Lao PDR, Vietnam
Lao PDR, Vietnam

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Inthapanya S.,Souphanouvong University | Preston T.R.,Finca Ecologica | Leng R.A.,University of New England of Australia
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2011

An in vitro incubation system was used to evaluate the following treatments in a completely randomized 2*2 factorial arrangement with 4 replications; Cassava leaf meal plus urea (CLM-U), Cassava leaf meal plus calcium nitrate (CLM-CaN), Mimosa pigra leaf meal plus urea (MLM-U) and Mimosa leaf meal plus calcium nitrate (MLM-CaN). The basal substrate was cassava root meal. Gas production did not differ between calcium nitrate and urea but was higher for mimosa than for cassava leaf meal after 48 hours of fermentation. The percentage of methane in the gas was lower for calcium nitrate than for urea at all incubation times but the degree of difference decreased with the length of the incubation. There were no consistent differences between the the cassava and mimosa leaf meals in the methane content of the gas. The proportion of the substrate DM that was fermented in 48h did not differ between sources of NPN nor between the two leaf meals. Overall, the production of methane per unit of substrate fermented was decreased by 32% when calcium nitrate replaced by urea as the NPN source.


Silivong P.,Souphanouvong University | Preston T.R.,UTA Colombia | Leng R.A.,University of New England of Australia
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2011

Four weaned crossbred goats (Bach thao × local female), with an initial body weight of 10.5± 2.5 kg and 4-5 months of age, were assigned to a 2*2 factorial design in a 4*4 Latin square to compare the effect on rumen methane emissions, digestibility and nitrogen balance on a basal diet of molasses and Mimosa (Mimosa piga) foliage, supplemented with NPN from calcium nitrate or urea, and sulphur (0.8%) from sodium sulphate. Supplementing the basal diet with calcium nitrate led to a reduction in the methane/carbon dioxide ratio in the eructed breath of the goats compared with control animals supplemented with urea. The addition of sodium sulphate to the diet also reduced the methane/carbon dioxide ratio, with the two supplements having additive effects. Added sulphate increased both digestibility of crude protein and N retention. These criteria were not affected by the NPN source.


Inthapanya S.,Souphanouvong University | Preston T.R.,Finca Ecologica TOSOLY | Leng R.A.,University of New England of Australia
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2012

Two in vitro incubation experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that biochar would serve as support media for biofilm development in a biodigester and would as a result increase the yield of biogas whether added separately or enclosed in a nylon bag The treatments in experiment 1 were: control (no biochar), biochar added at 1% of the substrate DM in the biodigester, biochar added at 3% of the substrate DM in the biodigester. The substrate was fresh manure from cattle fed dried cassava root, fresh cassava foliage and urea. Proportions of water and manure were arranged so that the manure provided 5% of the solids in the biodigester. Gas production was measured daily over the fermentation period of 30 days; methane in the gas was measured after 21 and 28 days. In experiment 2, a 2*2 factorial arrangement with 4 replications was used to compare level of biochar: 1% of solids in the digester or none; and presence or absence of a cloth bag in the biodigester. The fermentation was followed over 21 days with daily measurement of gas production and content of methane in the gas at the end of the fermentation. In experiment 1, incorporation of 1% (DM basis) of biochar in the biodigester increased gas production by 31% after 30 days of continuous fermentation; there were no benefits from increasing the biochar to 3% of the substrate DM. The methane content of the gas increased with the duration of the fermentation (24% higher at 28 compared with 21 days) but was not affected by the presence of biochar in the incubation medium. In experiment 2, adding 1% of biochar (DM basis) to the substrate increased gas production by 35%, reduced methane content of the gas by 8%, increased the DM solubilized (by 2%) and increased methane production per unit substrate solubilized by 25%. Presence of the cloth bag increased gas production when it also contained biochar but decreased it when added to the biodigester without biochar. There was a similar interaction for methane produced per unit substrate solubilized.


Leng R.A.,University of New England of Australia | Inthapanya S.,Souphanouvong University | Preston T.R.,Finca Ecologica TOSOLY
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2012

In an in vitro incubation the treatments in a 2*2 factorial arrangement were: rumen fluid from cattle previously fed biochar (BA), rumen fluid from cattle previously fed biochar + biochar added to the substrate (BA+BC), rumen fluid from cattle not previously fed biochar (NBA) and rumen fluid from cattle not previously fed biochar + biochar added to the substrate (NBA+BC). There were 4 replications of each treatment. The substrate contained (DM basis): 70% cassava root meal, 26.5-28% cassava leaf meal and 2% urea. In treatments BA+BC and NBA+BC the biochar was added at 1.5% of the substrate DM. These ingredients were mixed together in the incubation flask to which was added 480 ml of buffer solution and 120 ml of strained rumen fluid taken by stomach tube from cattle fed cassava root, cassava foliage and urea and either biochar (0.62% of diet DM) (for BA treatments) or no biochar (treatments NBA). Gas production and percentage substrate DM solubilized were increased, and percent methane in the gas was reduced, when: (i) the rumen fluid in the incubation flask was taken from cattle adapted to 0.62% biochar in their diet (DM basis) over a 4 month period; and (ii) when biochar was added to the incubation medium at 1.5% of DM. There were additive effects on methane reduction when rumen fluid from adapted cattle was combined with biochar added to the incubation medium.


Leng R.A.,University of New England of Australia | Inthapanya S.,Souphanouvong University | Preston T.R.,Finca Ecologica TOSOLY
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2012

Three experiments were carried out to evaluate the effect of biochar on methane production from buffered ruminal fluid in an in vitro system using cassava root meal as substrate with either potassium nitrate or urea as the NPN source. Experiment 1: The treatments in 2*2 factorial arrangements with four replications of each treatment were: urea or potassium nitrate as NPN source; and presence or absence of 5% biochar. The quantity of substrate was 12 g DM to which was added 240 ml rumen fluid (from slaughtered buffalo) and 960 ml of buffer solution. The incubation was for 24 and 48hours with measurements of gas production, percent methane, substrate solubilized and methane produced per unit substrate solubilized. Gas production, methane percentage in the gas, substrate solubilized and methane produced per unit substrate solubilized were all lowered when nitrate replaced urea as the fermentable N source at either 24 or 48 hours of the incubation. Addition of biochar did not affect gas production but increased the percentage DM solubilized. Methane produced and methane produced per unit substrate solubilized was lowered by 14% due to addition of biochar when urea was the NPN source but was not affected when nitrate was the source of NPN. Experiment 2: The treatments in a 2*6 factorial with three replications were: (i) concentration of biochar (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5% on DM basis); (ii) washing or no washing of the biochar. The substrate was cassava root meal and urea. The general procedure and analyses were similar to those in experiment 1. Methane produced was reduced by 11-13% by adding 1% biochar but there were no further benefits from increasing the biochar level to between 2 and 5%. Methane production and per unit substrate DM solubilized were reduced by about 5% by washed compared with unwashed biochar. Experiment 3: The design was a completely randomized comparison of: No biochar with urea, 0.5% biochar with urea, 1.0% biochar with urea, 1% biochar with 50% urea and 50% potassium nitrate and 1% biochar with 100% potassium nitrate (at 6% of diet DM). Biochar at 0.5% reduced methane by 10% and at 1% reduced it by 12.7%. With 50% nitrate N and 50% urea N, plus biochar at 1%, the reduction in methane was 40.5% and with 100% nitrate N plus biochar at 1%, it was 49%.


Leng R.A.,University of New England of Australia | Preston T.R.,Finca Ecologica TOSOLY | Inthapanya S.,Souphanouvong University
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2012

Twelve local "Yellow" cattle with initial live weight ranging from 80 to 100 kg were assigned in a completely randomized block design to a 2*2 factorial arrangement of four treatments with three replications. The factors were: biochar at 0.6% of diet DM or none; and potassium nitrate at 6% of diet DM or urea at 1.83% of diet DM. The basal diet was cassava root chips fed ad libitum and fresh cassava foliage at 1% of LW (DM basis). Sodium sulphate and sodium chloride were added to the diet at the rate of 0.4% and 0.5% in the DM. The trial lasted 98 days following a 21 day adaptation to the diets. Live weight gain was increased 25% by adding biochar to the diet DM and tended to be decreased when nitrate replaced urea as the source of NPN. DM feed conversion was improved by biochar and by urea replacing nitrate. DM feed intake was not affected by supplementation with biochar nor by the NPN source. Both biochar and nitrate reduced methane production by 22 and 29%, respectively, the effects being additive (41% reduction) for the combination of biochar and nitrate.


Manivanh N.,Souphanouvong University | Preston T.R.,Centro Para La Investigacion En Sistemas Sostenibles Of Produccion Agropecuaria Cipav
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2016

A growth trial was conducted with 12 local pigs (Moo Lat breed) with average 14.8 kg initial live weight in a randomized complete block design (RCBD), with three replications of four treatments. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of replacing ensiled taro foliage with protein-enriched cassava root in a basal diet of ensiled banana stem. Fermentation of fresh cassava root with yeast, urea and di-ammonium phosphate (DAP) increased the content of true protein in the root from 2.5 to 14.2% in DM. There were positive responses in dry matter (DM) intake, live weight gain, feed conversion ratio, apparent DM digestibility and N retention as the percentage of protein-enriched cassava root in the diet was increased. © 2016, Fundacion CIPAV. All rights reserved.


Silivong P.,Souphanouvong University | Preston T.R.,Centro Para La Investigacion En Sistemas Sostenibles Of Produccion Agropecuaria Cipav
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2015

The aim of the study was to determine the effect of water spinach and biochar on enteric methane emissions, feed intake, digestibility, nitrogen retention and growth performance in local goats fed Bauhinia acuminata and molasses as basal diet. The experiment was arranged as a 2*2 factorial with 4 replications using sixteen goats in individual pens (initial live weight 12.9 kg and 6-7 months of age). Daily live weight gain and feed conversion, and DM digestibility and N retention, were improved by feeding water spinach and by supplementation with biochar. The higher value of rumen ammonia in goats fed water spinach reflected the greater solubility of the crude protein in the water spinach. Supplementation with water spinach led to a reduction in the methane/carbon dioxide ratio in the eructed breath of the goats but this criterion was not affected by biochar. © iForest – Biogeosciences and Forestry.


Chanthakhoun V.,Khon Kaen University | Chanthakhoun V.,Souphanouvong University | Wanapat M.,Khon Kaen University | Wachirapakorn C.,Khon Kaen University | Wanapat S.,Khon Kaen University
Livestock Science | Year: 2011

The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of Phaseolus calcaratus hay (PCH) supplementation on the intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation, microbial population (bacteria, protozoa, and fungi) and methane production in swamp buffaloes fed on rice straw based diet. Four, 2.5year old rumen fistulated male buffaloes were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design. The treatments were level of PCH supplementation at 0, 300, 600 and 900g DM/hd/d as supplements. The PCH contained 18.3% crude protein (CP) and 2.8% condensed tannins (CT). All buffaloes were fed with rice straw ad libitum while additional concentrate (12.6% CP) was fed at 0.3% body weight (BW). The study revealed that PCH supplementation had no effect on rumen temperature, pH, NH3-N and blood urea N. Volatile fatty acid (VFAs), especially those of propionic acid and acetic acid concentrations in the rumen were maximized (P<0.05) at 600g/hd/d feeding level. However, concentrations of each VFA and the acetate to propionate ratio did not differ among treatments. Bacterial, protozoal and fungal zoospore populations were maximized (P<0.05) at the intermediate PCH feeding levels. Rumen methane gas production was decreased linearly (P<0.05) with increasing level of PCH supplementation. N utilization in the buffaloes differed among treatments, with PCH supplementation linearly increasing N retention and efficiency of microbial N supply. Furthermore, PCH supplementation linearly increased (P<0.05) in terms of total DM intake, apparent digestibility of CP and OM, while, DM, NDF and ADF digestibilities were not affected. Supplementation of PCH at 600g/hd/d was beneficial in swamp buffaloes fed rice straw as a basal roughage, as it resulted in increased DM intake, reduced protozoal and methane gas production in the rumen, increased N retention as well as efficiency of rumen microbial CP synthesis. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Chanthakhoun V.,Khon Kaen University | Chanthakhoun V.,Souphanouvong University | Wanapat M.,Khon Kaen University | Berg J.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences
Livestock Science | Year: 2012

The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of level of CP in concentrate on rumen fermentation, microbial population (bacteria, protozoa, and fungi), microbial protein synthesis, feed intake and feed digestibility in swamp buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) fed on rice straw based diet. Four, rumen-fistulated 4-year old swamp buffaloes with 381±10kg liveweight were randomly assigned to receive four dietary treatments according to a 4×4 Latin square design. Four levels of crude protein (92, 124, 181 and 219g/kg CP) in concentrate mixture were fed at 1g/kg body weight (BW) and rice straw was fed ad libitum. The study revealed that dry matter intake, apparent digestibility of DM, OM, CP and NDF, were significantly higher in buffaloes fed with higher CP level especially at the 124-181g/kg CP level, while, ADF digestibilities were not affected. Level of CP supplementation had affected on rumen pH, NH 3N and blood urea N (P<0.01). Meanwhile, rumen propionic acid production was significantly higher at 181g/kg CP level, while total fatty acids (VFA), acetic acid, butylic acid and C 2:C 3 ratio, were similar among treatments. However, protozoal and fungal zoospore populations were not changed while bacterial populations were significantly different among treatments and were higher with high level of CP. Furthermore, application of quantitative PCR to quantify predominant cellulolytic bacteria (16S rRNA) targets revealed that treatments did not change population of Ruminococcus flavefaciens bacteria (P>0.05) and methanogenic bacteria (P>0.05). Meanwhile, total bacteria (P<0.05), Fibrobacter succinogenes (P<0.05) and Ruminococcus albus (P<0.01) population were significantly increased when CP was at a higher level. Moreover, PD excretion, PD absorption, N absorption, N retention, MNS and EMPS were significantly increased. Therefore, based on this study, it could be concluded that level of CP between 124 and 181g/kg CP in the concentrate supplement revealed the highest rumen fermentation efficiency in swamp buffaloes fed on rice straw. © 2011 Elsevier B.V..

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