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Helsinki, Finland

Matsumoto T.,University of Tokyo | Matsumoto T.,Japan Science and Technology Agency | Urano Y.,University of Tokyo | Takahashi Y.,Osaka University | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Organic Chemistry

Development of effective chemical catalysts is a key concern in organic chemistry. Therefore, convenient screening systems for chemical catalysts are required, and although some fluorescence-based HTS systems have been developed, little attempt has been made to apply them to asymmetric catalysts. Therefore, we tried to develop a chiral fluorescence probe which can evaluate the reactivity and enantioselectivity of asymmetric catalysts. We focused on kinetic resolution catalysts as a target of our novel fluorescence probe, employing β-elimination following acylation of nitroaldol. Once the hydroxyl group of nitroaldol is acylated, β-elimination occurs immediately, affording nitro olefin. Therefore, we designed and synthesized a fluorescence probe with an asymmetric nitroaldol moiety. Its fluorescence intensity decreases dramatically upon β-elimination, so the fluorescence decrease is an indicator of the reaction yield. Thus, the enantioselectivity of kinetic resolution catalysts can be assessed simply by measuring the fluorescence intensities of the reaction mixtures of the two enantiomers; it is not necessary to purify the product. This fluorescence probe revealed that benzotetramisole is a superior catalyst for kinetic resolution of nitroaldol. Furthermore, we established an HTS system for asymmetric catalysts, using a fluorescence probe and benzotetramisole. To our knowledge, this is the first fluorescence-based HTS system for asymmetric catalysts. © 2011 American Chemical Society. Source

Terai T.,University of Tokyo | Terai T.,Chiyoda Corporation | Maki E.,University of Tokyo | Maki E.,Chiyoda Corporation | And 12 more authors.
Chemistry and Biology

Biotin-(strept)avidin complex is widely used in biotechnology because of its extremely high binding constant, but there is no report describing spatiotemporally controlled formation of the complex in live cells. Here, based on X-ray crystal structure analysis and calorimetric data, we designed and synthesized photoreleasable biotins, which show greatly reduced affinity for (strept)avidin, but recover native affinity after UV irradiation. For application at the cell surface, we introduced an amine-reactive moiety into these "caged" biotin molecules. Specific fluorescence imaging of live cells that had been labeled with these agents and then UV-irradiated, was accomplished by addition of streptavidin conjugated with a fluorophore. We also demonstrated the applicability of these compounds for UV-irradiated-cell- specific drug delivery by using caged-biotin-labeled cells, a prodrug, and streptavidin conjugated with a prodrug-activating enzyme. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved. Source

Matsumura H.,Osaka University | Matsumura H.,SoSho Inc | Kai A.,Osaka University | Maeda T.,Osaka University | And 10 more authors.

The reversible formation of a glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH)-CP12-phosphoribulokinase (PRK) supramolecular complex, identified in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms, provides light-dependent Calvin cycle regulation in a coordinated manner. An intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) CP12 acts as a linker to sequentially bind GAPDH and PRK to downregulate both enzymes. Here, we report the crystal structures of the ternary GAPDH-CP12-NAD and binary GAPDH-NAD complexes from Synechococcus elongates. The GAPDH-CP12 complex structure reveals that the oxidized CP12 becomes partially structured upon GAPDH binding. The C-terminus of CP12 is inserted into the active-site region of GAPDH, resulting in competitive inhibition of GAPDH. This study also provides insight into how the GAPDH-CP12 complex is dissociated by a high NADP(H)/NAD(H) ratio. An unexpected increase in negative charge potential that emerged upon CP12 binding highlights the biological function of CP12 in the sequential assembly of the supramolecular complex. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved. Source

Watanabe Y.S.,Sanwa Kagaku Kenkyusho Co. | Yasuda Y.,Sanwa Kagaku Kenkyusho Co. | Kojima Y.,Mitsubishi Group | Kojima Y.,Synergy Inc. | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry

The single-crystal structure of anagliptin, N-[2-({2-[(2S)-2-cyanopyrrolidin-1-yl]-2-oxoethyl}amino)-2-methylpropyl]-2-methylpyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine-6-carboxamide, was determined. Two independent molecules were held together by intermolecular hydrogen bonds, and the absolute configuration of the 2-cyanopyrrolidine ring delivered from l-prolinamide was confirmed to be S. The interactions of anagliptin with DPP-4 were clarified by the co-crystal structure solved at 2.85 Å resolution. Based on the structure determined by X-ray crystallography, the potency and selectivity of anagliptin were discussed, and an SAR study using anagliptin derivatives was performed. © 2015 Informa UK Ltd. Source

Yoshikawa H.Y.,Saitama University | Yoshikawa H.Y.,Osaka University | Murai R.,Kyoto University | Adachi H.,Osaka University | And 15 more authors.
Chemical Society Reviews

With the recent development in pulsed lasers with ultrashort pulse widths or wavelengths, spatially precise, low-damage processing by femtosecond or deep-UV laser ablation has shown promise for the production of protein single crystals suitable for X-ray crystallography. Femtosecond laser processing of supersaturated solutions can shorten the protein nucleation period or can induce nucleation at low supersaturation, which improves the crystal quality of various proteins including membrane proteins and supra-complexes. In addition to nucleation, processing of protein crystals by femtosecond or deep-UV laser ablation can produce single crystalline micro- or macro-seeds without deterioration of crystal quality. This tutorial review gives an overview of the successful application of laser ablation techniques to nucleation and seeding for the production of protein single crystals, and also describes the advantages from a physico-chemical perspective. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014. Source

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