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Chalk K.,Charite - Medical University of Berlin | Meisel C.,Charite - Medical University of Berlin | Spies C.,Charite - Medical University of Berlin | Volk T.,Saarland University | And 4 more authors.
Critical Care | Year: 2013

Introduction: Patients undergoing cardiac surgery have an increased risk of postoperative pneumonia. Pulmonary immune dysfunction might be a contributing factor. We therefore determined changes of the surface molecules on alveolar macrophages (AMs). To characterize modulation in patients with pneumonia we correlated these changes to the development of postoperative pneumonia. Methods: After ethical approval and written informed consent, 33 patients undergoing elective coronary bypass grafting surgery were included in this observational study. Peripheral blood cells and alveolar lavage fluid were collected directly after induction of anesthesia and two hours after separation from cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Human leukocyte antigen-DR (HLA-DR) and toll-like receptors (TLR) 2/4 expression on monocytes and AM were assessed by flow cytometry. A total of three patients developed postoperative pneumonia determined according to the criteria of the Center of Disease Control. Statistical analysis was performed with the Mann-Whitney-U test and Wilcoxon test. Results: We found significant changes of phenotypic and functional immune markers on AMs after cardiac surgery. HLA-DR expression on peripheral blood monocytes and AMs was significantly reduced compared to baseline in all patients (each approximately 30%). After surgery patients who developed postoperative pneumonia revealed a trend of stronger reduction of HLA-DR expression (83.7% versus 27.1%) and TLR4 expression on AMs (46.1% versus 9.9%) compared to patients without pneumonia. Already before surgery, the baseline of TLR2 expression on AM was significantly lower (27.7%) in patients who developed postoperative pneumonia. Conclusions: As far as we know this is the first study that shows an early impairment of lung cellular immune response after cardiac surgery. These findings can help to understand the role of cell-mediated immunosuppression and its association to the development of postoperative pneumonia. © 2013 Chalk et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Kastrup M.,Charite - Medical University of Berlin | Powollik R.,Charite - Medical University of Berlin | Balzer F.,Charite - Medical University of Berlin | Rober S.,Charite - Medical University of Berlin | And 4 more authors.
Critical Care Medicine | Year: 2013

OBJECTIVE:: Unplanned readmission of hospitalized patients to an ICU is associated with an increased mortality and hospital length of stay. The ability to identify patients at risk, who would benefit from prolonged ICU treatment, is limited. The aim of this study is to validate a previously published numerical index named the Stability and Workload Index for Transfer in a heterogeneous group of ICU patients. DESIGN:: In this retrospective data analysis, the Stability and Workload Index for Transfer score was calculated for all patients, and the ability of the score to predict readmission was compared with the original publication. SETTING:: Four ICUs, one intermediate care unit, and one postanesthesia care unit of the department of anesthesia and intensive care of a university hospital. PATIENTS:: All consecutive patients treated in one of the units. INTERVENTIONS:: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:: Unplanned ICU readmissions or unexpected death within 7 days of ICU discharge. The data of 7,175 patients were included in the analysis. Five hundred ninety-six patients were readmitted or died within 7 days of discharge. The patients who are readmitted to the ICU are significantly older and have significantly higher scores that define the severity of disease at the time of admission and discharge of their first ICU stay. The source of admission for the initial ICU stay did not differ (p = 0.055), and the last Glasgow Coma Scale and the last PaO2/FIO2 ratio before discharge from the ICU were higher in patients who did not need a readmission to the ICU. The performance of the Stability and Workload Index for Transfer score is poor with an area under the receiver operator curve of 0.581 (95% CI, 0.556-0.605; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS:: Based on the data from our patients, the proposed Stability and Workload Index for Transfer score by Gajic et al is not ideal in aiding the clinician in the decision, if a patient can be discharged safely from the ICU and further research is necessary to define the patients at risk for readmission. Copyright © 2013 by the Society of Critical Care Medicine and Lippincott. Source


Nachtigall I.,Charite - Medical University of Berlin | Tamarkin A.,Charite - Medical University of Berlin | Tafelski S.,Charite - Medical University of Berlin | Weimann A.,Charite - Medical University of Berlin | And 5 more authors.
Journal of International Medical Research | Year: 2014

Objective: To determine whether the Arg753Gln polymorphism of the toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) gene and the Asp299Gly polymorphism of the TLR4 gene in critically ill patients affect their clinical outcomes. Methods: Medical and surgical patients in three intensive care units (ICU) were enrolled in this prospective study. TLR2 and TLR4 gene polymorphisms were determined using restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Results: A total of 145 patients were included in this study: 28 patients carried heterozygous mutations (10 in the TLR2 gene, 19 in the TLR4 gene, and one combined) and 117 patients were wild type. Severe sepsis was observed in 33% of wild types (n = 38), 60% of the TLR2 group (n = 6), and 63% of the TLR4 group (n = 12); the difference was significant between the TLR4 and wild type groups. Both TLR groups demonstrated a shorter time-to-onset of severe sepsis or septic shock. Only the TLR4 group demonstrated significant progression towards septic shock compared with the wild type group. Length of ICU stay was significantly prolonged in the TLR4 group compared with the wild type group, but not in the TLR2 group. Conclusion: sTwo common SNPs of the TLR2 and TLR4 genes - Arg753Gln and Asp299Gly - were associated with a shorter time-to-onset of severe sepsis or septic shock in patients admitted to the ICU. © The Author(s) 2013. Source


Heymann A.,Charite - Medical University of Berlin | Radtke F.,Charite - Medical University of Berlin | Schiemann A.,Charite - Medical University of Berlin | Lutz A.,Charite - Medical University of Berlin | And 4 more authors.
Journal of International Medical Research | Year: 2010

Delirium in the intensive care unit (ICU) is a serious complication associated with a poor outcome in critically ill patients. In this prospective observational study of the effect of a delay in delirium therapy on mortality rate, 418 ICU patients were regularly assessed using the Delirium Detection Score (DDS). The departmental standard required that if delirium was diagnosed (DDS > 7), therapy should be started within 24 h. In total, 204 patients (48.8%) were delirious during their ICU stay. In 184 of the delirious patients (90.2%), therapy was started within 24 h; in 20 patients (9.8%), therapy was delayed. During their ICU stay, patients whose delirium treatment was delayed were more frequently mechanically ventilated, had more nosocomial infections (including pneumonia) and had a higher mortality rate than patients whose treatment was not delayed. Thus, it would appear that a delay in initiating delirium therapy in ICU patients was associated with increased mortality. © 2010 Field House Publishing LLP. Source


Vogt K.,Schwarzer Weg 3 B | Vogt K.,University of Latvia | Wernecke K.-D.,SOSTANA GmbH | Behrbohm H.,PARK KLINIK Weissensee GmbH | And 2 more authors.
European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology | Year: 2016

Rhinomanometry can still be considered as the standard technique for the objective assessment of the ventilatory function of the nose. Reliable technical requirements are given by fast digital sensors and modern information technology. However, the xyimaging of the pressure-flow relation typically shows loops as a sign of hysteresis, with the need for resolution of the breath in four phases. The three pillars of 4-phase rhinomanometry (4PR) are the replacement of estimations by measurements, the introduction of parameters related to the subjective sensing of obstruction, and the graphical information regarding the disturbed function of the nasal valve. In a meta-analysis of 36,563 clinical measurements, we analyze the errors of the “classic” parameters (flow in 150 Pa) and reject the further use of these parameters as obsolete, because they correspond to an inaccurate estimation rather than proper measurement. In a pre-study of 1580 measurements, the logarithmic effective resistance (Reff) was found to have the highest correlation with values obtained from a visual analog scale. Next, we classify the inspiratory effective resistance in 20,069 measurements without treatment and 16,494 measurements after decongestion with xylometazoline 0.1 % spray in 20 % percentiles. The gradation of obstruction delivers not only “normal” values but also indications for the severity of the obstruction in adult Caucasian noses. Adoption of the distribution for the growing nose and analysis of the total nasal resistance is addressed, and typical findings of nasal valve phenomena are outlined. © 2015, The Author(s). Source

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