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Proklou A.,University Hospital of Heraklion | Soulitzis N.,University of Crete | Neofytou E.,University of Crete | Rovina N.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens | And 6 more authors.
Chest | Year: 2013

Background: Lung cytotoxic mechanisms trigger the release of perforin and granzymes, causing oxidative DNA damage that ultimately leads to apoptosis. These effects, although demonstrated in COPD, have not been investigated in patients with asthma and in particular in patients with asthma who smoke. Our aim was to measure perforin, granzyme A, granzyme B, and 8-OHdG expression in sputum from smoking and nonsmoking patients with asthma, compared with smoking and nonsmoking control subjects. Methods: Perforin, granzyme A, granzyme B, and 8-OHdG expression levels were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in induced sputum specimens. Results: Perforin expression was increased in 40% of smokers and 45% of smoking patients with asthma and in only 7% of nonsmoking patients with asthma (P = .004), compared with control subjects' values. In contrast, granzymes A and B levels were increased in > 40% of patients in all three groups vs control subjects. Finally, 8-OHdG levels were elevated in 35% of smoking patients with asthma, in 20% of smokers, and in only 10% of nonsmoking patients with asthma. Statistical analysis revealed a positive correlation between granzyme A (P < .001) and granzyme B (P = .006) expression levels and the number of pack-years in smoking patients with asthma. Conclusions: Asthma cytotoxic immune response is mainly represented by granzymes A and B, whereas in smoking patients with asthma perforin and 8-OHdG are additionally involved, resembling the immune response in COPD. © 2013 American College of Chest Physicians.

Tsiligianni I.G.,University of Crete | Tsiligianni I.G.,Agia Barbara Health Care Center | Vardavas C.I.,University of Crete | Bouloukaki I.,University of Crete | And 5 more authors.
Tobacco Induced Diseases | Year: 2012

Background: Tobacco and alcohol use during adolescence have potential long term health consequences and a possibility of future addiction. Methods. This cross sectional study took place in 2007 among a convenience sample of 981 adolescents from public elementary and high schools in Eastern Crete, Greece. Following parental consent, an anonymous structured questionnaire including information on personal and family use of alcohol and tobacco was distributed. Results: Among the entire study population, cigarette experimentation was found to be associated with current alcohol use, with an Adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR) of 38.8; (95%C.I: 5.33-58.2) and with having a smoker in the immediate family (aOR 10.3; 95%C.I: 3.14-34.0). Among the subset of elementary school children, cigarette smoking was strongly associated with current alcohol use aOR 9.7; (95%C.I: 2.12-44.3), while the association between smoking experimentation and sibling and parental alcohol use was statistically significant within the entire population (however not among elementary students) with an aOR of 2.76 (95%C.I: 1.24-6.15) and aOR 3.66, (95%C.I: 1.97-6.81) respectively. The elementary childs gender was not found to be associated with cigarette experimentation among this study population. Conclusions: Strong associations were found between alcohol use and tobacco experimentation. The potential parental influence on consequent adolescent tobacco and alcohol use was also noted. Potential community based interventions, if launched in Greece, should take the role of the Greek family into account. © 2012 Tsiligianni et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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