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Ymittos Athens, Greece

Liapikou A.,Sotiria Hospital | Torres A.,University of Barcelona
Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine | Year: 2016

The 2010 Global Burden of Disease Study reported that lower respiratory tract infections, including pneumonia, are the fourth most common cause of death globally. The etiology of acute bronchitis and asthma exacerbations is mostly viral and the therapy is symptomatic. Management decisions in community acquired pneumonia regarding site of care, extent of assessment, and level of treatment are based primarily on disease severity (outpatient, inpatient, ICU admission). Antibiotics are the main choice of treatment for patients with pneumonia, acute exacerbations (AE) of COPD (including increased sputum purulence and worsening shortness of breath) and AE of non-CF bronchiectasis. Inhaled antibiotics may represent a more optimal approach for the treatment and prevention of AE of non-CF bronchiectasis. Approved strategies for the prevention of exacerbations include smoking cessation and rehabilitation programs, drug therapy and vaccination. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

Torres A.,University of Barcelona | Liapikou A.,Sotiria Hospital
Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy | Year: 2012

Introduction: Fluoroquinolone use has dramatically increased since the introduction of the first respiratory fluoroquinolone in the late 1990s. Levofloxacin, like other fluoquinolones, is a potent antibiotic, due to high levels of susceptibility among Gram-negative, Gram-positive (including penicillin-resistant strains of Streptococcus pneumonia) and atypical pathogens. Levofloxacin is recommended for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and in the management of acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (AECB). Levofloxacin demonstrates good safety, bioavailability and tissue penetration, thus maintaining adequate concentrations at the site of infection. High-dose (750 mg), short-course (5 days) therapy regimens may offer improved treatment, especially in HAP, due to higher drug concentrations, increased adherence and the potential to reduce the development of resistance. Areas covered: This article covers medical literature published in any language since 1990 until November 2011, on 'levofloxacin', identified using PubMed and MEDLINE. The search terms used were 'levofloxacin' and 'community acquired pneumonia', 'hospital pneumonia' or 'AECB'. Expert opinion: Levofloxacin is a valuable antimicrobial agent and an optimal treatment option for AECB, CAP (as a monotherapy) and HAP (as combination therapy at a high-dose regimen). Its improved bioavailability and safety profile makes the possibility of shorter hospital stays a reality. © 2012 Informa UK, Ltd.

Liapikou A.,Sotiria Hospital | Torres A.,University of Barcelona
Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs | Year: 2013

Introduction: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has proven to be a prominent pathogen in hospitals and in the community, which is capable of causing a variety of severe infections. Until now, there has been a limited antimicrobial armamentarium for use against MRSA, of which glycopeptides and linezolid are the main agents used. Areas covered: This review assesses current treatment and the agents being developed for MRSA infections. A search was conducted in PubMed for English-language references published from 2000 to 2013, using combinations of the following terms: 'MRSA', 'MRSA therapy', 'gram (+) infections therapy', 'new antibiotics', 'vancomycin', 'staphylococcus resistance', 'oritavancin', 'ceftaroline', 'linezolid' and 'tigecycline'. The clinicalTrials website was also searched with keywords regarding the new antibiotic agents against MRSA infections. Expert opinion: There are a number of new agents, the place of which in therapeutic regimens is yet to emerge. New glycopeptides, such as dalbavancin and oritavancin, with long half-lives, enabling once-weekly dosing, and oral agents, such as iclaprim, may provide a treatment approach for outpatient therapy. A decision must be made regarding the most suitable agent for an individual patient, the site of infection and the place of therapy. © 2013 Informa UK, Ltd.

Adamantia L.,Sotiria Hospital | Torres A.,University of Barcelona
Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy | Year: 2014

Introduction: Bacterial infections play an important role as etiological agents in acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD), and exacerbations of non-cystic fibrosis (CF) bronchiectasis. In acute bronchitis and asthma exacerbations their role is less well defined than with patients with COPD. The clinical features, causative pathogens and therapies of common acute respiratory tract infections are detailed in this review.Areas covered: This article covers medical literature published in any language from 2000 to 2014, on 'lower respiratory tract infections', identified using PubMed, MEDLINE and ClinicalTrial.gov. The search terms used were 'COPD exacerbations', 'bronchiectasis', 'macrolides' and 'inhaled antibiotics'.Expert opinion: Given that almost half of AECOPD are caused by bacteria, administration of antibacterial agents is recommended for patients with severe exacerbations or severe underlying COPD. Chronic prophylactic use of macrolides seems to be of benefit, particularly in patients with bronchiectasis and chronic mucous hypersecretion. In an effort to manage chronic airway infection non-CF bronchiectasis due to drug-resistant pathogens, aerosolized antibiotics may be of value, and the data from recent studies are examined to demonstrate the potential value of this therapy, which is often used as an adjunctive measure to systemic antimicrobial therapy. © 2014 Informa UK, Ltd.

Sialer S.,Clinic Institute of Thorax ICT | Adamantia L.,Sotiria Hospital | Guerrero M.,Clinic Institute of Thorax ICT | Torres A.,Clinic Institute of Thorax ICT | Torres A.,University of Barcelona
Current Infectious Disease Reports | Year: 2012

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) constitutes a major health problem. Recurrent acute exacerbations are characteristic of the course of COPD (AECOPD) associated with significant healthcare costs and contribute to the progress of the disease. Given that almost half of AECOPD is caused by bacteria, administration of antibacterial agents is recommended for patients with severe exacerbations or severe underlying COPD. Optimal antibiotic selection for exacerbations has therefore incorporated quantifying the risk for a poor outcome of the exacerbation and choosing antibiotics differently for low risk and high risk patients. It is unclear whether antibiotics should be provided as prophylactic agents in COPD patients although ongoing trials are reexamining the question of whether the antiinflammatory action of antibiotics such as macrolides can be useful in preventing exacerbations. In addition, nowadays, the occurrence of pneumonia in COPD has received considerable recent attention as it appears to be increased by the use of inhaled corticosteroids. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012.

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