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Prague, Czech Republic

Fucikova J.,University Hospital Motol | Moserova I.,Sotio | Truxova I.,Sotio | Hermanova I.,University Hospital Motol | And 9 more authors.
International Journal of Cancer | Year: 2014

Recent studies have identified molecular events characteristic of immunogenic cell death (ICD), including surface exposure of calreticulin (CRT), the heat shock proteins HSP70 and HSP90, the release of high-mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1) and the release of ATP from dying cells. We investigated the potential of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) to induce ICD in human tumor cells. HHP induced the rapid expression of HSP70, HSP90 and CRT on the cell surface. HHP also induced the release of HMGB1 and ATP. The interaction of dendritic cells (DCs) with HHP-treated tumor cells led to a more rapid rate of DC phagocytosis, upregulation of CD83, CD86 and HLA-DR and the release of interleukin IL-6, IL-12p70 and TNF-α. DCs pulsed with tumor cells killed by HHP induced high numbers of tumor-specific T cells. DCs pulsed with HHP-treated tumor cells also induced the lowest number of regulatory T cells. In addition, we found that the key features of the endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptotic pathway, such as reactive oxygen species production, phosphorylation of the translation initiation factor eIF2α and activation of caspase-8, were activated by HHP treatment. Therefore, HHP acts as a reliable and potent inducer of ICD in human tumor cells. What's new? Some cytotoxic agents used in cancer treatment activate an immunogenic form of apoptosis, which causes the dying tumor cells to induce an effective antitumor immune response. Here, the authors find that exposure to high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) induces bona fide immunogenic cell death in a wide range of human tumor cell lines and primary tumor cells. As HHP treatment is relatively easily standardized under good manufacturing practices conditions, the authors initiated multiple clinical trials evaluating the potential of dendritic cells loaded with HHP-treated cancer cells to induce tumor cell-specific immune responses in patients with prostate cancer. © 2014 UICC. Source

Podrazil M.,Charles University | Horvath R.,Charles University | Horvath R.,University Hospital Motol | Becht E.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 17 more authors.
Oncotarget | Year: 2015

Purpose: We conducted an open-label, single-arm Phase I/II clinical trial in metastatic CRPC (mCRPC) patients eligible for docetaxel combined with treatment with autologous mature dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with killed LNCaP prostate cancer cells (DCVAC/PCa). The primary and secondary endpoints were safety and immune responses, respectively. Overall survival (OS), followed as a part of the safety evaluation, was compared to the predicted OS according to the Halabi and MSKCC nomograms. Experimental design: Twenty-five patients with progressive mCRPC were enrolled. Treatment comprised of initial 7 days administration of metronomic cyclophosphamide 50 mg p.o. DCVAC/PCa treatment consisted of a median twelve doses of 1 × 107 dendritic cells per dose injected s.c. (Aldara creme was applied at the site of injection) during a one-year period. The initial 2 doses of DCVAC/PCa were administered at a 2-week interval, followed by the administration of docetaxel (75 mg/m2) and prednisone (5 mg twice daily) given every 3 weeks until toxicity or intolerance was observed. The DCVAC/PCa was then injected every 6 weeks up to the maximum number of doses manufactured from one leukapheresis. Results: No serious DCVAC/PCa-related adverse events have been reported. The median OS was 19 months, whereas the predicted median OS was 11.8 months with the Halabi nomogram and 13 months with the MSKCC nomogram. Kaplan-Meier analyses showed that patients had a lower risk of death compared with both MSKCC (Hazard Ratio 0.26, 95% CI: 0.13-0.51) and Halabi (Hazard Ratio 0.33, 95% CI: 0.17-0.63) predictions. We observed a significant decrease in Tregs in the peripheral blood. The long-term administration of DCVAC/PCa led to the induction and maintenance of PSA specific T cells. We did not identify any immunological parameter that significantly correlated with better OS. Conclusions: In patients with mCRPC, the combined chemoimmunotherapy with DCVAC/PCa and docetaxel was safe and resulted in longer than expected survival. Concomitant chemotherapy did not preclude the induction of specific anti-tumor cytotoxic T cells. Source

Hensler M.,Sotio | Vancurova I.,Sotio | Vancurova I.,Charles University | Becht E.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 14 more authors.
OncoImmunology | Year: 2016

ABSTRACT: Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are cancer cells that are released from a tumor into the bloodstream. The presence of CTCs in peripheral blood has been associated with metastasis formation in patients with breast cancer. Therefore, the molecular characterization of CTCs may improve diagnostics and support treatment decisions. We performed gene expression profiling to evaluate the enriched CTCs and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of breast cancer patients using an expression panel of 55 breast cancer-associated genes. The study revealed several significantly differentially expressed genes in the CTC-positive samples, including a few that were exclusively expressed in these cells. However, the expression of these genes was barely detectable in the PBMC samples. Some genes were differentially expressed in PBMCs, and the expression of these genes was correlated with tumor grade and the formation of metastasis. In this study, we have shown that the enriched CTCs of breast cancer patients overexpress genes involved in proteolytic degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) as well as genes that play important roles in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process that may occur in these cells. © 2016 The Author(s). Published with license by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC Source

Partlova S.,Sotio | Partlova S.,Charles University | Boucek J.,Charles University | Boucek J.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | And 15 more authors.
OncoImmunology | Year: 2015

Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is one of the most important etiologic causes of oropharyngeal head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Patients with HPV-positive HNSCC were reported to have a better clinical outcome than patients with HPV-negative cancers. However, little is known about the possible causes of different clinical outcomes. In this study, we analyzed a detailed immune profile of tumor samples from HNSCC patients with respect to their HPV status. We analyzed the characteristics of immune cell infiltrates, including the frequency and distribution of antigen-presenting cells and naïve, regulatory and effector T cells and the cytokine and chemokine levels in tumor tissue. There was a profound difference in the extent and characteristics of intratumoral immune cell infiltrates in HNSCC patients based on their HPV status. In contrast to HPV-negative tumor tissues, HPV-positive tumor samples showed significantly higher numbers of infiltrating IFNγ+ CD8+ T lymphocytes, IL-17+ CD8+ T lymphocytes, myeloid dendritic cells and proinflammatory chemokines. Furthermore, HPV-positive tumors had significantly lower expression of Cox-2 mRNA and higher expression of PD1 mRNA compared to HPV-negative tumors. The presence of a high level of intratumoral immune cell infiltrates might play a crucial role in the significantly better response of HPV-positive patients to standard therapy and their favorable clinical outcome. Furthermore, characterization of the HNSCC immune profile might be a valuable prognostic tool in addition to HPV status and might help identify novel targets for therapeutic strategies, including cancer immunotherapy. © 2015 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source

Iribarren K.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Iribarren K.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Bloy N.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Buque A.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 21 more authors.
OncoImmunology | Year: 2016

ABSTRACT: Accumulating preclinical evidence indicates that Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists efficiently boost tumor-targeting immune responses (re)initiated by most, if not all, paradigms of anticancer immunotherapy. Moreover, TLR agonists have been successfully employed to ameliorate the efficacy of various chemotherapeutics and targeted anticancer agents, at least in rodent tumor models. So far, only three TLR agonists have been approved by regulatory agencies for use in cancer patients. Moreover, over the past decade, the interest of scientists and clinicians in these immunostimulatory agents has been fluctuating. Here, we summarize recent advances in the preclinical and clinical development of TLR agonists for cancer therapy. © 2016, © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source

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