Arendal, Norway
Arendal, Norway

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Terjesen T.,University of Oslo | Wiig O.,University of Oslo | Svenningsen S.,Sorlandet Hospital
Acta Orthopaedica | Year: 2010

Background The prognosis in Perthes' disease varies considerably according to certain risk factors, but there is no concensus regarding the relative importance of these factors. We assessed the natural history of the disease and defined prognostic factors of value in deciding the proper treatment. Patients and methods During the 5-year period 1996-2000, a nationwide study on Perthes' disease was performed in Norway. 425 patients were registered. The present study involved the 212 children (mean age 5.1 years, 77% boys) who were affected unilaterally and who had been treated with physiotherapy only (which is considered not to change the natural history). They were followed by taking radiographs at the time of diagnosis and after 1, 3, and 5 years. At the 5-year follow-up, the outcome was evaluated according to a modification of the Stulberg classification: good (spherical femoral head), fair (ovoid femoral head), and poor (flat femoral head). Results The 5-year radiographic results were strongly dependent on 4 risk factors: age 6 years or more at diagnosis, total femoral head necrosis, height of the lateral pillar of the epiphysis less than 50% of normal height, and femoral head cover less than 80%. As the number of risk factors increased from 0 to 4, the proportion of patients with good radiographic 5-year outcome decreased from 79% to 0% and the proportion with poor outcome increased from 3% to 91%. Interpretation Most children under 6 years of age do not need any special treatment. In older children, no special treatment is indicated if the whole femoral head is not necrotic and the femoral head cover is > 80%. In the most severe forms of the disease (i.e. more than 2 risk factors), surgical containment treatment seems advisable. © Nordic Orthopaedic Federation.

Bretthauer M.,University of Oslo | Bretthauer M.,Sorlandet Hospital | Bretthauer M.,Harvard University | Kalager M.,University of Oslo | And 2 more authors.
British Journal of Surgery | Year: 2013

Background: Cancer screening has the potential to prevent or reduce incidence and mortality of the target disease, but may also be harmful and have unwanted side-effects. Methods: This review explains the basic principles of cancer screening, common pitfalls in evaluation of effectiveness and harms of screening, and summarizes the evidence for effects and harms of the most commonly used cancer screening tools. Results: Cancer screening has either been established or is considered for breast, lung, prostate, cervical and colorectal cancer. In contrast, screening for gastrointestinal malignancies outside the large bowel is not generally accepted, available or implemented. Oesophageal and gastric carcinoma, and hepatocellular carcinoma, may be subject to screening in certain risk populations, but currently not for population screening based on available technology. Screening for colorectal cancer and cervical cancer by endoscopy and cytology respectively can decrease incidence of the target disease, whereas screening tools for lung, prostate and breast cancer detect early-stage invasive disease and thus do not decrease disease incidence. Overdiagnosis (detection of cancers that will not have become clinically apparent in the absence of screening) is a challenge in lung, prostate and breast cancer screening. The improvement of quality of clinical practice following the introduction of cancer screening programmes is an appreciated 'side-effect', but it is important to disentangle the effect of screening on cancer incidence and mortality from that of quality improvement of clinical services. As new, powerful screening tests emerge - particularly in molecular and genetic fields, but also in radiology and other clinical diagnostics-the basic requirements for screening evaluation and implementation must be borne in mind. Conclusion: Cancer screening has been established for several cancer forms in Europe. The potential for incidence and mortality reduction is good, but harms do exist that need to be addressed, and communicated to the public. Copyright © 2012 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Terjesen T.,University of Oslo | Wiig O.,University of Oslo | Svenningsen S.,Sorlandet Hospital
Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research | Year: 2012

Background: In the Norwegian prospective study on Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease (LCPD), we found varus femoral osteotomy gave better femoral head sphericity at a mean of 5 years postoperative than physiotherapy in children older than 6.0 years at diagnosis with femoral head necrosis of more than 50%. That study did not include separate analyses for hips with 100% necrosis and those with a percentage of necrosis between 50% and 100%. Questions/purposes: We asked whether (1) femoral osteotomy improves femoral head sphericity at followup in all patients with more than 50% femoral head necrosis or in selected groups only and (2) there is a critical age between 6.0 and 10.0 years over which femoral osteotomy does not improve the prognosis. Methods: We treated 70 patients with unilateral LCPD, age at diagnosis of more than 6.0 years, and femoral head necrosis of more than 50% with varus femoral osteotomy between 1996 and 2000. We classified necrosis using the Catterall classification. We established a control group of 51 similar children who received physiotherapy. At the 5-year followup visit, the hips were graded according to femoral head shape: spherical, ovoid, or flat. Results: At 5-year followup, there was no difference between the treatment groups in radiographic outcome in Catterall Group 3 hips. In Catterall Group 4 hips, femoral head sphericity was better in the osteotomy group, with flat femoral heads in 14% compared to 75% after physiotherapy. The same trend toward better head sphericity occurred when the lateral pillar classification was used. Conclusions: In children aged 6.0 to 10.0 years, in whom the whole femoral head is affected, femoral head sphericity 5 years after femoral osteotomy was better than that after physiotherapy. Level of Evidence: Level II, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. © 2011 The Association of Bone and Joint Surgeons®.

Wensaas A.,University of Oslo | Gunderson R.B.,University of Oslo | Svenningsen S.,University of Oslo | Svenningsen S.,Sorlandet Hospital | Terjesen T.,University of Oslo
Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery - Series B | Year: 2012

Deformity after slipped upper femoral epiphysis (SUFE) can cause cam-type femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) and subsequent osteoarthritis (OA). However, there is little information regarding the radiological assessment and clinical consequences at long-term follow-up. We reviewed 36 patients (43 hips) previously treated by in situ fixation for SUFE with a mean follow-up of 37 years (21 to 50). Three observers measured the femoral head ratio (FHR), lateral femoral head ratio (LFHR), α-angle on anteroposterior (AP) and frogleg lateral views, and anterior femoral head-neck offset ratio (OSR). A Harris hip score < 85 and/or radiologically diagnosed osteoarthritis (OA) was classified as a poor outcome. Patients with SUFE had significantly higher FHR, LFHR and α-angles and lower OSR than a control group of 22 subjects (35 hips) with radiologically normal hips. The interobserver agreement was less, with wider limits of agreement (LOA), in hips with previous SUFE than the control group. At long-term follow-up abnormal α-angles correlated with poor outcome, whereas FHR, LFHR and OSR did not. We conclude that persistent deformity with radiological cam FAI after SUFE is associated with poorer clinical and radiological long-term outcome. Although the radiological measurements had quite wide limits of agreement, they are useful for the diagnosis of postslip deformities in clinical practice. ©2012 British Editorial Society of Bone and Joint Surgery.

Ljostad U.,Sorlandet Hospital | Mygland A.,Sorlandet Hospital | Mygland A.,University of Bergen
European Journal of Neurology | Year: 2012

Purposes: To chart clinical, laboratory, and psychometric profiles in patients who attribute their complaints to chronic Lyme disease. Methods: We assessed the patients by clinical examination, laboratory tests, and questionnaires measuring fatigue, depression, anxiety, health-related quality of life, hypochondriasis, and illness perceptions. Results: We found no evidence of ongoing Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb) infection in any of the 29 included patients using current diagnostic guidelines and an extended array of tests. Eight (28%) had other well-defined illnesses. Twenty-one (72%) had symptoms of unknown cause, of those six met the suggested criteria for post-Lyme disease syndrome. Fourteen (48%) had presence of anti-Bb antibodies. The patients had more fatigue and poorer health-related quality of life as compared to normative data, but were not more depressed, anxious, or hypochondriacal. Their beliefs about the illness were characterized by negative expectations. Conclusion: Our patients, who all attributed their symptoms to chronic Lyme disease, were heterogeneous. None had evidences of persistent Bb infection, but whether current diagnostic criteria are functional in patients with longstanding complaints is controversial. Other well-defined illnesses or sequelae from earlier Lyme disease were probable as main explanatory factor in some cases. The patients were not more depressed, anxious, or hypochondriacal than the normal population, but they had poorer health-related quality of life, more fatigue, and negative expectations about their illness. © 2012 The Author(s). European Journal of Neurology © 2012 EFNS.

Nilsen V.,Sorlandet Hospital | Bakke P.S.,University of Bergen | Gallefoss F.,Sorlandet Hospital
BMC Public Health | Year: 2011

Background: Lifestyle change is probably the most important single action to prevent type 2 diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of a low-intensity individual lifestyle intervention by a physician and compare this to the same physician intervention combined with an interdisciplinary, group-based approach in a real-life setting. Methods. The "Finnish Diabetes Risk score" (FINDRISC) was used by GPs to identify individuals at high risk. A randomised, controlled design and an 18 month follow-up was used to assess the effect of individual lifestyle counselling by a physician (individual physician group, (IG)) every six months, with emphasis on diet and exercise, and compare this to the same individual lifestyle counselling combined with a group-based interdisciplinary program (individual and interdisciplinary group, (IIG)) provided over 16 weeks. Primary outcomes were changes in lifestyle indicated by weight reduction 5%, improvement in exercise capacity as assessed by VO 2max and diet improvements according to the Smart Diet Score (SDS). Results: 213 participants (104 in the IG and 109 in the IIG group, 50% women), with a mean age of 46 and mean body mass index 37, were included (inclusion rate > 91%) of whom 182 returned at follow-up (drop-out rate 15%). There were no significant differences in changes in lifestyle behaviours between the two groups. At baseline 57% (IG) and 53% (IIG) of participants had poor aerobic capacity and after intervention 35% and 33%, respectively, improved their aerobic capacity at least one metabolic equivalent. Unhealthy diets according to SDS were common in both groups at baseline, 61% (IG) and 60% (IIG), but uncommon at follow-up, 17% and 10%, respectively. At least 5% weight loss was achieved by 35% (IG) and 28% (IIG). In the combined IG and IIG group, at least one primary outcome was achieved by 93% while all primary outcomes were achieved by 6%. Most successful was the 78% reduction in the proportion of participants with unhealthy diet (almost 50% absolute reduction). Conclusion: It is possible to achieve important lifestyle changes in persons at risk for type 2 diabetes with modest clinical efforts. Group intervention yields no additional effects. The design of the study, with high inclusion and low dropout rates, should make the results applicable to ordinary clinical settings. © 2011 Nilsen et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Haugeberg G.,Sorlandet Hospital | Morton S.,Balmore Park Surgery | Emery P.,University of Leeds | Conaghan P.G.,University of Leeds
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases | Year: 2011

Objectives: To explore the effect of intra-articular corticosteroid (IAST) injections on bone mineral density (BMD) in the hand and at the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints in early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods: In the first 3 months of the study, 19 patients with RA received methotrexate (MTX) alone and 21 received MTX and IAST injections into clinically inflamed joints. In the following 9 months, all patients received MTX+IAST. BMD was assessed at the hand and periarticular regions at MCP joints 2-5 at baseline, 3 and 12 months. Results: In the first 3 months a numerically lower percentage rate of bone loss was seen in MTX+IASTtreated patients compared with MTX-treated patients. This observation was more pronounced at the MCP periarticular regions (eg, partial proximal phalanges: digit 2, -0.45% vs -2.69%, p=0.045; digit 3, -0.34% vs -3.32%, p=0.003; digit 4, -0.39% vs -2.57%, p=0.14; digit 5, -0.59% vs -2.70%, p=0.24) than for the whole hand (-1.53% vs -2.42%, p=0.32). In the 3-12-month period, only minor non-statistically significant differences were seen between the two groups. Conclusion: IAST given over 3 months protects against periarticular bone loss in inflamed finger joints in RA. These data emphasise the importance of suppressing inflammation in patients with active RA to maintain bone health.

Grunewaldt K.H.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Lohaugen G.C.C.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Lohaugen G.C.C.,Sorlandet Hospital | Austeng D.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | And 2 more authors.
Pediatrics | Year: 2013

Background and Objective: Preterm born children perform poorer than term peers on tests of attention and executive functions including working memory tests. Our aim was to evaluate if preterm born preschoolers with very low birth weight (VLBW) would benefit from a computerized working memory training program and if the training would have a generalizing effect on memory, learning, attention, behavior, and anxiety. Methods: A prospective intervention study with a stepped wedge design where 20 VLBW preschoolers aged 5 to 6 years participated. The children trained with the Cogmed JM program for 10 to 15 minutes a day, 5 days a week over a 5-week period. Extensive neuropsychological assessment and parental questionnaires regarding behavior and anxiety were performed before and 4 weeks after intervention. Results: The children improved significantly on trained (mean Start Index 42.1 [SD 6.3]), mean Max Index 60.6 [SD 5.7]), and nontrained working memory tasks (Spatial Span backward; 2.3 [before] to 3.6 [after training] [confidence interval {CI} 22.2 to 20.4] and Spatial Span total score; 6.4-8.3 [CI 23.7 to 20.1]). A generalization effect was found on auditory attention (49.6-58.2 [CI 215.5 to 21.6]), phonological awareness (9.3-12.6 [CI 25.2 to 21.4]), visual (memory for faces 20.0-24.9 [CI 27.4 to 22.5]), as well as verbal memory (narrative memory; 12.9-17.5 [CI 27.1 to 22.0], and sentence repetition 15.7-17.7 [CI 23.3 to 20.7]). CONCLUSION: This study shows that VLBW preschoolers benefit from a computerized working memory training program. We speculate that such training before starting school may prevent or reduce cognitive problems that impact educational achievement. Copyright © 2013 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

Aanes S.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Bjuland K.J.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Skranes J.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Skranes J.,Sorlandet Hospital | And 2 more authors.
NeuroImage | Year: 2015

The hippocampi are regarded as core structures for learning and memory functions, which is important for daily functioning and educational achievements. Previous studies have linked reduction in hippocampal volume to working memory problems in very low birth weight (VLBW; ≤. 1500. g) children and reduced general cognitive ability in VLBW adolescents. However, the relationship between memory function and hippocampal volume has not been described in VLBW subjects reaching adulthood. The aim of the study was to investigate memory function and hippocampal volume in VLBW young adults, both in relation to perinatal risk factors and compared to term born controls, and to look for structure-function relationships. Using Wechsler Memory Scale-III and MRI, we included 42 non-disabled VLBW and 61 control individuals at age 19-20. years, and related our findings to perinatal risk factors in the VLBW-group. The VLBW young adults achieved lower scores on several subtests of the Wechsler Memory Scale-III, resulting in lower results in the immediate memory indices (visual and auditory), the working memory index, and in the visual delayed and general memory delayed indices, but not in the auditory delayed and auditory recognition delayed indices. The VLBW group had smaller absolute and relative hippocampal volumes than the controls. In the VLBW group inferior memory function, especially for the working memory index, was related to smaller hippocampal volume, and both correlated with lower birth weight and more days in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Our results may indicate a structural-functional relationship in the VLBW group due to aberrant hippocampal development and functioning after preterm birth. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Micu M.C.,County Hospital Turda | Micu R.,Victor Babes University of Medicine and Pharmacy Timisoara | Ostensen M.,Sorlandet Hospital
Arthritis Care and Research | Year: 2011

Objective Administration of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may impair fertility. The occurrence of the luteinized unruptured follicle (LUF) syndrome was assessed in women with inflammatory arthropathies exposed to NSAIDs and compared to that in nonexposed women. Methods Fourteen patients with inflammatory rheumatic disease, 29 women with noninflammatory musculoskeletal conditions, and 449 women not exposed to NSAIDs were studied by intravaginal ultrasound monitoring for follicular development and ovulation in 1 or more menstrual cycles. Disease activity was assessed in inflammatory rheumatic disease. Results In 59 monitored cycles of patients with continuous NSAID exposure, 35.6% of LUF syndromes occurred compared to 3.4% of LUF syndromes in untreated women (P < 0.001). Etoricoxib was responsible for 75% of LUF syndromes in patients exposed continuously, whereas diclofenac generated 15% of LUF syndromes. An ibuprofen dosage of 1,600 mg/day did not induce LUF syndrome either at continuous periovulatory or discontinuous exposure. Interestingly, the frequency of LUF syndrome was 46.2% in patients with inactive inflammatory disease compared to 15% in patients with active disease (P = 0.023). Etoricoxib generated LUF syndrome in 94.2% of the cases with inactive disease versus 28.6% in patients with active disease (P = 0.003). Conclusion NSAIDs increased the risk of the LUF syndrome, particularly in patients with inactive disease. The selective cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) inhibitor etoricoxib was a more potent inductor of LUF syndrome than nonselective COX inhibitors. Continuous periovulatory exposure to NSAIDs should be avoided when planning a pregnancy in patients with rheumatic diseases. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Rheumatology.

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