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Rajendranagar, India

Sujatha M.,Oilseeds Research | Visarada K.B.R.S.,Sorghum Research
Methods in Molecular Biology

Particle bombardment/biolistic delivery is a very popular method of genetic transformation of diverse targets including cells and intact tissues. Delivery of DNA through particle bombardment is genotype and species independent, nevertheless, an efficient protocol for large-scale generation of transgenic plants through embryogenic tissues with a high (≥80%) shoot regeneration efficiency is a prerequisite. Young embryogenic tissues or multiple shoot buds in early stages of induction are the most suited target tissues for recovery of transgenic plants. We describe the protocol for delivery of foreign genes using particle delivery system (Biorad gene gun, PDS-1000/He) in to the meristematic tissues of embryonic axes derived from mature seeds of castor. With the optimized physical and biological parameters, putative transformants were obtained at a frequency of 1.4% through particle gun bombardment of castor embryo axes. Also, transformation of embryogenic calli of sorghum using particle inflow gun (PIG) is described. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source

Kumar S.R.,Directorate of Sorghum Research | Kumar S.R.,Sorghum Research | Ramanjaneyulu A.V.,Directorate of Sorghum Research | Ramanjaneyulu A.V.,Regional Agricultural Research Station | And 2 more authors.
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences

The multi-location testing methodology was based on the principle of an un-biased approach to identify the best performing product, certified by a multi-disciplinary team and popularized through frontline demonstration programme. The data from one of the mandatory trials were summarized over a decade (1998-2007) to understand the results split over 2 periods (1998 to 2002 and 2003 to 2007) and derive physiological basis of yield enhancement. The results during the first half of the decade indicate that the best performing hybrids attained an increase in yield of 0.7 tonnes/ha as compared to the best performing varieties. The translocation of dry matter produced from leaf and stem into the grain was > 25% in hybrids, while it was approaching 25% in the varieties. Proportional increase in grain yield (due to application of external fertilizer input) over the control was linearly related to the N fertilizer use efficiency. Fertilizer N-use efficiency (DY/DN) defined as change in yield for every unit of applied N increased from 10 kg grain to 20 kg grain/kg of N applied. Hence, increase in productivity can be brought about both by genetic improvement as well as associated nutrient management intervention in a rainfed environment. The hypothesized sorghum static model substantiates the physiological basis of sorghum grain yield. Source

Mishra J.S.,Weed Science Research | Mishra J.S.,Sorghum Research | Singh V.P.,Weed Science Research | Bhanu C.,Weed Science Research | And 3 more authors.
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences

A field study was conducted to study the effect of methods of rice establishment, tillage and weed management techniques in rice-chickpea cropping system. Treatments included four crop establishment techniques (transplanting, puddling and broadcasting sprouted rice seeds, i.e wet-seeding and dry seeding under conventional and zero tillage systems) in rice and two tillage (zero and conventional) and two weed control methods (weedy check and pendimethalin 1.0 kg/ha as pre-emergence + one hand weeding at 30 days after sowing) in succeeding chickpea. Rice field was infested with jungle rice [Echinochloa colona (L.) Link], Caesulia (Caesulia axillaris Roxb.), sessile joyweed [Alternanthera sessilis (L.) DC.], and rice flat sedge (Cyperus iria L.) and chickpea with wild oats (Avena ludoviciana Dur.) and toothed burclover (Medicago hispida Gaertn.). Results revealed that methods of rice establishment did influence the weed dynamics in rice- chickpea system. Mean yield of zero-till direct-seeded rice (3 262 kg/ha) was as good as that of puddle broadcast rice (3 343 kg/ha) and better than the transplanted rice (3 038 kg/ha). Effective weed control in preceding chickpea benefitted the succeeding rice crop. Methods of rice establishment and tillage did not influence the chickpea yield. Infestation of weeds caused 78.45% reduction in yield of chickpea. Maximum seed yield of chickpea (2 813 kg/ha) was noticed in pendimethalin followed by one HW under conventional tillage. Zero till direct-seeded rice followed by zero-till chickpea system was the best combination for maximizing system productivity, profitability and energy efficiency. Source

Mishra J.S.,Sorghum Research | Singh V.P.,Weed Science Research
Soil and Tillage Research

A 3-year (2006-2007 to 2008-2009) field study was conducted to evaluate the effect of four tillage systems {zero tillage (ZT) in rice (Oryza sativa L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), conventional tillage (CT) in rice and wheat, and two rotational tillage sequences that alternated between CT and ZT} with three weed management levels (weedy check, recommended herbicide and herbicide+1 hand weeding) in rice-wheat cropping system on a clay-loam soil. Continuous ZT increased the population density of awnless barnyard grass [Echinochloa colona (L.) Link] and rice flat sedge (Cyperus iria L.) in rice but reduced the population of wild oats [Avena ludoviciana (L.) Dur.] and common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L.) in subsequent wheat. Pendimethalin (1.0kga.i.ha -1) fb 2,4-D (0.50kga.i.ha -1) significantly reduced the population density of E. colona, C. iria and sessile joyweed [Alternanthera sessilis (L.) D.C.], but did not control pink node flower (Caesulia axillaris Roxb.) in rice. In wheat, clodinafop propargyl (0.06kga.i.ha -1) fb 2,4-D (0.50kga.i.ha -1) significantly reduced the population of A. ludoviciana, but had no effect on toothed burclover (Medicago hispida Gaertn.). Continuous ZT resulted in significantly higher yield of rice (2.94Mgha -1), wheat (4.45Mgha -1) and rice-wheat system (7.39Mgha -1) compared to continuous CT (2.35, 3.86 and 6.21Mgha -1, respectively). For the total soil depth sampled (0-20cm), weed seed population was significantly greater under continuous ZT (165 weeds 500g -1 soil) and CT (101 weeds 500g -1 soil), compared to rotational tillage (71-85 weeds 500g -1 soil). Rotational tillage systems significantly reduced the seed density of C. iria, A. ludoviciana and M. hispida compared to continuous ZT or CT. Total weed seed density was 66% lower in herbicide treated than in untreated plots. Continuous ZT with effective weed management using recommended herbicide+1 hand weeding was more remunerative and energy efficient. These results suggest that conventional till-based rice-wheat system could be replaced with zero-till-based crop establishment method with effective weed control to save labor and energy in Vertisols of Central India. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.. Source

Gomashe S.S.,Sorghum Research | Misal M.B.,Marathwada Agricultural University | Mehtre S.P.,Marathwada Agricultural University | Rakshit S.,Marathwada Agricultural University | Ganapathy K.N.,Sorghum Research
Indian Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding

Shoot fly is a key pest of sorghum in many countries including India. Resistance breeding towards shoot fly is important to address the need of resource poor farmers of the semi-arid tropics. Shoot fly resistance response was studied among 19 parental lines and 78 hybrids in two diverse environments. Cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) lines, MS 104A and SPSFR 94010A and testers, SFCR 125, SFCR 151, ICSV 705, ICSV 708 and PS 30710 were identified as best for shoot fly resistance traits. The hybrids based on shoot fly resistant CMS and restorer lines had significantly lower proportion of oviposition and dead hearts than the hybrids based on other cross combinations. Leaf glossiness and trichome density revealed high correlation with shoot fly resistance. Thus, while breeding for shoot fly resistance efforts are needed to focus on combining both the traits among the hybrids. Source

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