions: The data from the Yb-169 HDR source, Model M42, presented in this study show that this source compares favorably with another source of Yb-169, Model 4140, already approved for brachytherapy treatment. © 2010 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

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