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Huang F.,Zhejiang University | Wang X.,Environmental Information Center | Lou L.,Source Point | Zhou Z.,Huzhou Vocational and Technical College | Wu J.,Zhejiang University
Water Research | Year: 2010

Understanding the spatial distribution and apportioning the sources of water pollution are important in the study and efficient management of water resources. In this work, we considered data for 13 water quality variables collected during the year 2004 at 46 monitoring sites along the Qiantang River (China). Fuzzy comprehensive analysis categorized the data into three major pollution zones (low, moderate, and high) based on national quality standards for surface waters, China. Most sites classified as "low pollution zones" (LP) occurred in the main river channel, whereas those classified as "moderate and high pollution zones" (MP and HP, respectively) occurred in the tributaries. Factor analysis identified two potential pollution sources that explained 67% of the total variance in LP, two potential pollution sources that explained 73% of the total variance in MP, and three potential pollution sources that explained 80% of the total variance in HP. UNMIX was used to estimate contributions from identified pollution sources to each water quality variable and each monitoring site. Most water quality variables were influenced primarily by pollution due to industrial wastewater, agricultural activities and urban runoff. In LP, non-point source pollution such as agricultural runoff and urban runoff dominated; in MP and HP, mixed source pollution dominated. The pollution in the small tributaries was more serious than that in the main channel. These results provide information for developing better pollution control strategies for the Qiantang River. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Hess R.A.,Source Point
Journal of Physics: Conference Series | Year: 2013

The 50th anniversary of the first hologram made with laser light is an appropriate time to shine some light on the lasers that made it possible. Dubbed "a solution looking for a problem", the laser emerged from industrial research labs as a new kind of light source for any application requiring coherence. Immediately commercialized by both start-up and well-established corporations, lasers sold in their first year of production left much to be desired but made a good first impression. Their second year of production saw technical improvements that met the requirements for practical holography, and by the end of 1963 were good enough to make holograms of three dimensional, deep and diffuse imagery. Mostly obsolete by the end of the 1960s, very few of the Kennedy era lasers have survived. This survey is intended to identify and celebrate them, so more may be preserved as they are found, to be admired in the future. © Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd. Source


Su S.,Zhejiang University | Zhi J.,Zhejiang University | Lou L.,Source Point | Huang F.,Zhejiang University | And 2 more authors.
Physics and Chemistry of the Earth | Year: 2011

Characterizing the spatio-temporal patterns and apportioning the pollution sources of water bodies are important for the management and protection of water resources. The main objective of this study is to describe the dynamics of water quality and provide references for improving river pollution control practices. Comprehensive application of neural-based modeling and different multivariate methods was used to evaluate the spatio-temporal patterns and source apportionment of pollution in Qiantang River, China. Measurement data were obtained and pretreated for 13 variables from 41 monitoring sites for the period of 2001-2004. A self-organizing map classified the 41 monitoring sites into three groups (Group A, B and C), representing different pollution characteristics. Four significant parameters (dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, total phosphorus and total lead) were identified by discriminant analysis for distinguishing variations of different years, with about 80% correct assignment for temporal variation. Rotated principal component analysis (PCA) identified four potential pollution sources for Group A (domestic sewage and agricultural pollution, industrial wastewater pollution, mineral weathering, vehicle exhaust and sand mining), five for Group B (heavy metal pollution, agricultural runoff, vehicle exhaust and sand mining, mineral weathering, chemical plants discharge) and another five for Group C (vehicle exhaust and sand mining, chemical plants discharge, soil weathering, biochemical pollution, mineral weathering). The identified potential pollution sources explained 75.6% of the total variances for Group A, 75.0% for Group B and 80.0% for Group C, respectively. Receptor-based source apportionment was applied to further estimate source contributions for each pollution variable in the three groups, which facilitated and supported the PCA results. These results could assist managers to develop optimal strategies and determine priorities for river pollution control and effective water resources management. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Yu M.-G.,Zhejiang University | Yu M.-G.,Shaoguan University | Chen Y.-X.,Source Point
Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology | Year: 2010

Tea waste is an important part of agricultural solid wastes, because of its various sources and huge amount. The heavy metals removal from waste water by tea waste has been paid much attention by the researchers around the world, owing to the adsorption characteristic of tea waste. In this paper, the research advances in the heavy metals removal from aqueous phase by tea waste were summarized from the aspects of affecting factors, adsorption mechanism, pretreatment, desorption, and regeneration, and the prospects were put forward. It was considered that for the industrialized utilization of tea waste absorbents, further researches should be focused on their adsorption mechanism, pretreatment, desorption and regeneration, technological parameters, and aftertreatment. Source


The present invention provides an air-permeable filtration media that includes an air-permeable backing and an adsorbent. The adsorbent is at least partially embedded in the air-permeable backing. The present invention also provides a method of manufacturing an air-permeable filtration media. The present invention also provides a method of substantially removing contaminants form air, employing the air-permeable filtration media.

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